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Full text of "Technograph"

L I E. R.ARY 

OF THE 

U N 1 VLR5 ITY 

or ILLINOIS 



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cop-2 



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inois 


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Only STEEL can do so many jobs so well 




St66l3ir6 H0m6. THp entire structural frame of this house is made from tough, cold-formed steel, so it is unaffected liy rot, 
fungus, antl termites. Even more important is the fact that the steel frame resists warping and sagging. It's one of a line of 
Steelaire homes and is made by the U. S. Steel Homes Division of United States Steel. 





World S BiggBSt Crowd. On power shovels, a "crowd " is the arm which moves 
the dipper and dipper-stick forward and back. It coordinates closely with the lift 
motion of the dipper, and is a key part in the operation of the shovel which must 
withstand extremes of stress at any temperature. This is a picture of the biggest 
crowd ever built, now installed on the biggest power shovel in the world. It's made 
from USS "T-1" Steel, the remarkable new constructional alloy steel developed 
by United States Steel. An exceptionally strong and tough steel, it is noted for its 

welding characteristics. ■■USS" and ■■T-l" are regtslered trademarks. 

Slap That BermUdaVariUS! The Talbot Brothers of Bermuda, famous for their 
colorful calypso music, recently retired their homemade packing-case "bass viol," 
and proudly premiered in its place the world's first Stainless Steel bass viol (or 
dog house or Bermudavarius, as it's customarily referred to). An exact replica in 
USS Stainless Steel of their original homemade design, it was built for them under 
U. S. Steel's supervision by a well-known manufacturer of Stainless Steel sinks 
who commented that the fabricating job wasn't difficult— but certainly was difjerent. 

UNITED STATES STEEL 



m 



AMtBIC«N BHIOGE . . . AMEBICAU STEEL S WIHE and CYCLONE FEHCE . . . COLUMBIA-GENEVA SIEEL 
CONSOLIDAIED WESIENN STEEl . . . GEBRARD STEEL STRAPPING . . . NATIONAL TUBE . . . OIL WEU SUPPLY 
TENNESSEE COAL I IRON , . . UNITED STATES STEEL HOMES . . . UNITED STATES STEEL PRODUCTS 

UNITED STATES STEEL SUPPLY . . . OiViiioni of UKITED STATES STEtl COHPORATION, PinSBURGH 

UNION SUPPLY COMPANY . UNITED STATES STEEL EXPORT COMPANY • UNIVERSAL ATLAS CEMENT COMPANY 



Watch the United States Steel Hour on TV every other Wednesday (10 p.m. Eastern time). 



^ 



Editorial 






hJllo, 






Jame 


s Kries 

• 




Business 






Business 


Manaiji 


r 


Roge 


r Harrison 




• 




Circulation 






(.'ill iilalK 


« Dirr 


lot 


Phil 


Pllilhn\ 


er 



Staff 



Arlene Hornick 
Dave Yates 
Dennis Lantz 
Pat Oaganidze 
Da%'c Peiiniman 
Jack Ehrmantraut 
Dave Moore 
Don Georgi 
Frank Hunvady 
Jim Gerstle 
Dorothy Hyatt 
Phil Hicks 
Mike Coleman 
Dennis Brennan 
Kay Hirt 
I.cwell Biirgin 



Faculty Advisers 



R. W. Bohl 
P. K. Hudson 
O. Livermore 



Un 



^ity 



: Prof. R. W. Bohl. 
of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 



do 



er, North 
Technica 
Oklahomj 



Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coop' 
live Engineer, City College Vector, Color 
Engineer, Cornell Engineer, Denver Engi 
neer, Dreel Technical Journal, Georgia Ted 
Engineer, Illinois Technograph, Iowa En 
gineer, Iowa Transit, Kansas Engineer 
Kansas State Engineer, Kentucky Engineer 
Louisiana State University Engineer, Louisi 
ana Tech Engineer, Manhattan Engineer 
Marquette Engineer, Michigan Technic, Min 
nesota Technolog, Missouri Shamrock, Ne 
braska Blueprint, New York Universit\ 
Quadrangle, North Dakota Engi 
western Engineer, Notre Dam 
Review, Ohio State Engineer 
State Engineer, Oregon Stat^ 
Triangle, Pittsburgh Skyscraper, P u r d u ( 
Engineer, RPI Engineer, Rochester Indica 
tor, SC Engineer, Rose Technic, Souther. 
Engineer, Spartan Engineer, WSC Tech 
nometer, Wayne Engineer, and VVisconsir 
Engineer. 



Published eight times during the year (Oc- 
tober, November, December, January, Febru- 
ary, March, April and May) by the Illini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second class 
matter, October 30, 1920, at the post 
office at Urbana. Illinois, under the Act 
of March 3, 1879. Office 215 Civil Engi 
neering Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscrip- 
tions 51.50 per year. Single copy 25 cents. 
Reprint rights reserved by The Illinois 
Technograph. Publisher's Representative — 
Littell Murray-Barnhill, 369 Lexington Ave- 
nue, New York 17, New York. 



7 3 

THE ILLINOIS 



TECHNOGRAPH 



Volume 73 



Number 1 



Conien^s: 

Editorial 29 

WPGU 31 

Operation Moonbeam 36 

Award Contest 38 

Technocutie 39 

'Cutie Nominations 42 

Skimming 44 

Awarded Highest Distinction 45 

What's The Difference? 52 

What Went Before 56 

Silver Anniversary for Ag 63 

Gases Yield Electricity 94 



Cover 

This month's cover represents the conspicuous new addition 
to North Campus: the antenna on the E. E. Building. The art work 
is by James Koertge, undergrad student majoring in art here at 
the University, and is the first of a series under our new format. 




Liindreds do it every day. without ever leaving the 
company. Confined by an unimaginative management, 
they sink to tlie level of pencil j)usliers ... or slip-stick 
artists, losing the value of their intensive academic 
training. But the youthful engineer does not have to 
gufler this fate. Selecting the right company . . . with 
thouglit to its reputation for leadership, initiative, and 
alruo-phere . . . makes tlic dilTerence. 

Liiulc Conipanv is world renowned for its progressive 
development in many fields ... in atmosjiheric gases 
and acetylene, welding and flame processes ami eijuip- 
mcut, synthetic crystals and adsorbents to name a few. 



This leadership has only been won through the creative 
powers and initiative of LiNDE engineers and scientists. 
And, these men have received individual recognition 
of their achievements. 

^ou can find out more about career opportunities at 
Ll>JDE, in research, development, production, sales, and 
staff jiositioiis, from your Placement Officer. A booklet, 
'"Look toLlNDE for your future," is available by address- 
ing Mr. P. I. Euich, Central Recruiting Office. Linda 
Company, Division of Union Carbide Corporation, 
30 East 42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



The terms 'i 



A LEADER FOR SO YEARS 

in.li-"" anil "L inoii Carbide" are regislered tra Jeniarks of tCC. 




THE TECHNOGRAPH 







From War Baby to Peacetime Giant 



Here's why the synthetic rubber field 

is a natural for young engineers 



IT was back in the 1920*s that Goodyear 
obtained a patent on emulsion polymeri- 
zation of synthetic rubber— the basic process 
in use today. 

In the early days progress was unspectacular. 
But in 1941, the loss of our natural rubber 
supply touched off a period of phenomenal 
growth which made the synthetic rubber 
industry the war's biggest baby. 

Today, this industry is bigger and better 
than ever, and Goodyear is leading the way. 
For instance, Goodyear's huge Houston plant 
has just been expanded by SC^'o to make it 
the largest of its kind in the world. 

In Akron, too, Goodyear's latex plant will 
soon be turning out a 50 per cent bigger 
volume. 



There's a World of Opportunity at 



How do young engineers fit into the picture? 
With all the resources of intellect and .skill 
they can summon. 

For wherever men work with this wondrous 
material, new opportunities, new avenues of 
achievement are constantly opening up — in 
research, in development, in production and 
in sales. 

We're looking for engineers— chemical, elec- 
trical, mechanical— all types and all special- 
ties. We're looking for men with talent and 
training, of course. We're looking for men 
dedicated to making a permanent place for 
themselves in one of the most fabulous fields 
in all American industry. 

We think you're that kind of man— or you 
wouldn't have read this far. How about drop- 
ping us a line? Write: Technical Personnel, 
Dept. 80G-W, The Goodyear Tire & Rubber 
Company, Akron 16, Ohio. 



GOODi^EAR 



THE GREATEST NAME IN RUBBER 



OCTOBER, 1957 



t Tidewater's Refinery of the Future 

JENKINS VALVES 

help control 



the gigantic 
r, piping system 

f L 





JENKINS 



LOOK FOR THE JENKINS DIAMOND 



-^ VALVES 






ill 



Primary Contractor: C. F. Bbaun & Co.. Alhambra. Cal. 



1 [1 Tiir.oiT.K iFiniNC DljTr.inLTons e\ rins hli;[; 



For the new Delaware Refinery of Tidewater Oil Company, 
careful selection of valves was unusually important. Tens 
of thousands of valves were required to control the maze 
of piping at this largest refinery ever built at one time. 

To the valve specifiers for this gigantic piping project, the 
long record of Jenkins Valves for an extra-measure of 
efficient, economical service was good reason for using 
many thousands of Jenkins Valves in the total valve equip- 
ment of the refinery. 

It will pay you to have the same important assurance when 
you specify or install valves . . . especially since Jenkins 
Valves cost no more. Jenkins Bros., 100 Park Avenue, 
New York 17. 




These 

large valves 
made 

of Ni-Resist 
metal are among 
the thousands 
of Jenkins Valves 
In this 

great refinery. 
Sizes range 
from V'4"to24''j 
made of 
various metals 
to suit 
different 
services. 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



ASPHALT ENGINEERING BULLETIN #3 



PENETRATION indicates consistency 

I Penetration 



100 G 




Start After 5 Seconds 

Consistency is determined by measuring tlie penetration made in 5 sec- 
onds by a standard needle loaded with 100 grams. The test is normally 
run at 77'F and penetration is measured in units of 0.1 mm. 



FLASH POINT indicates safe heating temperature 



i 



Thermometer • 
Small Flame 



liH 



• Flasli Point °F 



A 



A 



Volatile constituents evolve when the temperature of an Asphaltic product 
rises sufficiently. The temperature at which they "flash" or temporarily 
ignite when a small flame is passed through them, during heating of the 
product, is its flash point. This temperature is usually well below the 
fire point or the temperature which will support burning. 
FIG. 3 



VISCOSITY indicates fluidity 





start 



End 



Fluidity is determined at specified temperatures with a Saybolt-Furol 
Viscosimeter. Results are expressed as Saybolt-Furol Viscosity ... the 
time in seconds for 60 cc of the product to flow into measuring flask 
through a precisely dimensioned orifice. The slower the flow, the higher 
the viscosity. ^^^^ ^ 



DISTILLATION indicates volatile content... residue 



Thermometer 



Sfa 





End 



Volatile Content is determined by gradually heating to 680°F, a measured 
volume of material in a distillation flask connected to a condenser. 
Relative amounts of volatile materials evaporating at different tempera- 
tures and of residual Asphalt are thus determined. Further tests are 
usually run on Asphalt residue to determine its characteristics. 

FIG. 4 



lests on Asphaltic Materials 



VISCOSITY TEST (Fig. 2) 
indicates the fluidity of liquid Asphalts. Vis- 
cosity measures the consistency of these 
products just as the penetration test measures 
the consistency of semi-solid products. Those 
liquids flowing too slowly for accurate meas- 
urements hy the viscosimeter at 77°F are 
tested at higher temperatures— usually at 
122^, 140°F, or 180°F. 
FLASH POINT (Fig. 3) 
indicates the temperature at which vapor 
ignition may occur when heating and manip- 
ulating Asphaltic materials. 
DISTILLATION TEST (Fig. 4) 
indicates the amount of Asphaltic residue to 
expect in liquid Asphalts after lighter 
constituents volatilize under manipulation 
and use. It indicates, too, the relative rapidity 
at which these lighter constituents "cure" out 
of the Asphalt. 



J-J THE ASPHALT INSTITUTE, Asphalt Institute Building, CoUege Park, Maryland 
OCTOBER, 1957 



The suitability of an Asphaltic material for 
highway or other use depends upon charac- 
teristics which can be determined by a series 
of tests. Four of tlie principal tests are: 

PENETRATION TEST (Fig. 1) 

indicates the consistency or hardness of 
Asphalt cements (which are semi-solids) 
used in hot-mix Asphalt pavements. The 
softer the product, the greater its number of 
penetration units. On the basis of consistency 
. . . denoted by penetration ranges . . . 
Asphalt cements are classified into grades. 
Those paving grades now recommended by 
The Asphalt Institute are: 

PENETRATION GRADES 

60-70 85-100 120-150 200-300 

(a 40-50 penetration grade is recommended 
for special and industrial uses.) 




Be sure to cut out and 
file this data sheet, 
as icell as future sheets 
and those previously 
inserted in this publica- 
tion. Make them your 
professional reference 
material. 




Ribbons of velvet smoothness . . . 
MODERN ASPHALT HIGHWAYS 



at 

r ^' 
I If 



Sandia Corporation is a Itfbora' 
which was established in 1949 to 
design atomic and nuclear weapons. 
It now has over 7.000 people, of 
whom 2,000 are professional staff, 
at its $60,000,000 laboratory in 
buquerque, New Mexico, and its 
expanding branch laboratory in 
Livermore, California. 
If you are a graduating engineer 
(mechanical, electrical, electronic, 
industrial or quality control), or if 
you are graduating in mathematics 
or the physical sciences, Sandia has 
an opportunity for you in one of 
many fields. We do research, design 
and development, test engineering, 
standards engineering, manufactur- 
ing relations engineering and quality 
control engineering. 
Our modern, well-equipped labora- 
tories, model shops, and offices com- 
bine with liberal benefits— including 
our graduate educational aid pro- 
gram, life insurance, sickness 
benefits, retirement plan, and gener- 
ous vacations and holidays— to make 
Sandia an exceptionally attractive 
place to work. 

Albuquerque (a city of more than 
200,000) with its exceptional climate 
and cosmopolitan blend of ancient 
and modern cultures, provides a re- 
laxed, informal environment for 
pleasant living. The location of our 
branch laboratory at Livermore 
offers the advantages of suburban 
living plus all the attractions of the 
San Francisco Bay area. 
Our illustrated brochure will give 
you more complete information on 
Sandia Corporation, its background, 
work, and the cities in which it is 
located. Write for your copy to Staff 
Employment SeCtio; 




lyS!S-*fe.'5!«at» . 




New 
Horizons 

FOR GRADUATING 

ENGINEERS 
AND SCIENTISTS 




THE TECHNOGRAPH 




NOURISH 
AN IDEA 



Dr. Peter J. W. Debye, professor emeritus of chemistry at Cornell 
University, and Dr. Lloyd P. Smith, President, Avco Research 
and Advanced Development Division, discuss the Avco research 
program prior to Dr. Debye's recent colloquium at the Division's 
Lawrence, Massachusetts, headquarters. 




Pictured above is our new Research Center now under construc- 
tion in Wilmington, Massachusetts. Scheduled for completion in 
early 1!1.58, this ultramodern laboratory will house the scientific 
and technical staff of the Avco Research and Advanced Develop- 
ment Division. 



Avco's new research division now offers unusual and ex- 
citing career opportunities for exceptionally qualified and 
forward-looking scientists and engineers in such fields as: 

Science: 

Aerodynamics • Electronics • Mathematics • Metallurgy 

Physical Chemistry • Physics • Thermodynamics 

Engineering: 

Aeronautical • Applied Mechanics • Chemical • Electrical 

Heat Transfer • Mechanical * Reliability • Flight Test 

Write to Dr. R. W. Johvstou, Srifitlijic and Ttrhnicul lielations, 
Avco Research and Advanced Development Division, 
20 South Union Street, Lawrence, Massachusetts. 



THE FULL IMPACT of Science on man and his economy is just 
beginning to be realized. Past achievements, translated into 
today's technology, are transforming the world. 

In the dynamic environment man has created, his civilization 
cannot stand still. He is committed to move forward to new 
scientific breakthroughs that lay the foundation for a strong 
economy based on advanced technical achievement. 

Creative scientists and engineers, working together in an intel- 
lectual enxnronment where ideas can be freely expressed and 
freely explored, will shape this new economy. Avco is creating 
the environment in which uninhibited thinking men can search 
out new problems and work toward their solution. A new research 
center will provide a physical environment, facilities and contact 
with stimulating minds to nourish the best ideas that each man 
contributes. 

Some of America's foremost scientists and engineers are at work 
here. Consultants, like Dr. Peter J. W. Debye, contribute through 
colloquia and the stimulation of the inter-disciplinary currents 
imperative to high-level scientific performance. 

Avco's scientific approach to urgent national defense problems 
has already brought advances in high-altitude, high-speed flight, 
missile re-entry, aerodynamics, heat transfer, materials and other 
areas. Practical problems have been solved; scientific horizons 
have been widened. But the greatest chnllenue at Avco lies with 
work vet to be done. 





W0 %^ i^ w ^P^ 1 1^1 




UH lu riKhl Lou bcTnurit,. Notre Dame. S-i; Norman Lonnson. Mich. St.. '55; Ernest Schurmann. MIT. '53; Dick Siccnson, Punluc 

^OiCill (^Jtmy ^(ik/ i/A I CONVAIR 

^ ' • FORT WORTH 



CONVAIR IS A DrVISIO^ 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



4» 









i^^ ^ 




At Los Alamos ... the challenge of controlled thermonuclear energy 



The controlled release of fusion energy in a practical thermonuclear reactor will be an important 
milestone in the nuclear age. This scientific achievement is the object of PROJECT SHERWOOD . . . 
one of the interesting scientific investigations now under way at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. 

Pictured above is "Columbus 1," an early experimental device developed by Los Alamos 
scientists to further this study. The bright line along the axis of the tube was produced by a dis- 
charge in heated and highly conducting argon gas. This discharge was "pinched" down to a 
small fraction of the tube diameter by the mutual attraction of its own currents. The temperature 
was roughly equal to that of the sun's photosphere. When deuterium was substituted for argon, 
intense bursts of neutrons appeared at time A on the voltage time signatures of the pinch (above, 
left), providing an interesting puzzle as to their origin. The similar signatures of successive 
discharges indicate the degree of reproducibility that has been achieved. Detailed studies of such 
reproducible behavior have led to considerable advances in understanding both the dynamics and 
the means for stable containment of heated plasmas. 

At Los Alamos, in the cool mountain environment of northern New Mexico, you will find research 
challenges worthy of your abilities. College graduates in the Physical Sciences or Engineering are 
invited to write for information about the Laboratory, the attractive employee benefits, and the 
family living and recreational facilities of the Los Alamos area. Write to: 



losli 



)alamos 

scientific laboratory 

)F IHE UNIVERSIIV Of CAllfORNIA * 

LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO 



DIRECTOR OF PERSONNEL 

LOS ALAMOS SCIENTIFIC LABORATORY 

LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO 



LOS Alamoi Scientific laboratory is a non civil service operation of 
the University of California for the U. S. Atomic Energy Co 



There's an engineer' 







• Western Electric has major manufacturing plants located at Chicago and Decatur, III., Kearny, N. J., Baltimore, Md., Indianapolis, 
Ind., Allentown, Pa,, Winston-Salem, N. C, Buffalo, N. Y., North Andover, Mass. Distribution Centers in 30 cities. Installation 
headquarters in 16 cities. General headquarters: 195 Broadway, New York, N. Y. Also Teletype Corporation, Chicago 14, Illinois. 



Orld at Western Electric 



As THE world's largest manufacturer of com- 
2\. munications equipment our continued 
progress depends greatly on our engineers. 
They have a key role in the production of some 
50,000 types of apparatus and component jiarts 
that Western Electric makes in a given year. 

• To our engineers falls the monumental task 
of developing manufacturing operations and of 
planning the installation of telephone central 
office equipment across the nation. They devise 
the new machines, tools and methods needed 
to do our job. They also shoulder the major 
responsibilities in carrying out the defense con- 
tracts the government has asked us to take over 
— major projects like the Nike guided missile 
system and SAGE, the continental defense 
system. 

• In the course of their technical work, engi- 
neers participate in such broad managerial 
functions as production, merchandising, instal- 
lation, and many others. What's more, we have 
a record of promotions from within. It's not 
surprising, therefore, that fift\-fi\'e percent of 
the college graduates in our upper levels of 
management have engineering degrees. 

• Naturally we do everything possible to en- 
courage and speed the professional develop- 
ment of our engineers. Just recently, for 
example, we inaugurated a full-time off-the-job 
Graduate Engineering Training Program at 
special training centers, a program with few 
parallels in American industry. 

• The new engineer mo\es into the first phase 
of this program. Introduction to Western Elec- 
tric Engineering, four to six months after he 
joins us and devotes nine weeks of study to 
such technical subjects as communications sys- 
tems, military electronic systems, product de- 
sign principles. He takes part in the second 
phase. General Development, after the first 
year on the job. In this phase he devotes nine 
weeks to courses in human relations, semantics, 
engineering statistics, electronics, measure- 
ments and instrumentation, systems circuit anal- 
ysis. The third phase, Advanced Development 
(4 weeks per year), is available to selected 
engineers and is geared to the individual to 
help develop his creative engineering abilities; 
goes deeply into such subjects as magnetics, 
computer applications, electronic switching, 
radar fundamentals, feedback control systems 
and technical paper writing. 



• Besides this company-wide program, a 
number of our divisions offer individual engi- 
neering comses in their own specialties. We 
also sponsor a Tuition Refund Plan for out-of- 
hours study at nearby colleges. Open to all 
employees, this plan helps our engineers study 
for advanced degrees at Company expense. 

• Truly there's an engineer's world here at 
Western Electric . . . one in which engineers in 
('\ er\ field of specialization can expect to grow. 



OPPORTUNITIES FOR 
ENGINEERING GRADUATES 

( Supcnisonj ami ailiniitistrativc 
opportunities exist in each field) 

Analysis for manufacturing operations: 

Machine and tool requirements— M.E., E.E.; 
Space requirements— M.E., I.E.; Test facility 
requirements— E.E.; Personnel requirements— 
I.E.; Electric power, light and heat require- 
ments— E.E.; Raw material requirements— 
Cheni. E., Met. E., Phy. Se.; Procedures and 
processes— M.E., I.E.; Time and Motion 
Studies— I.E.; Investigation of manufacturing 
difficulties— M.E.; Quality control— M.E., E.E. 

Planning telephone central offices: 

Equipment requirements — E.E.; Power and 
cable requirements— E.E. 

Development and design: 

New machines and tools— M.E., E.E.; Material 
handling methods— M.E., I.E.; .New equip- 
ment and processes— M.E., E.E.; Repair shop 
methods— M.E.; Testing facilities— E.E. ; Test- 
ing methods— E.E. ; Job evaluation studies— 
I.E.; Wage incentive studies— I.E.; Production 
control studies— I.E.; Improved chemical proc- 
esses-Chem. E., Met. E., Phy. Se.; New appli- 
cation for metals and alloys— Chem. E., Met. E., 
Phy. Sc; Raw material test procedures— Chem. 
E.. Met. E., Phy. Sc; Service to military on 
electronic devices— E.E. 



For further information write: Engineering 
Personnel, Room 1030, 195 Broadway, 
New York 7, N. Y. 




MANUFACTURING AND SUPPLY 



UNIT Of THE BEU SYSTEM 




TALENT PROSPERS AT BENDIX 



Talent prospers at Bendix. And proof 
of this is the vast numl)er of Bendix 
engineers fillina; positions of executive 
responsibility in the world's largest 
and most diversified creative engi- 
neering and manufacturing company. 
Many are men who only a few years 
back faced the same problems and 
decisions now confronting you as a 
graduate engineer. 

Bendix — producer of more than a 
thousand products for many basic 
industries — operates twenty-four 
separate manufacturing divisions; 
nine of them created or acquired 



since 1950. All arc staffed by key men 
from within the company. 

At Bendix you will enjoy the advan- 
tages of being with a l)ig company, 
plus the opportunities for self-develop- 
ment and personal recognition 
inherent in small companies. 

Bendix needs young men of talent 
— graduate engineers wanting to build 
solid careers with a solidly established, 
growing organization offering chal- 
lenging tasks, opportunities for self- 
ad\ancement, good compensation and 
a liberal program of personal benefits. 

Bendix has special need for sjraduate 



A thousand products 




engineers in these and related fields: 
Electronics, Electromechanics, Ultra- 
sonics, Systems Analysis, Computers, 
Automation and Controls, Nucleonics, 
Hydraulics, Aerophysics, Instrumen- 
tation, Solid State Physics, Combus- 
tion, Heat Transfer, Propulsion, 
Metallurgy, Communications, Carbu- 
retion, Ignition, Radar, Sonar, 
Structures. 

See your placement director or 
write to Dr. Gerald A. Rosselot, 
Director of Universit\- and Scientific 
Relations, Bendix A\iation Clorpora- 
tion, Fisher Building, Detroit 2, Mich. 



a million ideas 



12 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Best 

of both 
possible 
worlds 






OUR young engineers tell us that one of the best 
things about working witli General Motors 
is this — 

Here at GM you live in a big world of vast resources, 
great facilities, important happenings— yet you also 
live in a small world of close friendships and har- 
monious relationships. 

For GM — the world's most successful industrial cor- 
poration — is also completely decentralized into 31 
manufacturing divisions, 126 plants in 70 U.S. cities. 

Within these divisions and plants, you find hundreds 
of small, hard-hitting technical task forces consist- 
ing of engineers with widely varying degrees of 
experience. 

It follows that our young engineers have the splen- 
did chance to learn from some of America's best 
technological minds. The chance to win recognition 
for achievements. The chance to grow personally 
and professionally. 

Beyond that, they have the opportunity to follow 
their natural bent in an organization that manufac- 



tures literally dozens of products, ranging from 
modern aii'craft engines to fractional horsepower 
motors— from cars and trucks to locomotives and 
off-the-highway equipment. 

Think you have what it takes to engineer a reward- 
ing career with GM— as so many thousands of engi- 
neers have done? Then ask your College Placement 
Office about arranging an interview with the GM 
College Representative. Or write to us directly. 



GM positions now available 
in these fields: 

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING 

METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 

AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING 

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 



General Motors Corporation 



Personnel Staff, Detroit 2, Michigan 



OCTOBER, 1957 



13 



AVecommended 
reading for 
engineering 
and science 
students 






New brochure describes career 
opportunities at Phillips 



D. R. McKeithan, Director 
Technical Manpower Division 

PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY 

Bartlesville, Oklahoma 



14 



This new booklet describes in detail 
the unusually fine career opportuni- 
ties at Phillips Petroleum Company— 
the growth leader among America's 
integrated oil companies. New proj- 
ects and expansion programs at 
Phillips have created many attractive 
openings for young men in practically 
every company operation. 

At PhilUps, the production of crude 
oil, the refining and marketing of auto- 
motive and aircraft fuels and lubri- 
cants continue to grow. Phillips is also 
in the forefront of the great boom in 
petrochemicals, sparked by a constant 
stream of new developments in syn- 
thetic rubber, plastics, carbon black, 
fertiUzers and other chemical products 
originating in PhilUps research labs. 
Less publicized PhilUps projects in- 
clude research, development and pro- 
duction programs in the atomic energy 
and rocket fuels field ... as well as 
uranium mining and processing. Phil- 
Ups is also the number one producer- 
marketer of natural gas and Uquefied 
petroleum gas in the nation. 

PhilUps poUcy of promotion and 
transfer from within is creating oppor- 
tunities for young engineers and scien- 
tists who wiU be the key men of to- 
morrow. 

Write today to our Technical Man- 
power Division for this new brochure 
and when the PhilUps representa- 
tive visits your campus, be sure to 
arrange for an interview. 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



REPORT FROM RYAN 



New Engineering Opportunities 
Created as Ryan Projects Mushroom 




FRANK w. FINK, RYAN VICE PRESIDENT AND CHIEF ENGINEER inspects architect's drawing of new 

Enpineerini; and Research Center. 

New Engineering and Research Center 
To Meet Ryan's Expansion 



Construction of a modern two-story, 
engineering and laboratories building 
has begun ar Ryan, to meet the com- 
pany's expanding work in Jet VTOL— 
Automatic Navigation— Jet Drones 
—Missile Guidance— Jet Metallurgy- 
Rockets. 

The new facility will provide addi- 
tional quarters for many of the 1000 
employees in Ryan's fast-growing cngi- 




RYAN ENGINEER "zooms" Straight up in unique 
rotatable cockpit. 



neering division. It will also house 
complex, new chemical, metallurgical, 
instrumentation, environmental and 
autopilot equipment. 

With one in six Ryan employees in 
engineering, this division has tripled in 
three years. Its mushrooming growth 
reflects Ryan's increased importance as a 
research facility in aerodynamics, pro- 
pulsion and electronics. 

Vertical Flight 

Probed with 

New VTOL Cockpit 

Shortest way into the sky is straight 
up— in the Ryan "Vertijet. To probe this 
new realm of flight without becoming 
airborne is a trick performed daily by 
Ryan engineers. Their secret? A rotat- 
able cockpit connected with electronic 
computers. 

Ryan's flight simulation laboratory is 
a prime tool in the test of new aircraft 
designs. Both the Vertijet and the sub- 
sonic, turboprop-driven Vertiplane are 
put through their paces via earthbound 
flight test. Ryan leadership in this revo- 
lutionary new concept of flight is based 
upon 2V4 million manhours of VTOL 
research and development. It is another 
example of how Ryan builds better. 



Ryan Automatic 
Navigator Guides 
Global Flight 

An advanced system of aerial naviga- 
titin, designed for high speed, long range 
flight, has been developed by Ryan 
electronics engineers, working under 
sponsorship of the Navy's Bureau of 
Aeronautics. 

Designated AN/APN-67, the new 
navigator is the lightest, most compact, 
self-contained electronic navigator in 
production. Developed to meet military 
needs, it will also meet commercial jet 
flight requirements. 

The system provides pilots and navi- 
gators with continuous information on 
longitude, ground speed, ground mileage, 
drift angle and ground track. It is accu- 
rate and instantaneous. Requires no com- 
putations, ground facilities or wind data. 



i 


J \ iSfff 


J 




1^ 9^^m 



AUTOMATIC NAVIGATOR quiJes pilots with 
single instrument (above). 



Ryan has immediate career 
openings for engineers 

Look to the future. Look to Ryan... where you can 
grow with an aggressive, forward-looking company. 
You'll find a variety of stimulating projects, Ryan 
engages in all three elements of modern flight 
vehicles-airframes, engines to propel them and 
electronics equipment to guide them. 
Send today for Ryan's brochure, "Engineering 
Opportunities", Mail this coupon tO: 
Mr, James Kerns, Engineering Personnel 
Ryan Aeronautical Company 
Lindbergh Field, 2745 Harbor Drive 
San Diego 12, California 



OCTOBER, 1957 



15 




QUALITY shows when the chips are down 



^ 'K "W y^ The Allegheny stainless 
and super high-temperature steels used in 
jet and rocket aircraft engines and equip- 
ment are pure economy, because they do 
the job that's required of them, and they 
last! They stand up under metal-killing con- 
ditions of heat, load and corrosion, and 
they're dependable. 

There are lots of other jobs for stainless 
Steel that aren't as spectacular, or perhaps as 
tough, as those aboard a jet. Hospital, dairy 
and restaurant equipment are good examples, 
or the many uses in cars, trains, appliances, 
buildings and homes. 

But, in these and thousands of other cases. 
Stainless again gets the call because it does 



the job better, lasts longer and costs less in 
the long run than any other material on 
the market. 

There may be many occasions in your 
industrial future when Allegheny Stainless 
and other special steels can help you either 
to make money or to save it. Or you may 
decide to make our career ^flz/rj-.- the develop- 
ment and engineering of stainless and heat- 
resistant steels; tool and electrical steels; 
sintered carbides and magnetic materials; 
titanium, zirconium and other special-prop- 
erty metals. • In either case, we'll be 
delighted to talk to you and work with you. 
Allegheny hudlum Steel Corporation, Oliver 
Building, Pittsbuigh 22, Pennsylvania. 



PrONEERING on itie Horizons of Steel 

Allegheny Ludlum 




16 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Chemical progress is autoclaves, test tubes, distillation towers 
. . . hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds . . . processes, 
polymerizations, products. 

But mostly, chemical progress is thinking . . . men think- 
ing. Little men, big men, medium size men ... in lab coats, 
business suits, overalls ... all of them, always, thinking. 

Thinking up new products . . . new ways to make chem- 
icals and new ways to use them. Thinking up more comfort, 
more convenience, better health, for everyone. 

Alua\s, the old things have to be improved, and the new 



things have to be proved. It takes more thinking. The think- 
ing never stops. And so chemical progress never stops. It's 
that way at Koppers. 



You can be one of these men, think- 
ing. You can create some of the chem- 
ical progress that's made at Koppers. 
The products arc many . . . the oppor- 
tunities myriad. Consider a career 
w ith Koppers; send the coupon today. 





KOPPERS 
CHEMICALS 



i Koppers Company, Inc. 

1 Industrial Relations Manoqer 
Depl. C-107, Koppers Building 
Pittsburgh 19, Pennsylvania 

1 Please send the 24-page brochur 

Name 


! entitled "Your Career at Koppers. 


1 School 




I City 


State 



' OCTOBER, 1957 



17 




// YOU are graduating in Engineering 
or the Sciences, you owe it to yourself 
to investigate the career 
advantages of becoming a 







ADVANCED DEGREES 
can he earned while a full- 
time employee of convair- 
POMONA. Salaries and benefits 
compare with the highest in 
pri\ ate industry anywhere. 




PROMOTION FROM WITHIN 

assures you of continuing 
evaluation of capabilities and 
tlie swiftest possible advance- 
men t in this constantly 
expanding organization. 




PROFESSIONAL ENVIRONMENT 

coNVAin-pOMONA is housed 
in the newest kind of air- 
conditioned plant. Research 
and Development facilities 
manned by "name" experts. 




CALIFORNIA LIVING 

close to mountains, desert, 
seashore. Modern homes with 
swimming pools are within 
easy price range. Year- 'round 
outdoor sports and recreation. 



CONVAIR 
MISSI 
MAN 



CONVAIR-POMONA in Southern 
California is the first fully-integrated mis- 
sile plant in the U.S. Here the Navy's 
TERRIER supersonic missile is designed and 
built. You, as a graduate engineer or science 
major, can build an outstanding career in 
electronics and missiles systems at convaib- 
POMONA. You will work with the most mod- 
ern electronic equipment known. Better 
yet, you will work with the kind of friendly, 
informed engineer-scientist groups that are 
pacing the ad\ance into outer space. And 
you will li\'e where the climate and oppor- 
tunities for spacious living and outdoor 
recreation are unsurpassed in America. 

SEND RESUME FOR COMPLETE 
INFORMATION TO: 

Engineering Personnel Dept, 4-S 



"^ CONVAIR 



GD 



POMONA, CALIFORNIA 



A DIVISION OF GENERAL DYNAMICS CORPORATION 



18 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



How keen is your 



IMAGINEERING? 




Can your imagination identify the prob- 
lems being solved by tlii.s young Sperry 
engineer? Wlietlier your guess is right 
or wrong, there's no question that at 
Sperry "imagineering" is the order of 
the day. 

And working with men rated tops in 
tlieir fields you'll earn while you learn 
and start right in on specific assign- 
ments in the field of your choice. You 
will be given important work from the 
beginning for there is no ceiling on ideas 
in fields like guided missiles, inertial 
navigation, advanced radars, micro- 
wave technology and many more where 
Sperry is blueprinting the future now. 

Sperry is interested in your future, 
too— giving you the chance to study for 
advanced degrees. And Sperry plants 
are conveniently located near leading 
engineering colleges — whether you'd 
rather work in California, Florida, New 
York, Utah or Virginia. 

When Sperry representatives call at 
your school, be sure to talk to them. 
Check your Placement Oflice for the 
dates. Meanwhile, write for more facts 
to J. W. Dwyer, Sperry Gyroscope 
Company, Section 1B5. 

ANSWER: This Sperry engineer is 
simulating a ship roll problem on an 
electronic computer. Solution was in- 
corporated in the new Sperry Gyrofin''' 
Ship Stabilizer which reduces ship roll 
as much as 90% . *T.M. 



SPfflllf 



er/ioscopf coMPMr 

Greol Ned, New rork 



D/V/SION Of SPERRy RAND CORPORAr/ON 

BROOKLYN • CLEVELAND • NEW ORLEANS • LOS ANGELES 
SEATTLE • SAN FRANCISCO • IN CANADA; SPERRY GYRO- 
SCOPE COMPANY OF CANADA LTD.. MONTREAL. QUEBEC 



OCTOBER, 1957 



19 




This is a symbol of progress in our era 



Melted, refined and pressed into literally hundreds 
of shapes and forms, glass today is one of mankind's 
most versatile materials. It is truly an outstanding 
symbol of progress in our era. 

Industry after industry has discovered that glass 
in addition to looking through, is mighty important 
lookirif; into. 

And the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company, a leader 
in the glass field, offers college graduates career 
opportunities equally worth looking into. 

Prom the research laboratories of this pioneer 
glass producer come new glass products for use in 
the automobile, electronic, aircraft and building 
industries, and in scores of other applications. Pitts- 



burgh Plate needs college trained engineers and 
scientists . . . men capable of assuming responsi- 
bility, men capable of thinking both scientifically 
and creatively. In short, men who can meet the 
challenge of this modern, vibrant Era of Glass. 

If you are interested in a career where your 
talents and initiative are recognized and will be 
utilized to the fullest, then look into your career 
possibilities with Pittsburgh Plate. You'll like, too, 
its well-rounded job benefit program. 

Contact your Placement Officer now or write to 
the Manager College Relations, Pittsburgh Plate 
Glass Company, One Gateway Center, Pittsburgh 
22, Pennsylvania. 



PAINTS • GLASS . CHEMICALS • BRUSHES • PLASTICS • FIBER GLASS 

m 



PLATE GLASS 



20 



34S PLANTS, MERCHANDISING BRANCHES, AND SALES OFFICES LOCATED IN 250 CITIES 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



WHERE 
IN THE 

WORLD 

is your best 
future? 



Perhaps 

Norton Company - 
a well-recognized firm 
manufacturing a variety 

of products essential 
to the world's industries. 



You may find your career at Norton 
Company. Its products are diversified. 
It is the leader in its field. Yet oppor- 
tunities are personal, because its size 
permits management to know you. 

Career opportunities are in many 
fields for men with engineering train 
ing or other academic backgrounds 
A chemical engineer, for example 
may start in research, process de 
velopment, production engineering 
design, sales engineering or adminis 
tration. 

Positions in the Norton organiza- 
tion have one thing in common — 
personal participation and growth in 
a well-recognized company manufac- 
turing products essential to all indus- 
tries and pioneering with new prod- 
ucts. Its location in Worcester, Mass. 




Ceramic Fuel Elements for atomic reactors are among Norton Company's new products. 



is in a conmiunity with deep cultural 
roots, fine educational opportunities, 
an invigorating year-round climate 
and varied recreational facilities. 

If Norton Company sounds like 
your kind of com- 
pany, write for the 
booklet "Your 
Future at Norton." 
Address the per- 
sonnel DIRECTOR, 
Norton Company, 
Worcester 6, Mass. 




There are careers in Production, Research, 
Sales and Administration at Norton Com- 
pany for men trained in: 

ENGINEERING 

Ceramic • Chemical • Civil • Electrical 
General • Industrial • Mechanical 

Metallurgical 

SCIENCE 

Chemistry • Physics • Metallurgy 

GENERAL 

Liberal Arts • Business Administration 
Finance • Accounting 



NORTON 



Cjiakin^ befter products . , .to make your products better 

NORTON PRODUCTS: 

Abrasives • Grinding Wheels • Grinding Machines • High-Temperature Refractories 
Electro-Chemicals • Atomic Products 
BEHR-MANNING DIVISION: 
Coated Abrasives • Sharpening Stones • Pressure-Sensitive Tapes 



OCTOBER, 1957 



21 



k 



I 










^ ^.,.,. ,, ..». /... . 






...... 


. .^ 






































Howard hughes 
ffellovifships 

Ten awards are open to candidates inter- 
ested in studies leading to a Doctor of 
Philosophy or Doctor of Engineering; 
degree or in conducting post-doctoral 
research. 

Each Fellowship provides a cash award 
of not less than $2000 ... a minimiiin 
salary of $2500 for summer or part-time 
work ... up to $1500 for tuition, books, 
and research expenses . . . and moving 
and transportation costs. Eligibility is 
based on the completion of one year of 
graduate work in physics or engineering, 
and qualification for graduate standing at 
California Institute of Technology, Uni- 
versity of Calitomia (Berkeley), or Stan- 
ford University. Application closing date: 
January 15, 1958. 

master off science 
fellowships 

One hundred awards are open to partici- 
pants who will complete courses leading 
to the Master of Science degree within 2 
academic years. Tuition, admission fee, 
and books will be provided. During the 
summer they will have the opportunity 
to work with experienced Hughes scien- 
tists and engineers, while receiving salaries 
based upon their abiHty and technical 
experience. 

Applicant must receive his B.S. degree 
durini^ the commg year in Aeronautical 
Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Me- 
chanical Engineering, or Physics. Partici- 
pant ma\' request his graduate school 
from the following six institutions: Uni- 
versity ot Southern Calitornia, UCLA, 
Stanford University, University ot Ari- 
zona, Purdue University, or West Vir- 
ginia University. 

Write, specifying appropriate fcllou'shii<, tt>: 
Office of Advanced Studies 




RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 
LABORATORIES 

Hughes Aircraft Co., Culver City, Calij. 



i ii t ii ii M wiiiOaiMM 




Urn 




Arne Steiuang and Charles Baumann of Federal Bakery Co., Winona, Minnesota, receive engineering service and 
product data from Stan Nelson {left), of Standard Oil, to help keep maintenance costs low on Federal's truck fleet. 

How to write a success story 



Stanley Nelson, automotive engineer, is typ- 
ical of many young men we like to tell about 
in the Standard Oil organization. He keeps 
proving to be the right man in the right job as 
he advances with us. 

Stan likes engineering, of coiu^se. He grad- 
uated from the University of Minnesota with a 
B.S. degree in Mechanical Engineering in 1950. 

He likes people. He especially likes to get 
into business problems with them where he and 
his company can help. Truck maintenance, 
lubrication, and fuel consumption are big items 
to fleet operators, large and small, who have 
found that help from Stan pays off— for them. 

And he likes selling. He functions frequently 
as a key man for the sales department. His 



intelligent analysis of a problem in his field 
may either improve our service to a valued 
customer or help us to secure a new one. 

He likes to keep moving, too, and he's done 
that. He held several sales positions in 
Minnesota and attended Standard's intensive 
Sales Engineering School in Chicago before 
being promoted to his present position in which 
he works out of the Mason City, Iowa, divi- 
sion office. 

As men like Stanley Nelson earn their way 
upward in our organization we have frequent 
openings for ambitious college men to follow 
them. You might find a career in engineering, 
research or sales with this stable and progres- 
sive company rewarding, too. 



Standard Oil Company 

910 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago 80, Illinois 




24 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^B' V 


^s^^^^^^^^^B^^^^^^I 




H^MH 




i^ 




■k^^^/x 


^^HHBi^^^^ ^^^^^^^^R>'^7 /' . 'jH^^^s' I 


^^m 


j^iiBi 


■MH 



"Glowing wafer" of light (electroluminescence) sheds illumination on the faces of 
three Westinghouse scientists who helped to develop it. Left to right: Dr. Willi 
Lehmann (University of Brunswick, Germany); Dr. Henry F. Ivey (University of Georgia, 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology); and R. W. Wollentin (Rutgers University). 

The Light 
With no Third Dimension 



A new f.ourco of light is nearing 
practicality. Called electrolumines- 
cence, it comes from a flat surface. 
By the twist of a knob, you can 
change the brightness, or even the 
color, of a room. 

Since electric lighting first became 
practical, only three basically dif- 
ferent light sources have achieved 
widespread use — incandescent, fluo- 
rescent, and gas-discharge lamps. 
Now a fourth basic type — electro- 
luminescence — is nearing practical- 
ity. With fewer theoretical limita- 
tions than any of its predecessors, 
it promises to revolutionize lighting 



and become a practical light source 
of the future. 

In an incandescent lamp, light 
comes from a single point. In a 
fluorescent lamp (form of gas- 
discharge), light comes from a 
straight line. In electroluminescence, 
light comes from an area or flat sur- 
face. Electroluminescence is light 
emission from phosphor powders em- 
bedded in an insulator, excited by 
an a-c field. 

Westinghouse engineers gave the 
first practical demonstration of this 
new light source. They lighted an 
entire room with flat electrolumi- 



nescent panels on the ceiling and 
three walls. These panels were one- 
foot-square flat glass plates about 
as thick as a window pane and coated 
with a plastic containing the phos- 
phor. They were topped off by an 
aluminum conducting coating. 
Hooked up to a source of power, 
those plates had a brightness of 100 
foot lamberts in their present stage 
of development. 

Since some phosphors have more 
than one emission band, the color 
and brightness of electroluminescent 
lil^hlins can be changed by varying 
the frequency. It is possible to con- 
trol the color of a room, and bright- 
ness too, simply by twisting a knob. 
Besides supplying ordinary light, 
this new light source has other fas- 
cinating possibilities. Just one is 
"picture framing" television. An 
electroluminescent cell might replace 
the conventional cathode-ray tube 
in such a set. 

Westinghouse engineers, under the 
supervision of E. G. F. Arnott 
(Princeton '28), developed electro- 



Changing Colors in 
Electroluminescence 

Multicolored panel 
of one type is 
made by stacking 
red (R), yellow ;y), 
green (G), and 
blue (B) phosphors. 
Inductors are used 
to tune each layer. 



luminescent lighting under the name 
of "Rayescent" lighting. Westing- 
house approached the problem, not 
as a commercial venture, but as a 
pure research project. Much work 
remains to be done in this field. It is 
typical of the pioneering develop- 
ments undertaken by Westinghouse. 
Challenging opportunities for the 
graduate engineer exist in many fields 
. . . including: 




ATOMIC POWER 
AUTOMATION 
JET-AGE METALS 
LARGE POWER 
EQUIPMENT 

. . . and dozens of others. 



RADAR 

SEMICONDUCTORS 

ELECTRONICS 

CHEMISTRY 



Wfestinghouse 

FIRST WITH THE FUTURE 



Please send me more information on 

[n Rayescent lighting 

fl Job opportunities at Westinghouse 



Mail to Mr. J. H. Sovage, Westinghousi 
2278, Pittsburgh 30, Pa. 



Electric Corp., P.O. Box 



OCTOBER, 1957 



25 



^ 




v> 



^vVer w//^ 



O^ 







FIRST IN AVIATION 



engineers . .. 

don't be cramped 
by limited 
opportunities . . . 

DOUGLAS GIVES 

YOU PLENTY OF 

"ELBOW ROOM" TO USE 

YOUR FULL TALENTS! 



Become a part of a crack engineering team 
building for tomorrow . . . yet enjoying the 
rewards of accomplishment today. Let your creative 
energies express themselves at Douglas. Whatever 
your engineering field, you will assure yourself 

a rewarding future by taking advantage 
of the many opportunities Douglas offers. 

For important career opportunities 
in your field, write : 

C. C. LaVENE 

DOUGLAS AIRCRAFT COMPANY, BOX 6101-Q 

SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA 



26 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




There's fission, a^nd tlxen. there's fisliin'... 

just five minutes apart for 3M'er Jim Johnson 




From the lab to the lake in only five 
minutes — that's 3M-land! It's a 
place where young men like Jim 
Johnson, with a talent for both 
engineering and happiness, find life 
good ... to them and their families. 

There's some kind of outdoor fun 
going on year 'round — golf, fishing, 
swimming, boating, hunting, skiing, 
skating. And never more than five 
miles from job or home. 

There's work, too — vital, exciting, 
creative work geared to the future. 
For 3M is a research-minded com- 
pany. Its scientific plant, including 
the new multi-million dollar Central 
ReseEirch Laboratory, is one of the 



finest. In this young, fast-growin;^ 
company there's always been plenty 
of opportunity for young men to get 
ahead, and for new ideas to get a 
hearing. Witness such original prod- 
ucts as "Scotch" Brand Cellophane 
Tape, and the "Scotchlite" reflec- 
tive signs that guide you safely on 
highways day and mght. More than 
22% of the products 3M sells were 
developed in the last five years. 

And as for compensation, 3M engi- 
neers and executives are substan- 
tially above the average in take- 
home pay, home ownership, car 
ownership, and stock ownership! 
So, if you're interested write 3M, 
St. Paul 6, Minnesota. 



x^-g- ^g^v. 



Minnesota IVIining and AIanufacturing company ^ 

WHERE Research is the key to tomorrow '^ 

OCTOBER, 1957 




27 





1 jC J 


7 


8 9 ]() 


14 


^^,*^^^ 




1 2 

4 5 6 7 S 9 

II 12 13 14 15 16 

is 19 20 21 22 23 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


s 


9 


lO 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 



TRANSISTOR 'STOP-WATCHES' FOR INDUSTRY 

accuracies to a 50 millionth / intervals from microseconds to months 



Texas Instruments engineers are building 
portable electronic timing devices to uncanny 
accuracies with interval variations to infinity. 
They allow applications never before practi- 
cal because of previous size, weight, power 
drain, and maintenance limitations . . . par- 
ticularly in airborne installations. Essentially 
binary counting and storage devices, these TI 
timers present an entirely new concept in time 
measurement ... a result of the new design 
freedom allowed by transistors ... of which 
TI is also the world's largest commercial 
manufacturer. 

At engineer-managed Texas Instruments, 
recognition of individual achievement has 
contributed to TI's twentyfold growth in the 
last ten years — to a current $70 million vol- 
ume. Advanced personnel policies include 
company-sponsored educational assistance, 
profit sharing, insurance, and retirement 
programs. 



Texas Instruments plants are within 
Dallas, yet away from downtown traffic . . . 
within 5 minutes of fine residential areas, 
churches, and public and private schools. 
Your home will be within 15 minutes of year- 
around recreational, amusement and cultural 
activities. 

Here are the major products and 
programs you can work with at TI: 

SEMICONDUCTORS & OTHER COMPONENTS -Transistors, 
diodes, rectifiers, resistors, and panel meters. ELECTRONIC & 
ELECTROMECHANICAL APPARATUS-Radar, sonar, infrared, 
navigation, magnetics, telemetering, communications, com- 
puters, transformers, and instruments. RESEARCH — Semi- 
conductor materials and devices, ferromagnetics, infrared, 
optics, high speed data reduction, etc. ADMINISTRATION — 
Production, planning, purchasing, cost analysis, etc. 



a 



..-iTexas Instruments 

l//r 1 INCORPORATED 



28 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 0( 



from the Editor's Desk . . 



LOOK US OVER 

Yes, what you're looking at is the first copy of the NEW Techno- 
graph. This issue and the ones to follow in the remainder of this school 
year have been redesigned to bring you more of the features YOU 
want to see. 

Each year the Tech seeks to bring to its audience just the proper 
balance of features to please the majority of its readers. We believe 
we have come very close towards that goal. The primary changes in- 
clude more local fealures, more features with "time value," more 
coverage of engineering societies, more "Who's Who," more photos, 
more illustrations, and more Technocuties. In order to attain these 
goals, we have had to sacrifice some of the rather technical aspects 
of the magazine, although some still have been retained. We have 
also increased our personnel advertising coverage, enabling you to 
know more engineering companies. 

We of the Tech hope we are succeeding in bringing you the 
magazine you want. Why no1 let us know? But first . . . LOOK US 
OVER. 

-JTK 



CXTOBER, 1957 • 29 



w 



p 



G 



"^'ou're in tune with WPGL , stu- 
dent radio on the campus in Chani- 
paign-L rbana. The time is ." 

This message is beamed daily to an 
audience of approximately 5,000 stu- 
dents here on campus and is the station 
break for one of the fastest-growing ac- 
tivities on campus. Broadcasting on fre- 
quencies of 640 and 610 kilocycles, 
WPGr holds the distinction of being 
on the air longer than any other station 
in the Champaign-Urbana area (almost 
140 hours per week). 

Main studios of the station are lo- 
cated in one of the PGU buildings at 
1241 S. Euclid Ave., Champaign, di- 
rectly behind Clark House, MRH. The 
actual transmitters are in several loca- 
tions around the campus area, connect- 
ed to the studios by telephone lines. Al- 
though most of the programming conies 
from the main studios, WPCiU leaves 
its studios for special events program- 
ming, such as their "Twenty Questions 
on the Campus" show every Saturday 
e\ening. Club Sophisticate at the Ulini 
Union, Engineering Open House, and 
many others. 

To keep this busy station on the air 
requires the services of many people: 
annovuicers, engineers, salesmen, cop\ 

OCTOBER, 1957 




U 



by 

Dave Yates, E.E. '60 
Roger Harrison, E.E. '59 
Jim Kries, E.E. '59 




BIG PLANS are in the making as the "wheels" consider the impending relo- 
cation of the station next year. Reading clockwise are: Art Anderson, Chief 
Engineer; George Dixon, Engineering; Chuck Leonard, Program Director; 
Jim Dean, Continuity Supervisor; Cliff Johnson, Former Station Manager; 
Bill Carmody, Station Manager; Dick Adams, News Director; Esther Ary, 
Engineering (former Record Librarian); and Phil Lieb, Commercial Man- 
ager. In the top photo Chuck Leonard is seen checking the news coming 
off the UP wire. 

31 




ENGINEER Jerry 
Giambri is seen 
operating the 
main control 
console. Note that 
the board is 
arranged for dual 
channel operation. 
The tape recorder 
and turntables 
are also shown. 



urittTs, sccrctaii(',>. .mil inan\ (ltlu•l■^. in 
fact, a staff of almost 1^(1 currently 
works to provide entertainment for its 
listeiiini; audience. To keep activities 
running efticienth', WPCjL is divided 
into separate departments: program, 
commercial, engineering, and station 
manager. 



I ndcr the program director are three 
dixisions: announcers, under the Chief 
Announcer, Chuck Richards; newscast- 
ers, inider the direction of Dick Adams; 
and the sports staff, headed h\ Ron 
(iarber. 

Before anyone gets on the air. he 
(or she) must be approved by the pro- 




gr.im dejiartnient through an audition. 
The prospective announcer or news- 
caster reads a series of selections and is 
recorded on a tape recorder. The voice 
qualit)' and other factors are consid- 
ered during playback; and, if he is ap- 
proved, his name is read off a card, and 
he then is assigned a show and becomes 
a probationary announcer. 

After a couple of months every pro- 
bationarv' announcer is reviewed. If he 
then meets the professional standards of 
the station, he is promoted to the posi- 
tion of staff announcer and will become 
eligible for some of the better time 
spots as thc>- become available. After 
long and successful service, some staff 
announcers are promoted to the posi- 
tion of senior announcer, the highest 
grade. WCtPU currently has about a 
half dozen senior announcers. 

These announcers are responsible for 
tlic programming heard on the station. 
Each announcer selects his own show, 
picking the recordings hr thinks most 
appropriate for the time and type of 
show. .An obvious exception is, of 
course, the request show. These are pre- 
sented daily to give the listeners their 
chance to hear their favorites. These re- 
quests, along with listings from Bill- 
biiard and "Top Ten on WGN," 
form the basis for the Top Ten on 
W'PGL program, a regular feature of 
the station. 

Format for the programs is de- 

UNDER THE careful eye of Ron Hart- 
ley, Bert Carlson checks out a newly- 
completed amplifier chassis. 



32 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



TRANSMITTERS ARE important items 
at the station so Art Anderson and 
George Dixon discuss a technical 
point about the transmitter shown on 
the table. 

terniined by the program department. 
Each time segment is given a particular 
type of material or a particular theme. 
This prevents you the listener from get- 
ting eighteen hours of the top ten, Stan 
Freeburg, ami Elvis Presley. The old 
rule of "Variet\ is the spice of life" 
holds at WPGU. 

Before any show gets out onto the 
airways, however, it must be engineered. 
The engineering department, under the 
competent leadership of Art Anderson, 
is in charge of all technical equipment 
of the station. Through the Engineer- 
ing Operations Supervisor, all of the 
necessary studio engineers are procured. 
Through the activities of other engi- 
neers, equipment is maintained and new 
equipment designed and constructed. 
Art Anderson has been with the station 
from the beginning and is responsible" 
for the design and construction of the 
station's equipment, bringing it from its 
infancy to its present position of leader- 
ship. 

As with announcers, the studio engi- 
neers who twist the dials and spin the 
records must go through a training pro- 
gram. Anyone applying for a position as 
studio engineer goes throLigh a short 
training course given by the operations 
supervisor. Upon successful completion 
of the program, he is promoted to the 




position of probationary engineer and is 
assigned to engineer certain shows. 

After about two months he is re- 
\iewed for possible promotion based on 
his abilities and interest. Some of the 
requirements include operation of the 
tape recorder, segueing (going from one 
record directly into the next without 
voice announcements), and procedures 
to use in case of equipment malfunction. 



If he passes, he is given the pcjsition of 
studio engineer, capable of handling the 
regular operations of the station. If 
his particular shift requires special 
training, as for a remote show, he is 
then given more on-the-job training for 
that particular job. 

Because many announcers "combo," 
all announcers are required to attain 
the position of studio engineer as well 



ANNOUNCER Wally 
Hoe! in Studio A 
is gazing at the 
clock, waiting 
to give record 
I commentary and 
a few commercials 
from the book. 
The control room 
can be seen in the 
background 
through the double 
glass partition. 



OCTOBER, 1957 




33 




NEW RECORDS are always news so Esther Ary tells Chuck Leonard about 
some new releases. In the lower photo, Jerry Giambri is checking the 
meters at the transmitter control unit. 




as passing their own tests tor announc- 
ing- "Coniboing" is combining; engineer- 
ing; and announcing, i.e., the announcer 
111 his own engineer. In this way, the 
^tation can continue to operate even it 
an engineer is not avaihible. ( Regular 
engineers cannot "combo" since no one 
(.■.111 appear over the air who has not 
passed an audition, except tor special 
guests). 

Another group within the engineering 
department are the technicians. Regular 
transmitter maintenance, both in terms 
of routine checks and emergency repairs, 
is handled by this group. Members of 
this section are on call twenty-four hours 
a day, reach to tackle aiu malfunctions 
which might occur. 

Whenever new equipment is con- 
^tructed, another crew comes into play. 
Many of the station members are inter- 
ested in the construction of equipment 
and get experience through actually con- 
structing equipment of various kinds 
under the supervision of the chief engi- 
neer. The latest addition was the "com- 
bo board" used during the Illini Union 
activities night. This unit was completed 
only about fifteen minutes before the 
activities night commenced. That's real- 
ly close planning but is typical of the 
highly integrated construction program. 

."Ml this could never happen, however, 
without the commercial department. 
Without commercials and the money ob- 
tained from them, there would be no 
WPGU. Under commercial manager 
Phil Lieb, this department has brought 
some leading companies to the attention 
of the listeners. Campus Cab, for ex- 
.imple, is a regular advertiser on 
WP(tU, keeping the students informed 
of their many new services to the L . of 
I. student body. 

Another sponsor well known around 
the station is Lucky Strike cigarettes. 
All of the news programs are presented 
through the courtesy of Lucky Strike, 
who provides the United Press teletype. 

Last but not least is the station man- 
ager. Bill Carmody. Bill is well known 
around campus for his interviews at the 
Union during the intermission at Club 
Sophisticate. He is also heard on some 
(it the 1 1 p.m. classical music programs 
as well as many other WP(iU features. 
He is also becoming known as the mod 
erator of the "Twenty Questions on the 
Lanipus" program every Saturday eve- 
ning at 6:30 from the Clark lounge. 

Like the top man in many organiza- 
tions, Bill's job is to make sure things 
get done — properly and on time. .Al- 
though it sounds simple, this is really a 
full time job. Through it all, howe\er. 
Hill still manages to keep his calm com- 
posure and good sense of humor. 

No description of the station is com- 
plete without a few words on the tech- 
nical aspects of carrier-current broad- 
casting. Since the station first went on 



34 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



the air back in December ot 1953, 
listeners have been getting the station 
"through the power lines." 

In its operations WPCjU studio engi- 
neers adjust the controls until the pro- 
gram material (audio) comes out of the 
studio eqiu'pment at the proper level for 
feeding the transmitters. It is then split 
eight wavs by a network and sent to 
the eight transmitters via lines leased 
from the telephone company. 

The need for multiple transmitters is 
one of the characteristics of carrier-cur- 
rent broadcasting. The transmitting an- 
tenna of each transmitter is the a.c. 
power wiring of a building or group :>i 
buildings. The transmitter output is di- 
rectly coupled into all phases of tiic 
power line and from there radiated int) 
the individual receivers. The signal will 
not pass through the pole line trans- 
formers, howe\er, and thus one trans- 
mitter must be used for each area served 
by a different transformer. 

LAR, for example, is served by one 
power transformer and therefore has 
one transmitter. The LAR addition, 
however, has a separate power s\steni 
and must therefore be served by anothei 
transmitter. Incidentally there is no 
transmitter in the LAR addition yet, 
but its construction has high priorit>. 

Due to the high initial cost of the 
transmitters (approximately $130) , they 
have all been allocated to locations of 
high population density ( number of stu- 
dents per pole line area). Although this 
currently means that most of the trans- 
mitters are feeding L^niversity residence 
halls, other areas will be better cov- 
ered when equipment becomes available, 
both "greek" and "indie." 

Transmitters are currently installed 
in Clark House (covering also Lund- 
gren and Barton), Flagg House (co\- 
ering also Noble), LAR, Newman Hall, 
Alpha Sigma Phi (covering Arbor 
Suites and many others), Evans Hall 
(covering also Busey), MRH Addi- 
tions 3 and 4, and the PGU local, co\ - 
ering the PCjL's and Stadium Terrace. 

A rather elaborate control system in- 
stalled at the studios allows each trans- 
mitter to be remotely turned on or off. 
Certain transmitter readings are also 
taken remotely at the studio as an indi- 
cation of transmitter performance (al- 
though these readings are not truly com 
prehensive). In this way many defects 
can be noted and corrected without de- 
lay. Some defects, however, cannot be 
detected by this system and must be re- 
ported by the listeners. 

Time doesn't permit a complete des- 
cription of the station. For those \\ho 
are interested in more details, may we 
suggest that you drop by the station lo- 
cated at 1241 S. Euclid. Who knows, 
you may like it and decide to stay, (lood 
personnel are always needed, so wh\ not 
stop by and sa\' you heard about them 
m Tcchtiograph. 




PHIL LIEB knows his job so well he con do it with his eyes closed. Jim 
Dean is busy with some of the essential paperwork. Below, Howie Krause 
and Dick Adams discuss the significance of the news. 




OCTOBER, 1957 



35 




1 DIPGLE 

2 SUPPORTIHG ST^i'T fPLEXISLAiS) 

3 TRANSMISSIOfJ LIME 

4 DISH 

5 ELEVATION CONTROL 

6 AZIMUTM COUNTERBALANCE fMOT SMOWN) 

7 AZIMUTH CONTROL 
a ELEVATION CO'JNTER5ALANCE5 



36 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Oper 



Moon 




by Dave Penniman, M.E. '60 



It is usually the treshnien who stand 
gazing with wide eyes at the various 
structures on campus. This semester, 
however, even the old experienced stu- 
dents were caught staring at a new ad- 
dition, the giant antenna mounted on 
top of the Electrical Engineering huild- 
ing. Although many wild stories are 
floating around north campus, few of 
the sidewalk superintendents really 
know just what the antenna is doing up 
there. Perhaps we can enlighten a few 
about just what ;.f going on. 

The antenna itself is constructed of 
aluminum and in its entirety weighs 
nine tons. The dish is twenty-eight feet 
in diameter and weighs 1100 pounds. 
It is furnished to the University by the 
U. S. Army Signal Corps under a re- 
search contract. 

The main pvupose of the project is 

OCTOBER, 1957 



to make a study of the ionosphere by 
observing radio waves passed through it. 
The transmitting unit is located at 
Evans Signal Laboratory near Balmar, 
New Jersey. The unit here at Illinois 
is capable of receiving only. The waves 
are transmitted from New Jersey to here 
via the moon. 

This type of project has been done 
before, the first time being in January, 
1946, by the Signal Corps. Although 
the project has no direct connection with 
the I.(i.Y., the unit c.in be used as a 
radio telescope if so desired. 

The present project has brought to 
light many new facts. It ha< found that 
the waves change polarity in their trip 
to and from the moon. Also, the amount 
of signal lost or absorbed can be used 
to define the nature of the ionosphere. 

One result is that Prof. H. D. Webb 



of the Electrical Engineering depart- 
ment and his associates have noticed 
three types of fading in the beam being 
received. 

The first is a rapid fade, taking place 
in a matter of seconds and believed to 
be caused by the change in the nature 
of the moon's surface. This is referred 
to as libration. It is best explained in 
the following manner. As the moon ro- 
tates about the earth, the irregidarities 
of its surface change position. The re- 
flecting surface is therefore not uniform 
and hence the variations. 

The second fade can be obseivv'd in 
a matter of minutes and is accredited to 
the structure of the ionosphere. Einally, 
there is a variation from day to day 
which is also caused by the structure 
of the ionosphere. 

With this information and more to 
come, the men on this project hope to 
be able to define more closely the char- 
acteristics of the ionosphere. 

One factor hindering progress on the 
project is electrical interference. The 
main source of this interference comes 
from the ignition systems of automo- 
biles passing near the receiving center. 
I)ri\ers, take note! 

It will be interesting to watch the 
progress of this project as the semester 
proceeds. As soon as more information 
becomes a\ailable, the Tcchnograph will 
report it. 

37 



$ 



$ 



$ 



2-'25 Awards 



Two cash awards of $25 each will be awarded to 
the author of the best TECHNOGRAPH staff arti- 
cle and the best non-staff article submitted to the 
ILLINOIS TECHNOGRAPH. 

Rules: 

1. Articles must be submitted by the author not later than April 1, 1958. 

2. It must not have been previously published. 

3. It must pertain to engineering in some way. 

4. Ail articles must be doublespaced typewritten. 

5. Technograph staff members are eligible for only one of the prizes. 

6. Some articles will be printed in the TECHNOGRAPH. 

7. None will be returned, but they will be kept on file and may be printed 
later. 

8. Please include pictures, if possible, and permission for us to use them. 
Any number of articles may be submitted by the same author. 
The Technograph editorial staff will be judges for the non-staff articles. 



9. 
10. 

Notes: 

1. 

2. 
3. 



Ten typewritten pages with pictures makes three pages in the magazine. 

Use rhetoric department punctuation and capitalization. 

Many national companies will be glad to send you photographs and in- 
formation. 

Get started now and get several articles written and submitted by 
April 1, 1958. 



$ 



S 



$ 



38 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



TECHNOCUTIE 
OF THE MONTH 



Introducing the Sweetheart of North Campus, Miss Judy Clark, 
Kappa Kappa Gamma. 

Judy is certainly familiar with the engineering campus, as she has 
lived in Champoign-Urbana for all of her 19 years. Unfortunately for 
the engineers, she is now on south campus majoring in Elementary 
Education. A teaching career in the future? Perhaps, she says, and her 
green eyes twinkle, but first she'll be an airline hostess. 

A pert 5'-4" tall, sporting 114 well-placed pounds, Judy would like 
to live in a large city, "at least for a while." A travel-bug, she's seen 
New York and Florida and doesn't want to stop until she's been to 
Europe. 

A junior now, Judy is kept busy with things besides class work. 
She worked with Star Course for two years, is assistant editor of llli- 
greek, and is freshman advisor for all unaffiliated town girls. For hob- 
bies Judy likes swimming, diving, and even cooking (she says she could 
use a little practice on the cooking . . . interested, gents?). 

For those interesting in statistics, the vital numbers are 34-23-35, 
address is 605 W. William and the phone is 9260. 




Photos by Dave Moore 



Coordination by Dennis Lantz 
and Pat Gaganidze 




r" 



n 





L. 



.J 



r 



n 





L. 



.J 



Know any cute girls? 

. . . then tell us at Technograph! 



SERIOUSLY, the Illinois Technograph is interested in obtaining nominations for the Technocutie 
of the Month. For many years we have been printing photos of girls who have won various 
queen contests on campus (or were among the finalists). We shall continue to print some of 
these pictures. 

HOWEVER, and here is where you come in, we are interested in finding new talent. We are sure 
that there are many beautiful girls on campus who never appear in contests; you see them 
every day walking down the broodwolk. All we need to do is get names and phone numbers 
of these girls and we'll take core of the rest. Just fill in the blank and drop in any University 
moil box (not U. S. mail) or drop it off at 215 C. E. H. or the basement of lllini Hall (Doily 
lllini Office). 

REWARDS ore in it for you. For each girl selected, you will get a personally-autographed photo. 
Sound like a good deal? Then get busy! 

Tear Here 

ILLINOIS TECHNOGRAPH 
215 Civil Engineering Hall 

My nomination for Technocutie is 

who lives at , phone 

Her description is 



_and live at. 



phone 

(Signed). 



42 THE TECHNOGRAPH 




'^B^ 



•\ 








Skimming 

Industrial 



Headlines 




caiiea by Dennis Lantz, G.E. '60 



New Gas Purifier 

The first fully automatic gas purifier 
and dr\er, capable of operating indefin- 
itely without attention, has been de\el- 
oped. 

For use in metals, chemical, pharma- 
ceutical, petroleuin, electrical, and food 
processing and laboratory work, the 
"Dexo Dual Puridryer DMS" can de- 
liver hydrogen with an oxygen content 
of less than one part per million and a 
dew point of better than -1()()"F, ac- 
cording to Baker. It also can be used 
with nitrogen, argon, helium, carbon di- 
oxide, and saturated hydrocarbons. 

The new' device switches back and 
forth every 12 hours between two dry- 
ing towers containing Linde molecular 
sieves. While out of use, each tower is 
heated electrically for a short time and 
allowed to cool while a small flow of 
gas is put through it to pick up and 
carry off the moisture. The purging gas 
then is burned in a converter, so that 
only water vapor is expelled into the 
room where the Instrument is installed. 

In the past, manufacturers requiring 
a continuous gas flow had to install two 
units and keep an attendant on hand 
to activate the dryers. 

The Puridryer is rated at 100 stand- 
ard cubic feet per hour maximum. Its 
maximum pressure is 5 lb. gauge. 

The instrument removes oxygen by 
catalytically combining it with hydrogen 
at room temperatures to form water 
vapor. The platinum catalyst requires no 
reactivation. 

A purified test gas to which an ac- 



curately measured quantity of electro- 

lytically generated oxygen has been 

added is used to calibrate the instru- 
ment. 

Marine Paint Soars 

More than fi\e million gallons of 
paints and coatings will be used this 
year for existing merchant vessels and 
craft under construction in private de- 
niestic shipyards, reports Chemical 
Week. The breakdown: some 3.7 mil- 
lion gallons for maintenance of exist- 
ing merchant ships, about one million 
gallons for ships being built, and the 
remainder for foreign ships \inder repaii' 
in U. S. shipyards. 

Electronic Conference 

Three members of the electrical engi- 
neering department of University of Illi- 
nois have been named to key posts for 
the 13th annual National Electronics 
Conference to be held at the Sherman 
Hotel, Chicago, on Oct. 7-Q. 

They are (jeorge E. Anner, who is 
senior chairman of the board; M. H. 
Crothers, chairman of the proceedings 
committee, and W. L. Emery, chairman 
of the awards committee. 

The National Electronics Conference 
is the nation's leading forum on elec- 
tronic research, development, and appli- 
cation. 

More than 10,000 persons — mostly 
scientists, engineers, educators, manu- 
facturers, government officials, and stu- 
dents — are expected to attend the three- 
day technical meeting and exhibit at the 
Hotel Sheinian. 



Baby Yams Put in 'Incubator' 

111 ( )klah(ima, sweet potatoes begin 
life uarmed by an electric blanket, re- 
liorts Electrical World. Resistance-heat- 
ed beds hasten their incubation period. 
After the seedlings are established, they 
are removed and sold to commercial 
growers. 

Sodium Reactor News 

Electric power was pioduced for the 
(irst time July 12 by heat from the 
Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) 
during tests of the nuclear reactor and 
auxiliary components. 

The SRE, designed and built for the 
AEC by Atomics International (divi- 
sion of North x'\merican Aviation) is a 
part of the commission's program to de- 
\t1op economically competitive civilian 
power from nuclear energy. 

The Southern California Edison Co. 
has installed electrical generating equip- 
ment adjacent to the nuclear reactor to 
coinert to electricity reactor heat ener- 
g\' which the company purchases from 
the AEC. 

The electricity produced was fed 
over the company's distribution lines. 
The experiment marked the first time 
a non-military atomic energy reactor has 
produced power for the generation of 
electricity by a private utility company. 

Following numerous experiments to 
test the operation of all components, 
the reactor plant will be operated at 
full-power late this year. The reactor 
is designed to produce 20,000 kilowatts 
of heat from which the Edison equip- 
ment will generate approximately 6,500 
kilowatts of electricity. In the first test 
the generator operated at a level of 
about 1,000 kilowatts of electricity. The 
generating facilities will operate inter- 
mittently, depending upon the experi- 
mental operation of the reactor. 

The Edison Company will share with 
other power generating organizations the 
information it gains from the SRE pro- 
gram. The plant is located in the Santa 
Susana Mountains about 30 miles north- 
west of Los Angeles. 

Tank Car Goes Over The Waves 

A tank car loaded in Haton Rouge, 
Ea., shipped to New Orleans by rail 
and then lifted onto a sea ferry for the 
trip to Havana, was the first tank-car 
shipment of antiknock compounds ever 
to go to a refiner overseas, reports Na- 
tional Petroleum News. The cranes that 
lifted the tank-car were big ones. They 
had to be — the car weighed about 40 
tons, loaded with 6,000 gallons of com 
pound. 

(('.rjiitiniicd (jii Page 46) 



44 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Prof. Huntington, Head of the 
Department of Civil Engineering, 
receives honorary membership 
in the American Society of 
Civil Engineers 



Awarded 

Highest 

Distinction 




HC^NdRARY membership, the highest distinction bestowed 
by the American Society of Civil Engineers, oldest national 
organization in the United States, has been voted by its 
Board of Direction for Professor Whitney Clark Huntington, head 
of the Department of Civil Engineering, here at the University of 
Illinois. 

The ASCE Constitution provides that "Honorar\- Members shall 
have attained acknowledged eminence in some branch of engineer- 
ing or the sciences related thereto." Formal presentation will be on 
Oct. 16, 1957, at the aiuiual meeting of ASCE in New Wirk City. 

In reviewing the careers of the New Honorary Members, ASCE 
stated that "Whitney Clark Huntington has devoted a lifetime to 
the traiiu'ng of civil engineers. For 38 years he has served as head of 
a Department of Civil Engineering and has brought distinction to 
two institutions, the Universities of Colorado and Illinois." 

Born in Denver, Prof. Huntington received several degrees, in- 
cluding Doctor of Science, from the University of Colorado. He 
joined the faculty there in 1914 and became head of its Department 
of Civil Engineering in 1919. He came to Urbana to take a similar 
post in 1926, now serving as Professor of Civil Engineering and 
department head. Of his efforts here at the University of Illinois, 
ASCE said, "It is a consequence of his skillful administration that the 
successful transition was made from a .small staff to a large and 
complex group needed for today's educational and re.search program, 
without loss in stature." 

Recounting the mimerous graduates who have become heads of 
civil engineering departments in many universities or otherwise have 
achieved particular distinction, the ASCE announcement took note, 
too, of the authoritative importance of his written works and ac- 
ceptance by other institutions of the patterns established by Prof. 
Huntington's methods and policies. 



OCTOBER, 1957 



45 



Aerosol Sets Record 

Aerosol sales in 1956 set a new rec- 
ord, 320 million units, reports Chemical 
Week. The proiiucts, valued at $320 
niil!ii)n, total more than ^3 per cent 
above the 1935 sales mark. Leading 
product was hair sprays, with sales of 
nearly 80 million units. Insecticides, out 
of the top spot for the first time, r.ukcd 
up sales of 52 million units. 

An Easy Chair Control For 
Television Receivers 

'IVlfv i>i<in \ ic\\cr> can now enjoy an 
entire evening watching their favorite 
programs without getting up from their 
easy chairs. Westinghouse television en- 
gineers have made it possible to switch 
chaimcls and lower the sound volume 
from ;ui\ place in the room by putting 
to new use carrier current — the old 
method of sending radio-frequency sig- 
nals over power lines. 

The s\stcm is simplicity itself. The 
control signals generated by a small 
transmitter at the viewer's finger tips 
are carried over the house electrical wir- 
ing system to the television receiver. 
These signals actuate relays in the re- 
ceiver that control channel selection and 
sound muting. The control system is 
particularly suited for use with receiv- 
ers equipped with power tuning and 
electronic automatic fine tuning. 

Carrier current has several advan- 
tages as a signal transmitting medium: 
the power required to operate the trans- 
mitter is easily supplied by plugging into 
any 115-volt a-c convenience outlet — 
and a path for the carrier-current sig- 
nal results in relatively low attenua- 
tion, so that a low-power transmitter 
and relatively low-gain receiver will pro- 
vide positive and foolproof remote con- 
trol. 

The two functions of the control sys- 
tem — channel selection and sound mut- 
ing — are accomplished with two types 
of carrier signals. A continuous \\ave of 
the required duration activates both the 
channel-selecting relay and the sound- 
nuiting relav so that the television re- 
ceiver can be tuned through program 
channels without .sound blasting (pic- 
ture muting is also provided to prevent 
annoying flashes). A modulated wave 
activates only the somid-muting relay. 
Four alternate carrier frequencies, in 
the 50- to 75-kilocycle range, have been 
chosen so that a random distribution ol 
carrier frequencies can be obtained to 
prevent interference between systems if 
several are in clcse proximity. 

The viewer selects channels or mutes 
sound by moving a two-position switch 
to either the "select" or "mute" posi- 
tion. When the select switch is moved 
to the "select" position, d-c voltage is 
applied to the oscillator plate circuit. 



and tlu- cnntuiuous wave signal is pro- 
duced ; wiien the switch is in the "mute" 
position, f)0-cycle voltage is applied ro 
the oscillator, and the modulated car- 
rier signal results. The switch will lati ii 
in the "mute" position to provide ^•o^- 
tinuous muting. 

Tran.smitter output is in the cudcr ot 
12 milliwatts for continuous-wave oper- 
ation, less for the modulated signal. 
I'ield testing has shown that this power 
lexcl is sufficient for positive operation, 
yet low enough that receivers with con- 
trol systems installed in adjacent houses 
supplied from the same power trans- 
former will not interfere with each 
other it tuned to different carrier fre- 
quencies. 

The operation of the carrier-current 
receiver is shown in the simplified sym- 
bolic diagram. The input circuit is set 
to receive any of the four carrier fre- 
quencies, and the signal is amplified in 
a two-stage amplifier. The two relax' 
circiMts are effectively in "parallel" at 
this point. The continuous wave signal 
is blocked from the sound-muting relay 
by the audio-frequency amplifier, but i'; 
rectified for the channel-selecting relay. 
This rectifier voltage raises grid volta«' 
of the channel-selecting stage, increasing 
plate current and operating the current 
relay in the plate circuit. 

The modulated carrier signal is also 
rectified by the rectifier stage, but its 
average value is not great enough to op- 
erate the channel-switching relay. How- 
ever, the 60-cycle modulated signal is 
amplified by the audio-frequency ampli- 
fier to activate the sound-muting relav. 
An interconnection from the channel- 
switching relay to the muting-stage re- 
lay insiu'es that sound is muted when 
the channel-switching relay operates, to 
eliminate sound blasting when turning 
through programmed channels. 

Tractor Remote Control 

A "robot" tractor than can be oper- 
ated anywhere within range of the radio 
by which it is controlled is undergoing 
tests at the I . S. Army Research and 
Development Laboratories, Fort Bel- 
voir, Virginia. 

The tractor, believed to represent the 
first application of the remote control 
principle to a piece of construction 
equipment, may prove invaluable in con- 
struction work in radioactivate an 1 
combat zones. It may also be useful in 
various other tasks, such as fighting large 
fuel storage fires. 

From a jeep or helicopter equipped 
with a standard military radio trans- 
mitter and a special control box, the 
operator can start and stop the machine, 
engage and disengage the gears, operate 
in forward and rever.se, manipulate the 



do/er blade up ami down, and activate 
the steering mechanism. 

Normal operations can be performed 
from distances of up to 15 miles, the 
practical range of the radio, simply by 
manipulating the buttons on the control 
box. Army Engineers believe that the 
instllation of small television cameras on 
the tractor will give the remote opera- 
tor additional knowledge and observa- 
tion of the machine and give him the 
ability to work it without the need of 
information relayed by a visual observ- 
er. 

The prototype is the standard com- 
mercial "Tournado/er" manufactured by 
Le 1 ourneau-Westinghouse of Peoria, 
Illinois. The only visible change to the 
machine is the substitution of a stand- 
ard military radio receiving set for the 
operator's seat. Manual controls have 
been retained ff)r conventional opera- 
tions. 

As a safetv' precaution, earh' tests 
have been conducted with the tractor 
and control point within viewing dis- 
tance. It will be operated from greater 
distances as the test schedule progresses. 

Oxygen Indicator 

An oxygen indicator 20 times more 
sensitive than any such instrument pre- 
viously available in the L\ S. has been 
placed on the market by Raker & Co. 

In addition to laboratory use, the de- 
vice has process applications in atomic- 
energy work, metals treating, and the 
manufacture of such diverse products as 
chemicals, pharmaceuticals, electronic 
equipment, plastics, synthetic fibers, pig- 
ments, photographic supplies, petroleum 
derivatives, incandescent lamps, tobacco 
goods, and bottled industrial gases. 

The Minoxo Indicator, as it is called, 
can measure traces of molecular oxygen 
in a wide range of gases, including hy- 
drogen, nitrogen, ethylene, other hydro- 
carbons either saturated or imsaturated, 
helium, argon, and other inert gase^. 
Precision indicators previously available 
could not handle certain of these gases, 
notably unsaturated hydrocarbons. 

The new instrument has two ranges, 
0-10 and 0-100 parts per million. When 
calibrated every eight hours, it has a 
conservatively estimated accuracv of 
plus-or-minus 5'"(' of full scale deflec- 
tion. The most .sensitive indicator on the 
market heretofore had a minimum 
range of 2-200 ppm and was accurate 
to only plus-or-minus \''( of full deflec- 
tion on that scale. 

The IVIinoxo operates on an entirely 
new principle for instruments of this 
kind. The gas sample is passed through 
a galvanic cell consisting of a silver 
cathode and active cadmium anode in a 
potassium-hydroxide solution. 

((Continued on PdQC i^O ) 



46 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 







i^v: 



i ^; \ 



K^ 



THE LOCKHEED MISSILE SYSTEMS 

Advanced Study Program for 

M.S. and Ph.D. DEGREES 

in science and engineering 

University of California at Los Angeles • University of Southern California 
Unnersity of California at Berkeley • Stanft>rcl University 

Tlic Graduate Study Council offers an Advanced Study Program to enable 
qualified individuals to obtain M.S. or Ph.D. degrees. Under this program the 
participants are employed in their chosen fields of research and development 
at Lockheed Missile Systems while concurrently pursuing graduate study. 

Eligible students must be U.S. citizens holding M.S. or B.S. degrees 
in fields of Engineering, Mathematics and Science applicable to missile 
systems research and development. 

Students are invited to contact their Placement Officer for additional information 
or write : 



COLLEGE RELATIONS DIRECTOR 

'EMS 

A DIVISION OF LOCKHEED AIBCRAFT CORPORATION 
PALO ALTO • SUNNYVALE • VAN NUYS • CALIFORNIA 



J2^>^>^^MISSII.E SYSTEM 





This special peribCupe giveb Pidtt & Whitney Aircraft engineer a close-up view of combustion process actually taking place within the after- 
burner of an advanced jet engine on test. What the engineer observes is simultaneously recorded by a high-speed motion picture camera. 



at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft 
in tlie field of Combustion 



Historically, the process of combus- 
tion has excited man's insatiable 
hunger for knowledge. Since his 
most primitive attempts to make 
use of this phenomenon, he has 
found tremendous fascination in its 
potentials. 

Perhaps at no time in history has 
that fascination been greater than 
it is today with respect to the use 
of combustion principles in the 
modern aircraft engine. 

At Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, 
theorems of many sciences are being 
applied to the design and develop- 
ment of high heat release rate de- 
\ices. In spite of the apparent sim- 
plicity of a combustion system, the 



bringing together of fuel and air in 
proper proportions, the ignition of 
the mixture, and the rapid mixing 
of burned and unburned gases in- 
volves a most complex series of 
interrelated events — events ocur- 
ring simultaneously in time and 
space. 

Although the combustion engi- 
neer draws on many fields of science 
( including thermodynamics, aero- 
dynamics, fluid mechanics, heat 
transfer, applied mechanics, metal- 
lurgy and chemistry), the design of 
combustion systems has not yet 
been reduced to really scientific 
principles. Therefore, the highly 
successful performance of engines 



like the J-57, J-75 and others stands 
as a tribute to the vision, imagina- 
tion and pioneering efforts of those 
at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft en- 
gaged in combustion work. 

While combustion assignments, 
themselves, involve a diversity of 
engineering talent, the field is only 
one of a broadly diversified engi- 
neering program at Pratt & Whitney 
Aircraft. That program — with other 
far-reaching activities in the fields 
of instrumentation, materials prob- 
lems, mechanical design and aero- 
dynamics — spells out a gratifying 
future for many of today's engi- 
neering students. 




Mounting an afterburner in a special liigh-altitude test 
chamber in P&WA's Willgoos Turbine Laboratory permits 
study of a variety of combustion problems whicti 
may be encountered during later development stages. 



Microflash photo illustrates one continuing 
problem: design and development of fuel 
injection systems wtiicti properly atomize 
and distribute under all flight conditions. 



Pratt & Whitney Aircraft engineer manipulates probe in 
exit of two-dimensional research ditfuser. Diftuser 
design for advanced power plants is one of many 
air flow problems that exist in combustion work. 



Pratt & Whitney Aircraft operates a com- 
pletely self-contained engineering facility in 
East Hartford, Connecticut, and is now 
building and staffing a similar facility in 
Palm Beach County, Florida. It also oper- 
ates the Air Force's Connecticut Aircraft 
Nuclear Engine Laboratory at Middletov.n, 
Connecticut, for the Uniteel States Air Force 
and the Atomic Energy Commission. For 
further information about engineering ca- 
reers at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, write to 
Mr. F. W. Powers, Engineering Department. 




World's foremost designer and builder of aircraft engines 

PRATT & WHITNEY AIRCRAFT 

Division of United Aircraft Corporation 

EAST HARTFORD 8, CONNECTICUT 



THE NAME BACKED BY 



104 YEARS 

OF 

ENGINEERING 
75 YEARS 

OF 

REFRIGERATION 
50 YEARS 

OF 

AIR CONDITIONING 



WRITE FOR INFORMATION ON AIR CONDITIONING- 
REFRIGERATION ENGINEER TRAINING COURSE 




FRICK REFRIGERATING 

MACHINES BUILT IN OVER 

80 TYPES and SIZES 




START TODAY TO 
PLAN TOMORROW 

By knowing about some of the projects underway at the 
Babcock & Wilcox Company, an engineer may see his 
personal avenues of growth and advancement. For today 
B&W stands poised at a new era of expansion and 
development. 

Here's an indication of what's going on at B&W, with 
the consequent opportunities that are opening up for 
engineers. The Boiler Division is building the world's 
largest steam generator. The Tubular Products Division 
recently introduced extruded seamless titanium tubing, 
one result of its metallurgical research. The Refractories 
Division developed the first refractory concrete that will 
withstand temperatures up to 3200 F. The Atomic Energy 
Division is under contract by the AEC to design and 
build the propulsion unit of the world's first nuclear- 
po\^ered cargo vessel. 

These are but a few of the projeas — not in the plan- 
ning stage, but in the actual design and manufacturing 
phases — upon which B&W engineers are now engaged. 
The continuing, integrated growth of the company offers 
engineers an assured future of leadership. 
How is the company doing right now.' Let's look at one 
line from the Annual Stockholders' Report. 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF INCOME 



(Statistics Section) 

(in thousands of dollars) 




HIGGINS 
SUPER BLACK 

for artwork with 
brush and pen 




HIGGINS 

ACETATE BLACK 

for plastic filrn and 
water-repellent 
drafting surfaces 



TWO SUPERFINE WATERPROOF BLACK INKS 
OF TRUE HIGGINS QUALITY. Your urgent demands 
led us to the creation of ttiesfi new drawing inks. 
We are pleased to announce that there 
is an ink of Higgins quality for every graphic need. 

At art viaterial dealers everywhere 

The international standard .vtMcc 

INK CO., INC., BROOKLYN, N, Y. 



jiiGGins 




B&W cnj;inci.rs disiuss de\e!opmenls 
in the Universal Pressure Boiler. 



Ask your placement officer for a copy of "Opportunities 
with Babcock & Wilcox" when you arrange your inter- 
view with B&W representatives on your campus. Or 
write. The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Student Train- 
ing Department, 16 1 East 42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



1954 

$129,464 



1955 
$213,456 



1956— UNFILLED ORDERS 
(backlog) 
$427,288 




50 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Yes, ^e want engineers. 




... we don't want just any engineer. We want engineers with ideas, engineers 
with drive, engineers who can stick with a job and work with other people to 
get it done. Scientists, business and liberal arts graduates, too. 

Union Carbide has a marvelous potential. It's a top producer of man\- 
things, from petrochemicals to titanium, from molecular sieves to flashlight 
batteries. Its sales have soared from a half a billion in '47 to one and a third 
billion in '56. 

And we plan to keep on growing. That's where you come in. 

We need creative people. We spend a good portion of sales profit on research, 
but it takes creative people to make research effective. 

We need people with initiative. They are the key to opening up new markets 
and to get production rolling. We introduce new products at the rate of two a 
month, and the rate is accelerating. 

Representatives of Divisions of Union Carbide Corporation, listed below, will 
be interviewing on many campuses. Check your placement director, or write to 
the Division representative. For general information, write to V. O. Davis, 
30 East 42nd Street, New York 17, New York. 



BAKELITE COMPANY Plastics, including 
polyethylene, epoxy, fluorothene, vinyl, phenolic, 
and polystyrene. J. C. Older, River Road, Bound 
Brook, N. J. 



SILICONES DIVISION Silicones for elec- 
trical insulation, release agents, water repellents, 
etc.; silicone rubber. P. I. Emch, 30 East 42nd 
Street, New York 17. N. Y. 



GENERAL OFFICES — NEW YORK 

Accounting, Electronic Data Processing, Operations 
Research, Industrial Engineering, Purchasing. E. R. 
Brown, 30 East 42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



ELECTRO METALLURGICAL COMPANY 

Over 100 ferro-alloys and alloying metals; titanium, 
calcium carbide, acetylene. C. R. Keeney, 137— 
47th St., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 



HAYNES STEILITE COMPANY Special 

alloys to resist heat, abrasion, and corrosion; cast 
and wrought. L E. Denny, 725 South Lindsay Street, 
Kokomo, Ind. 



IINDE COMPANY Industrial gases, metal- 
working and treating equipment, synthetic gems, 
molecular sieve adsorbents. P. I. Emch, 30 East 
42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



UNION CARBIDE CHEMICALS COMPANY 

Synthetic organic chemicals, resins, and fibers 
from natural gas, petroleum, and coal. W. C. 
Heidenreich, 295 Madison Ave., New York 17, N. Y. 



UNION CARBIDE INTERNATIONAL COM- 
PANY Markets Union Carbide products and 
operates plants overseas. C. C. Scharf, 30 East 42nd 
Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



UNION CARBIDE NUCLEAR COMPANY 

Operates Atomic Energy Commission facilities at 
Oak Ridge, Tenn., and Paducah, Ky. W. V. Hamilton, 
P. 0. Box "P", Oak Ridge, Tenn. 




NATIONAL CARBON COMPANY Indus- 
trial carbon and graphite products. PRESTor^E 
anti freeze, Eveready flashlights and batteries. 
S. W. Orne, P. 0. Box 6087, Cleveland, Ohio. 



VISKING COMPANY A pioneer m packaging 
—producer of synthetic food casings and poly- 
ethylene film. Dr. A. L. Strand, 6733 West 65th 
Street, Chicago, III. 



OCTOBER, 1957 



51 



SLIDE RULES . . . 



What's the 



DIFFERENCE? 



by Don Georgi, E.E. '59 




52 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Greetings, fellow engineer! 

I suppose by now you either have :i 
slide rule or are considering buying one. 
If you are considering a rule for the 
first time, or think you need a bigger 
one, just stop for a moment to see if 
you can answer some questions to your 
own satisfaction. 

Do YOU need a slide rule? Why? 
When? If so, what kind? 

(lot all the answers? If not, don'r 
worry, because it won't affect your grade 
point average — yet! 

Do You Need a Rule? 

The answer cannot be a clear cut 
yes or no for every student. By this 1 
mean that a slide rule is not a free 
pass through this university or any other. 
Then, too, you might be in some cur- 
riculum which doesn't have need of one. 
Dr. Hohn of our mathematics depart- 
ment, for instance, states that a student 
majoring in mathematics really would 
have no need for a rule. ( As a side- 
light he added that these students should 
have a knowledge of slide rule manipu- 
lations, since the rule is a tool of mathe- 
matics). Even engineering students tak- 
ing courses in the math department will 
tell you that it is a rare moment that 
a slide rule is needed in one of these 
courses. 

Or consider the case of one chemis- 
try student of two years ago who went 
through his freshman year without a 
slide rule, and yet managed to get a 
perfect 5.0 average. 

Yes, it can be done, but most engi- 
neering students, even the smart ones, 
find that a slide rule is necessary. 

Why? 

Will a slide rule help any student's 
grade point average? Will it do your 
work or think for you? 

A story has gone around the north 
campus about one eager engineering stu- 
dent who, after hearing a salesman say, 
"This rule will do half your work," re- 
plied, "Fine, I'll take two of them! " 

Fortunately engineers have no com- 
petition from their belo\ed slide rules. 
Just remember, you get no more out of a 
slide rule than you put in. The square 
root of 84 is still 9.17. If V21 X 4 is 
not the right solution to your problem, 
9.17 won't do either. 

If a slide rule doesn't think for you, 
\'ou might then wonder where its value 
lies. Really, the little fellow violates 
the saying that you can't buy time ; for 
tunc saving is its real purpose. Any- 
thing ordinarily done on a slide rule 
can with a pencil, paper, tables, and 
sufficient time be done the long way. 
But you will burn less midnight oil, 
have more time constructing coherent 
lab reports if the slipstick does your 
computations. For example, two years 
ago the two Physics 106 (second se- 
mester freshman course) hour exams had 




MOST SLIDE rule manufacturers provide excellent manuals v^ith their 
rules. To supplement these, however, College Outline also covers slide rules. 



26 and 20 separate multiplication, divi- 
sion, or trig operations, respectively. In 
each exam, slide rules saved at least ten 
minutes which could be used on some 
difficult problem or as time to check 
answers. 

When? 

You needn't work \ourself into a sweat 
if you haven't got a rule for tomorrow's 
classes. In fact just about any freshman 
can make it through the first semester 
without one. But you should think very 
seriously about a rule before you sign 
up for Physics 106. (You will find that 
it is recommended for the course.) After 
that, a slide rule will become your con- 
stant companion. In fact you'll prob- 
ably find that you take it out more than 
you do girls. (Probably). 

What Kind? 

A quick walk through campus town 
will reveal a multitude of advertise- 
ments in book store windows, telling 
you just wh\- some rule is especially de- 
signed for you. But each advertiser says 



that his rule is best for you. Who is 
right? Further investigation will show 
that there is no acknowledged "Rolls- 
Royce " of the slide rule industry. A 
Post owner will fruitlessly try to tell a 
market, this will be a good time to 
mahogany while at the same time an 
onlooking Pickett engineer snickers soft- 
ly', knowing in his heart that metal is 
the only material for slide rule con- 
struction ( his own imswaying convic- 
tion). 

Since there is such a variet\ in the 
market, this will be a good time to 
practice engineering procedure of set- 
ting your requirements, getting all the 
facts, and arriving at the solution which 
will best fit >oiir needs. Before consid- 
ering a brand name, however, it would 
be a good iilea to sec just what scales 
you will need on a rule. 

All the major slide rule manfactur- 
ers (Keuffel & Esser, Pickett & Eckel, 
Post, and Dietzgen) make rules with a 
variety of scales. An elementary rule 
consists of enough scales to multiply, 
square, cube, and work trig functions. 



1 OCTOBER, 1957 



53 



I-aiiii-r rules iiulutlc l<)f;aiithm of log- 
arithm (loji lofi) and hypi-rbolic scales. 
Due to the cost of a rule, most engineer- 
ing students believe that is best to get 
one large rule right away, rather than 
work up from a smaller one. If a good 
slide rule is given a reasonable amount 
of care, there is no reason why it should 
not last the duration of your engineer- 
ing career. You may not be sure tii.it 
engineering is for you, though, and de- 
cide to get a little one to carry \iiu 
through two or three semesters. In that 
case you would probably consider the 
ten inch Mannheim tvp-e rule which has 
the A, H, CI, C. D; K, S, T. an.i I, 
scales. Both K (Sc K an.l Post sell a 
Mannheim for $2.^0. 

If, on the other hand, \nu are de- 
termined to make \()ur lust rule sour 



Find that e'-'' is .U.S. for example 
is a li\e-second calculation. To get the 
complete picture of what these rules will 
do, get an instruction book from one of 
the fellows in your house or look at a 
slide rule book in the library. 

Vector Rules 

The vector slide rule is considered to 
be the ultimate in slide rules. Vector 
rules will again do all the things a log 
log nde will do and have three scales 
left o\er to be used for hyperbolic func- 
tions. 'I'his rule is not as popular as 
the log log variety, though, because en- 
gineers ordinarily don't find enough use 
for these hyperbolic scales. 

They are usually used by the people 
in the electrical engineering power op- 
tion and engineering physics majors 




THE BIG and little of slide rules. Next to the standard ten inch rule is the 
increasingly-popular six inch size. 



last, you will then look to a rule with 
log log, and pos-sibly vector, scales. 

A poll of what kind of rule student 
or professional engineers use would 
show that most rules in use toda\- are 
of the log log variety. This type of rule 
will be sufficient in just about all the 
major fields (aero, civil, electrical, in- 
dustrial, mechanical, and metallurgi- 
cal). The reason for this sufficieiicy is 
that a log log rule will do any compu- 
tations of the lesser rules plus the tedi- 
ous and time-consuming exponential cal- 
culations. 



where hyperbolic functions occur fre- 
quently in sine wave combinations and 
field problems. 

Having briefly gone over the differ- 
ences in the most widely used engineer- 
ing slide rules, we will next consider 
what the individual slide rule manufac- 
turers have to offer in the line of ten- 
inch log log and vector rules. 

Keuffel & Esser 

Keuffel & Esser Co. is the pioneer 
of qvialit\' slide rules in the United 
States. B\- ISO], they were making slide 



lules which had scales on the liiint and 
hack. Through the >'ears K & K has 
modified their rules so that engineers 
could ha\e the most complete and yet 
simple calculating tool available. The 
same quality workmanship in their draft- 
ing equipment is found in K & E slide 
rules. .Mahogany is the basic material 
used in K & K rules becaii.se of its dur- 
ability and stability. To keep this slide 
rule operating freely under the most 
humid conditions, it has been suggested 
that a little talcum powder be applied 
to the mating surfaces. Not only would 
you base an easy sliding rule, but \ou 
would also be the sweetest smelling en- 
gineer in the lab. (Especially recom- 
mended for chem engineers!) 

The white facings covering the ma- 
hogany are engraved line by line with 
a machine. This "engine dividing" en- 
sures precision reading and long life. 
(Author's note: I have seen a 25 year- 
old K & E rule which, although yel- 
lowed with age, was just as accurate as 
the day it was made. ) 

K & E's "log log duplex decitrig" is 
the most popular rule they make. Its 
scales will do simple and complex mul- 
tiplication, squares, square roots, cubes, 
cube roots, and proportions; work trig 
functions (in degrees and decimals of a 
degree) ; and do calculations involving 
powers and roots of numbers ranging 
from 0.00005 to 22,000. This rule in 
a chamois-lined leather carrying case is 
$25.50. A rule which is similar to this 
one, but having the trig scales repre- 
sented in degrees and minutes, is avail- 
able at the same price. Most slide rule 
operators prefer the decimals of a de- 
gree, however, rather than minutes. 

The same scale arrangements can also 
be purchased on Ivorite, a trade name 
for a plastic material. This rule sells 
for $15.00. "Log Log Duplex Vector" 
is a complicated-sounding name given to 
K & E's rule designed to overcome com- 
plexities. This rule has all the scales 
of a "Duplex Decitrig" except the L 
(log) and K (cube) scales. Removal of 
the L and K scales does not seriously 
hamper the versatility of this rule, as 
logs and cubes or cube roots can be 
found with the aid of the LL scales. 

Through years of experience, K &: L 
has attempted to produce rules which 
are as easy to read as possible. The best 
way to express their method is consis- 
tfiuy: consistency of scale relationships, 
reading direction, and color relation- 
ships. All the scales relate to the C and 
D scales, black numbers increase to the 
right, red numbers increase to the left, 
direct functions read on like colors, and 
co-functions read on opposite colors. 

Pickett & Eckel Rules 

The "new look" this year in the 
slide rule industry has been introduced 
by the Pickett Company. In the past 
the\- have built a fine reputation for 



54 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



producing good rules and have now in- 
troduced a few new developments for 
I4SS which are designed to make Pick- 
ett rules more convenient and accurate. 
Among the most easily noticed changes 
are the redesigned end plates and cursor 
bars. Other developments are C, D and 
CI scales on both sides, log log recipro- 
cal scales on one side, and extended log 
log range. 

The basic material used in these rules 
is lightweight metal. These rules can 
be purchased with the regular black and 
white face or with black graduations 
on a \ellow face. Pickett Co. explains 
the use of black and yellow as giving 
glare reduction and optimum contrast. 
The metal alloy construction insiues 
freedom from warping and doubles as 
a neat defensive weapon in times of 
emergency. Pickett's graduations are ad- 
vertised to be permanentlv positioned to 
±0.000275 inches. 

In the log log variety, Pickett's 
"Model 800" has the same versatility 
as the "Log Log Duplex Decitrig," is 
scale-consistant to the D scale but is 
not color-coded. This rule in a saddle 
leather case sells for $18. 

Pickett's vector rule, Model N4 ES, 
might be considered the "Goliath" ol 
the slide rule world. Thirty-two scale 
arrangements line its faces: 25 ten-inch 
scales, one 30-inch scale, two 20-inch 
scales, and 80 inch LL scales. The hy- 
perbolic Sh and Th scales cover the 
same range as K ^' E's, but the LL 
scales are 20 inches longer and range 
from 10-'" to 10'". They retain the 
L scale, and have a K scale three times 
as long as the "Model 800." As on the 
other rules, D scale consistency is main- 
tained. In short, this rule is like a mod- 
est fish . . . enough scales to cover 
everything. 

Post Co. 

Engine divided graduations on a 
white celluloid face give the Post rules 
a striking similarity to K ik E's. But 
under the face you'll find laminated 
bamboo rather than mahogany. Post 
people believe that the "natural sealed- 
in silica particles provide self lubrica- 
tion." The bamboo is supposed to oper- 
ate freely under any climatic conditions. 
(Maybe this is the thing you should 
take with you when you test your ball 
point pen that writes underwater). 

In the field of log log rules, the Po^t 
Co. has its "Vcrsalog," which sells foi' 
$26.25 with a leather case. 

It is easy to see that the "Versalog" 
has caught on ver\' well on our campu> 
when you notice all the reddish-brown 
cases with the Post-laheled covers. 

To gain their popularity. Post rules 
have offered a 20-inch square scale and 
LL scales which are 80 inches long 
(range 0.00005 to 22,000). For con- 
venience, all the LL scales are located 




COMPLETE WITH cases, here are three different varieties. Without supple- 
mental information many students are confused as to which one is better 
for them. 



on one side, the consistant color coding 
keeps related scales together, and their 
end zone designations show quite clear- 
ly scale ranges. Post rules, like K & L 
and Pickett, all have accompanying in- 
struction books which qinte clearly ex- 
plain and give examples of the slide rule 
operation. 

Extended Range Scales 

\ (ju ma\ na\e noticed by now that 
the three above-mentioned manufactur- 
ers hold different ideas about extended 
range scales. K & E feel that a ten- 
inch A and K scale and 60-inch LL 
scales are sufficient. Post also thinks that 
ten inches are enough for the K scale 
but make their square scale 20 inches 
long. ( Notice that the Post LL scales 
cover the same range, but are longer). 



Pickett uses the 2(l-inch square scales on 
their Model 4 ES but extends their cube 
scale to 30 inches. For even greater va- 
riety, the LL scales are just as long as 
Post's but have a wider range. It must 
be left up to you to decide which will 
be best for you. 

Decide! 

All of the rules mentioned have well- 
founded reputations among engineers. 
Remember that the rule you choose will 
probably be with you throughout \our 
career. Talk to your classmates or fel- 
lows in your house about the rules. If 
necessary, see some professors about 
which rule is recommended in your 
field of engineering. And, lastly, see a 
reliable dealer for the slide rule of your 
choice. 




PICKETT AND Eckel have come out with a new line. The top is the older 
model while the new one at the bottom can be readily identified by the 
ends. 



OCTOBER, 1957 



55 




History of 
Slide Rules . . . 



Whai 



Tlic liistoi\ lit the slide rule begins 
in the \eai- 1614 when John Napier, a 
Scottish mathematician, theologian, and 
inventor, published a work in Latin en- 
titled (J/inoriis Descriptio. In this work, 
he detailed his invention of what he 
called "artificial numbers." The princi- 
ple on which these were based is the 
correspondence of an arithmetical and 
geometrical progression of numbers. 

To these artificial numbers, Napier 
published a work called Riihdnldi/ia — a 
method of multiplying and dividing with 
numerating rods, which came to be 
known as "Napier's Bones." The meth- 
od was based on the iLse of the log- 
arithms. 

Napier, in his (janoiiis. gave no ex- 
planation of his basis for calculating 
his logarithms ; but the importance of 
his invention was recognized by an Kng- 

56 



lish mathematician, Henry Hriggs, who 
WTot" to Napier: 

"W\ Lord, I have undertaken this 
long journey purposely to see yom- per- 
son, and to know by what engine of 
wit and ingenuity you came first to 
think of this most excellent help in 
astronomy, viz. the logarithms; but, my 
Lord, being b>' you so found out, 1 won- 
der nobody found it out before, when 
now known, it is so eas\. 

Hriggs proposed to Napier an altera- 
tion of the latter's hyperbolic or nat- 
lual logarithms to a system in which 
unity is assumed as the logarithm of the 
ratio of lU to 1 (in other words, deci- 
mal logarithms). Napier agreed to this 
change; and in 1617, Briggs published 
the revised logarithms. 

The revised logarithms are called 
Briggsian logarithms, and are known as 
logarithms to the base 10. 



Napier's are called Napierian loga- 
rithms, and known as logarithms to the 
base e. They are usually used in higher 
mathematical analysis. 

Three years later, in 1620, Kdmund 
(lunter, an English mathematician, as- 
tronomer, and inventor (famous for 
Gunter's Chain, Gunter's Quadrant, 
and Gunter's Scale) evolved (ninter's 
line. This was a logarithmic line, the 
embryonic beginning of the modern 
slide rule. It was two teet long, and 
multiplication and division were effected 
on it by manipulation of dividers. 

The following year, a William 
Ooughtred eliminated the dividers sim- 
ply by sliding Gunter's .scales against 
each other — and thus the modern slide 
rule was born. 

Other developments followed ; in 
1630, Delamain's circular slide rules, 
both flat and cylindrical ; and in 1654, 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



^A^ent Before 



. . . excerpts from a talk by 
Mr. Thomas of K & E Company 



Bissaker's slide rule, the first in which 
the sliding scale moved between two 
fixed elements in the modern manner. 

Sir Isaac Newton made his contribu- 
tion in 1675 when he developed a meth- 
od for solving cubic equations by using 
three parallel logarithmic scales. 

In 1778, the indicator, which facili- 
tates settings and readings, was intro- 
duced; but did not come into universal 
use until around 1850. 

A big stride forward was made in 
1815 when Dr. Peter Roget of the 
University of London in\ented the "Log 
Log" scale ; however, this scale did not 
come into general acceptance until about 
30 years ago. Today, however, the Log 
Log Scales are regarded as among the 
most valuable on the modern slide rule. 

In 1850, Lt. Mannheim of the 
French .Army developed the slide rule 



which still bears his name, which be- 
came the commonest type of slide rule, 
and on which all other modern general- 
purpose slide rules are based. 

(jeorge Fuller of Belfast, Ireland, in- 
vented in 1878 a cylindrical slide rule 
with extra long logarithmic scales; and 
in 1881, Edwin Thacher of New York 
invented another calculator of cylindi- 
cal type. 

At about this period, the .'\meric;ri 
slide rule industr\' began to take an im- 
portant place in the slide rule field. 
I'ntil K &: E began the manufacture 
of Mannheim-type rules in this country, 
slide rules had been imported from Eu- 
rope. 

In 1891, an entirely new idea in slide 
rule construction was introduced. This 
construction made it possible to have 
scales on the front and back surfaces of 
the slide rules and iinolved the use of 



the double indicator referring to all 
scales simultaneously. 

The basic scales, known as the C 
scale and the D scale, were augmented 
around 1900 by the folded scales CF 
and DF and the inverted-folded scale 
CIF. These scales reduced the amount 
of manipulation and slide resetting need- 
ed for extended multiplication and divi- 
sion operations, and proved to be valu- 
able time-savers. 

These scales were folded originally 
at v'ld but were later improved by 
folding them at pi. This made it possible 
for pi to be vised as a factor without the 
necessit\' of making separate settings for 
this \alue. 

In 1924, the LLC) scales were intro- 
duced which, referring to scales A or B, 
extended the range of LL scales to 
values of less than one. Later, another 
development was the dividing of the 
trigometric scales into degrees and deci- 
mals of degrees. This made possible the 
elimination of all non-decimal subdivi- 
sions from the slide rule. 

In 1939, another improxement was 
maile in scales and scale arrangement 
whereby all the trigonometric scales 
were placed on the slide and made to 
refer to the C and D scales. This ar- 
rangement saves a considerable amount 
of time in problems which involve con- 
tinuous calculation and progressive man- 
ipulation, since it is not necessary to 
take any reading other than the final 
answer. 

A further far-reaching improvement 
was made in 1947 when the Log Log 
scales were referred to the C and D 
scales for values of less than one, which 
formerly were referred to the A and B 
scales. At the same time, they were 
correlated with all the other scales of 
the slide rule ( now known as the Log 
Log Duplex Decitrig) and mated to 
the Log Log scales for values of more 
than one. This development gave maxi- 
mum efficiency to the modern slide rule. 

During all these years, of course, 
there were other slide ride developments. 
Most of these, however, took the form 
of scales or rules for special purposes. 
Vnv example: there have been slide 
rules dexised especially for such fields 
as sur\e\ing, artillery fire control, 
chemistr\', air-conditioning, radio, hy- 
draulics, and so on. 

The slide rule, as we have seen, is 
■111 instrument for mechanically effect- 
ing calculations by the use or aid of 
loirarithms. Thus, it is grounded in 
Mathematics; and just as Mathematics 
is a tool of Engineering, so the slide 
rule is a tool of Mathematics. 

Now the fact is that virtually any 
calculation which can be put in the 
form of addition and or subtraction of 
the functions of the variables can be 
solved on a regular or special slide rule, 
and man\' calculations can be so reduced 



OCTOBER, 1957 



57 



if they are put into lojiarithmic torm. 

Hy the use ot h)narithms, multiphca- 
tion ami division of numbers is facili- 
tated (especially in the case of large 
numbers) by becoming simply the addi- 
tion and subtraction of the logarithms 
of those numbers. Here is an example: 



log 3 = .4771 
4- log 5 = .6990 



1.1761 = log 15 
Similarly, logarithms facilitate raising 
numbers to powers (b\- multiplication) 
and extracting roots ( b\ (ii\ision). Hen- 
is an example : 

3- = 9 log3 = 0.4771 

x2 



= 0.9542 = log 9 
Tliar is what logarithms do for calcu- 
lations. In other words, again, log- 
arithms simplify calculations. 

The basic logarithmic scales of the 
slide rule are scales C and I). They are 
full-unit length scales, usually reading 
left to right, and are identical. The C 
scale is usually on the slide, and the 
D scale on the body. 

Allied with these scales are the CI 
and the DI scales. These are identical 
with C and D, except that they are 
inverted — that is, they read from right 
to left. 

The CF and DF scales are the same 
as the C and D scales except that they 
are folded. This means that they are 
cut at pi, 3.1416, with their indices 1 
and 1 abutting at an intermediate point 
along the rule. 

The CIF scale is the CF scale in- 
verted. 



The Inregoing are the scales used 
tor nndtiplication and division. The 
folded and the inverted scales are "con- 
venience" scales which give faster and 
more accurate results in lengthy multi- 
plication and division. 

The A and H scales are identical, A 
usuallv being on the body of the rule 
and ]i, on the slide. Kach consists of 
two logarithmic scales of halt-unit 
length in end-to-end relation. 

These scales are usuallv used to ob- 
tain squares and square mots. 

The K scale consists of three log- 
arithmic scales in end-to-end relation, 
each scale of one-third unit length. It 
is used to obtain cubes and cube roots. 

Scale L — the scale which is not di- 
vided logarithmically — is graduated to 
10 equal (li\isions and is used to ob- 
tain common logarithms. 

S is a sine scale, graduated in accord- 
ance with the logarithms of the trigo- 
nometric functions of angles; corres- 
pondingly, T is a tangent scale, gradu- 
ated in accordance with the logarithms 
ot the tangent values of angles. 

ST is a scale graduated for angles 
from approximately .6° to 5.7°, which 
is used for sines and tangents since the 
sine and tangent values of these small 
angles are practically the same. 

Six verv important scales are the LLl, 
LL2, and LL3; and the LLOl, LL02, 
and LL03. All of these are known as 
Log Log scales, and they greatly fa- 
cilitate the otherwise difficult problem 
of finding the value of a power of a 
number, or a root thereof (and finding 
the root, incidentally, is such a labori- 
ous and complicated process that few 
persons, even among mathematicians, 
will attempt it without a slide rule or 
.1 table of powers an<l roots). 




I he LL scales co\er a range of num- 
bers greater than i from 1.01 to 22,000. 

The LLO scales cover a range of 
numbers less than 1 from 0.99 to 
11.01)005. 

The LL and the LL(I scales are 
mated scales, the mates being: LLl and 
LLOl, LL2 and LL()2, LL3 and LL()3. 

These mated pairs have this relation- 
ship: Opposite numbers on mated scales 
.lie reciprocals of each other. For ex- 
ample: 

Reciprocal of 2 is 1 ilivided bv 
2 ^ ■ '.. 

To find reiiprueal of 2, using slide 
rule: 

1 ) Set hairline over 2 on LL2 scale. 

2) Under hairline on LL()2 scale 
read 0.500 = ]/,. 

Reciprocals can also be found by 
means of the CI scale, but they can be 
found to much closer \alues on the LL 
scales. 

The six Log Log scales are in close 
association with the constant e which is 
the base of natural logarithms (as op- 
posed to common logarithms). This con- 
stant is used again and again in the 
mathematics of engineering; its value is 
approximately 2.718, and it falls at the 
right in<lex of the LL2 scale and the 
left index of the LL3. 

When the Log Log scales are used 
in connection with the D .scale, powers 
of (' can be found, since the Log Log 
scales are so constructed that when the 
hairline is .set to a number on D, the 
hairline on a Log Log scale yields the 
\alue of (■ to the power of that number. 

Therein lies the basic theory of the 
Log Log scales; and similarly, these 
scales provide the means of finding pow- 
ers of an\' number. These scales also 
make possible the finding of logarithms 
to the base c and likewise logarithms to 
an\ base. 

It is to be noted that while the range 
of the Log Log scales is from 0.00005 
to 22,000, methods exist for dealing 
with numbers below or above this range. 
The reasons wliy engineers make such 
e\tensi\e use of the slide rule have 
been defined as follows : 

1 ) Its small size makes it handy to 
carry around. 

2) The price of a good slide rule is 
not so high that one can not afford it. 

3 ) The rapidity and degree of ac- 
curacy of slide rule calculation make 
the slide rule an ideal calculating in- 
strument for the engineer. 

Since the whole idea of using the 
slide rule is to obtain rapidly the re- 
sults of mathematical calculations which 
bv ordinar\' rules of computation would 
require excessive time and effort, it is 
important to use a correct, that is to 
say, the most suitable type of slide rule. 

Classified by purpose are two types 
of slide rule: 1) the General Purpose 
Slide Rule; 2) the Special Purpose Slide 



58 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Rule. For your present needs and for 
your foreseeable professional needs, the 
General Purpose Rule is the type to 
use. 

Classified by shape or form, there an- 
three slide rule types: 1) Straight; 2) 
Circular; 3) Cylindrical. The cylindri- 
cal is so little u.sed today that it can 
be classified as a Special Purpose Rule. 
The straight is the type used and pre- 
ferred by most persons. 

The straight (General Purpose Slide 
Rule can be used ideally for a wide field 
of mathematical operations: multiplica- 
tion, division, involution (i.e., raising 
to powers, eg. squaring) and evolution 
(i.e., extraction roots, e.g.V-^). find- 
ing logarithms of numbers, and sines, 
cosines, tangents, etc. of angles. 

In using the slide rule, what kind 
of accuracy is to be demanded and ex- 
pected ? That depends on two things : the 
nature of the calcidation and the length 
of the slide rule. 

With respect to the slide rule, it is 
to be noted that a 5" slide rule will 
give results to 2 significant figures; a 
10" slide rule to 3 significant figures; 
and a 20" slide rule to 4. 

With respect to the calculation, it is 
to be noted that most engineering cal- 
culations do not often contain data of 
an\ greater accuracy than that — in other 
words, the data with which you will 
be working are themselves not exact 
enough to require any further degree 
of accuracy in the slide rule. 

Occasionally, in \our future work, 
you may encounter problems where 
greater accuracy will be necessary — but 
even there, you will use your slide rule 
to check results obtained by other meth- 
ods of calculation. 

As we traced the historical develop- 
ment of the slide rule and made refer- 
ence to the de\ising of new scales and 
new scale arrangements, you noticed, 
very probably, the effect and the aim 
of these changes: a constant process of 
simplifying, standardizing, and achiev- 
ing consistency. 

One example of simplifying is the 
elimination of the enumerating rods, the 
"Napier's Hones" which we mentioned 
earlier. 

The example of standardizing is 
found in the fact that most slide rules 
today as classified as 5" size, 10" size, 
and 20" size. The 5" is a vest-pocket 
version; the 10" is the standard every- 
day model, which is the most used ; and 
the 20" is a desk model. Speaking 
parenthetically and paradoxically, a 10" 
slide rule, for example, is more than 10" 
long; it is the D scale and its allied 
scales to which the dimension refers. 
But, still speaking paradoxically, the 
scale is not 10" — its real length is 25 
cms., which is almost 10". In other 
words, in this coimtry, we seem to pre- 




fer to call something the 10" it almost 
is rather than the 25 cms. it acttitdly is. 
(There, I suppose, is the reason for the 
paradox that our legal unit of length 
in this country is the meter while the 
actual unit of length which we use is 
the yard ) . 

The matter of co:isistency, so long 
pursued over the years, has been well 
defined as the Principle of Consistency. 
Slide rule inventors, designers, and 
manufacturers have aimed at this prin- 
ciple for years, but it is only relatively 
recently that it was fidly attained. It 
may be defined as comprising the fol- 
lowing: 

1) Consistent scale relationships. 

2) Consistent indication of reading 
direction. 

3) Consistent color relationships. 



And when we ha\e said all that, we 
have said just about all that is necessary 
to be said about the underlying principle, 
the background, of the modern engi- 
neers' slide rule. In so doing, we have 
traced the origin and development of 
the engineers' slide rule as we know it 
today ; and at the same time, we have 
been able to observe how much we owe 
to those of long ago who first perceived 
and de\eloped the \alue and the im- 
portance of the idea of the slide rule. 

It is the same with all things, techni- 
cal and non-technical, scientific and non- 
scieiitific: a knowledge of the past fa- 
cilitates an understanding of the pres- 
ent. 

(Photos by Dave Moore, Technograph 
photographer). 



OCTOBER, 1957 



59 



MARS outstanding design SERIES 




3 stages to space 

The designs tliat will make news tomorrow are still 
in the "bright idea" stage today — or perhaps projects 
under dc\clopmcnt like this three-stage, two-man space 
ship. Drawn by Fred L. Wolff for Martin Caidin's 
"Worlds in Space," the rocket craft would start out as 
shown in the reverse drawing at left, shed its propulsion 
boosters in two stages as fuel is exhausted, and end up 
as the trnii plane-like ship at right. Ship is planned to 
orbit a hundred miles above earth, return safely after 
one to two days. 

No one knows what ideas will flower into reality. 
But it will be important in the future, as it is now, to 
use the best of tools when pencil and paper translate a 
dream into a project. And then, as now. there will be 
no finer tool tlian Mars — sketch to working drawing. 

Mars has long been the standard of professionals. 
To the famous line of Mars-Technico push-button 
holders and leads, Mars-Lumograph pencils, and 
Tradition-Aquarcll painting pencils, ha\e recently been 
added these new products: the Mars Pockct-Technico 
for field use; the efficient Mars lead sharpener and 
"Draftsman's" Pencil Sharpener with the adjustable 
point-length feature; and — last but not least — the 
Mars-Lumoehrom, the new colored drafting pencil 
which offers revolutionary drafting ad\antagcs. The 
fact that it blueprints perfectly is just one of its many 
important features. 



The 2886 Mars-lumograph drawing pencil, 19 
degrees, EXEXB to 9H. The 1001 Mars-Technico 
push-bullon lead holder. 1904 Mars-lumograph 
imported leads, 18 degrees, EXB to 9H. Mars- 
lumochrom colored drolling pencil. 24 colors. 



J.S 



TAEDTLERJNC 

HACKENSACK, NEW JERSEY 

at all good engineering and drawing material suppliers 



60 



SKIMMI NC 



Magnetic Digital Tester 

Rcvc I .iif;iiu-('i inji aimounct's the lat- 
est ill its line of specialized pulse eijiiip- 
nu-iit. Model l()2() Programmed Cur- 
rent Pulse ( ienerator is a "packaged" 
sNsteni, pro\i(ling preei.sely eoiitmlled, 
fiill\- programmed current pulses f(n- the 
research (le\elopmeiit and production 
testing of digital systems and com- 
ponents. 

The 1020 is di.stinguished by its abil- 
it\ to generate stable, high-level current 
pulses from a high source impedance, 
making it especially effective for use in 
analyzing highly inductive magnetic ele- 
ments or for dri\ing complete magnetic 
C(ue logic systems. Incorporated in the 
instrument are an extremely flexible pro- 
gram generator; highly stabilized, heavy- 
duty power supplies; two negati\e and 
two positive output current drivers. Op- 
erating at 525 volts DC, two current 
lirivers deliver negative pulse currents 
to 3 amperes from .source impedence as 
high as 20,000 ohms, while two deliver 
positive pulse currents to 4.^ amperes 
from a voltage-type source. 

Programming is ba.sed on an eight 
step, periodically repeated pattern, 
with a maximum step repetition fre- 
quency of 200 kc. Pulse repetition fre- 
quencies of up to 400 kc. may be ob- 
tained through incorporation of both a 
primary and a controlled delay second- 
ary pulse during each step. Using the 
Rese Program I^elay system, the pro- 
gram may be automatically stopped at 
any one or two of its eight steps and 
made to repeat the scheduled pulse up 
to 2000 times. In addition, any one or 
two adjacent step pairs may be repeated 
up to 1000 times. 

Enabling the engineer to exerci.se full 
control o\cr the final current wave 
shape, primary or secondary pulse width 
is continuously adjustable from 0.5 
microseconds to 50 microseconds. Linear 
and exponential rise time is continuous- 
1\ variable from 0.08 microseconds to 2 
microseconds, while exponential fall 
time is continuously variable from 0.15 
microseconds to 2 microseconds. Output 
amplitude is highly stabilized, remain- 
ing constant o\er duty-factor extremes, 
and at average output current levels 
approaching half an ampere, positive or 
negative. 

Other features of Model 1020 in- 
clude synchronization with exteiiial 
equipment before any one or more dis- 
crete pulse events, ten turn current con- 
trols on all four amplifiers, forced, fil- 
tered air cooling and complete incorpor- 
ation of the system into a single, stand- 
ard relav rack. 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



New Atom-Smashers 



A new design for high-energy atom 
smashers and a new way to plan and 
pre-test them by using an electronic com- 
puter were revealed here at the L ni- 
versity. 

A model of the new design which was 
put into operation at the Midwest Uni- 
versities Research Association laborator\' 
in Madison, Wis., workeil perfectly at 
the first try. 

Precise design and mathematical pre- 
testing are given credit for this by Prof. 
Donald W. Kerst who supervised con- 
struction of the machine while on leave 
from the University of Illinois physics 
department to serve as technical director 
for MURA. 

"Use of an electronic computer pro- 
vides a revolutionary method for design- 
ing accelerators," Prof. Kerst said here 
todav. "This sa\es \ears of design and 
test time." 

Most of the mathematics for the new 
machine was done with the ILLIAC, 
the University of Illinois electronic digi- 
tal computer. A year ago when the 
MURA laboratory was established at 
Madison, an IBM 704 computer was 
installed. Prof. James N. Snyder of 
Illinois has been MURA computing 
division head. 

Parts for the model of new machine 
were built at Illinois and taken to the 
MURA laboratory at Madison for final 
assembly. The machine uses the "fixed 
field, alternating gradient" principal sug- 
gested by Prof. Keith Symon, Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin physicist with MURA 
and announced two years ago. 

Its new feature is the use of spiral 
magnets, an idea originated and devel- 
oped by Prof. Kerst. These reduce the 
size of the machine to one-third that 
of a "reversed - field - radial sector" 
FFACi principal electron accelerator 
such as MURA built Ijj years ago. 

The spiral magnets curve outwards 
from the center of the machine. The 
six magnets of the model are each 2 
feet long and increase in width from 
3 J/ to 7 inches between center and 
edge. The machine is 4 feet in diameter, 
weiiihs 1,000 pounds, and produces elec- 
trons with energies of 30,000 to 300,000 

\()ltS. 

The model, and its method of plan- 
ning by use of the electronic computer, 
pa\e the way for construction by 
MLR A of two 1 5-billion volt machines 
each ha\ing some 40 magnets each 100 
feet long. 

Prof. Gerald P. Kruger of Illinois, 
who served as MURA laboratorx di- 
rector until Sept. 1 and earlier as the 
association's president, explained toda\ 



that ML RA, an organization of 15 
Midwest universities, backed by the 
A EC, liopes to regain the lead in high- 
energy atomic research for America. 

Today the world's biggest atom- 
smasher is a 10-billion volt machine in 
Russia. Twenty-five billion volt ma- 
chines are being built at the Brookhaven, 
National Laboratory' on Long Island, 
and in Geneva, Switzerland. The Rus- 
sians are planning a 50-billion \o!t 
model. 

Prof. Kruger said that MURA plans 
two 1 5-billion volt machines, with high- 
energy atomic particles from one smash- 
ing into those shooting from the other. 
This arrangement would eliminate the 
energy-consuming recoil effects which 
result when high-energ>' particles bom- 
bard stationary ones. By eliminating re- 
coil this would give an effect equal to 
a single 500-billion volt machine. 

"With successful completion and op- 
eration of the spiral sector model, 
MLRA has demonstrated the feasabil- 
it\' of both basic F"FAG types and the 
organization has developed the neces- 
sary techniques for handling the most 
advanced accelerator problems," Prof. 
Kruger said. 

In rotation of responsibilities among 
ML'RA member institutions, both Prof. 
Kruger and Prof. Snyder returned Sept. 
1 to Illinois. Prof. Kerst was on the 
Illinois campus several days en route to 
San Diego, Calif., where he will head 
a (leneral Atomics $10-million project 
on control of thermonuclear energy for 
peaceful use. 

He explained that fantastically com- 
plex mathematics are involved in design- 
ing the curved magnets and the ma- 
chine to use them. The reason lies in 
the technical term "non-linear dy- 
namics." 

This mathematics was done b\' the 
electronic computer, which also served 
to pre-test the machine, checking every 
detail and exploring the effects even of 
imprefections and errors, such as a mag- 
net out of place. The test model is 
proving the predictions of the computer. 
Universities which are members of 
MURA are Illinois, Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, Purdue, Indiana, Michigan, Michi- 
gan State, Iowa, Iowa State, Ohio State, 
Kansas, Northwestern, Chicago, Notre 
Dame, and Washington at St. Louis. 

For the past year MURA has been 
supported by the AEC as by member 
institutions. Previously, the Office of 
Naval Research and the National Sci- 
ence Foundation have contributed to op- 
erating funds, while most staff mem- 
bers were on leave with salaries from 
their home universities. 




CHALLENGING 

ASSIGNMENTS 

at FTL 

for America's Finest 
Graduate Engineers 



Radio Communication Systems 

Troveling Wave Tubes 

Electronic Countermeasures 

Air Navigation Systems 

Antennas • Missile Guidance 

Transistors and other Semiconductor Devices 

Computers • Telephone and 

Wire Transmission Systems 

These interesting assignments at 
Federal Telecommunication Laborato- 
ries offer unlimited opportunities to 
outstanding ability . . . under FTL's 
"sniall-company" project system and 
continuing program of expansion. 

FTL is a top spot to launch and con- 
tinue your career. . . congenial, inspir- 
ing, with finest facilities, dynamic lead- 
ership . . . only minutes from New York 
City's wealth of advantages. 

Get the full FTL-IT&.T story before 
you make the "big decision." 

Opportunities for relaxed living and career- 
building also at FTL's West Coast Labora- 
tories: San Fernando, Co/., 15151 Bledsoe 
St.— openings in Digital Computers, Inertia! 
Navigation Systems ond Infro Red Systems. 
Palo A/to, Co/., 937 Commercial St.— open- 
ings in Carrier Systems. 




Federal Telecommunication 
Laboratories 

A Division of International Telephone 

and Telegraph Corporation 

500 Washington Ave., Nutlcy, N. J, 

28 minutes via bus from N. Y. C. 




East Coast Laboratory and Microwave Tower 



OCTOBER, 1957 



61 




FOR^ "VOUR I>JFOFllVIA.TIOISr 



^Sl 



nez(; polyethylene pipe compound 
ammo7iia data book 



en 



General Che 
National Aniline 
Nitrogen 
Semet-Solvay 
Solvay Process 
International 



cal 



Polyethylene pipe 

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Chemical-resistant plastic pipe 
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fields. Pipe that is resistant to im- 
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These are some of the advances 
made possible by a uni(|ue new 
polyethylene pipe compound de- 
veloped by Allied Chemical. A 
very high molecular weight poly- 
ethylene, it is the successful cul- 
mination of 10 years of basic re- 
search at our Central Research 
Laboratories. It is now in com- 
mercial production. 

Development work is now un- 
derway to find other uses for the 
resin's e-xcejUional physical prop- 
erties, for the time when the 
production rate permits sale be- 
yond pipe manufacture. Likely 
candidates for new uses are 
tubings, films, sheets, tiles, mold- 
ings and fibers. 

This distinctly different poly- 



RESISTANCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CRACKING 

6,000 hours 




I I Igepal 
^1 Acetic Acid 



JZL 



Typicol 
conver^tlonol 
polyethylene 



High-cJens 
polyethyle 



Allied Chemical 
A-C Polyethylene 
Pipe Compound 



New plastic pipe made by Orangeburg M/g. Co. 



ethylene resin made at low pres- 
sure is the best thing yet for ex- 
truding a superior polyethylene 
pipe. Pipe being made from the 
new A-C polyethylene pipe com- 
pound has high bursting strength, 
resistance to impact, shows no 
stress cracking, has superior heat 
resistance and resistance to chemi- 
cals, organic solvent and hydro- 
carbon liquids. 

These properties are due to the 
I high molecular weight 
— on the order of 750,- 
000 — and structure of 
the polyethylene mole- 
cule, not present in any 
other known polyethyl- 
ene. These new qualities 
\\-ill greatly expand the 
acceptance of plastic 
pipe for water service 
and industrial applica- 
tions. A cominon fault 
of some polyethylene 
pipe has been environ- 
mental stress cracking; 
this is entirely over- 
come in pipe made of 
this new resin. 

Also, tests indicate 
the pipe will be suitable 
for carrying solvents 
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use denied to conven- 
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There is a growing need 



A-C is an Allied Chemical trademark 



62 



in this field for a flexible, tough 
pipe, resistant to the corrosive 
conditions which attack steel pipe. 

A-C polyethylene pi])e compound 
has an unusually high melt viscos- 
ity, reflecting its great molecular 
weight, and requires special tech- 
niques for manufacture of pipe. 

The new resin is a companion 
product to a line of low molecu- 
lar weight polyethylene products 
introduced on a commercial scale 
in 1954 by Allied. These are used 
in the injection molding of many 
household items, and as additives 
in paper coatings, polishes and 
printing inks. 

Ammonia data book 

A new 68-page technical book on 
ammonia has been prepared by the 
largest ammonia producer, AUied's 
Kitrogen Division. 

The comprehensive manual is 
actually a two-in-one piece : the 
first section on ammonia, and the 
second on ammonia liquor. Its 
contents include major uses, physi- 
cal and chemical properties, spe- 
cifications, shipping and storage 
procedures, physical tables, graphs 
and analytical procedures. 

Major ammonia consuiners — 
industries such as explosives, tex- 
tiles, petroleum refining, refriger- 
ation, pulp and paper, metallurgy 
and synthetic resin — will be in- 
terested in this up-to-date infor- 
mation. 



Creative Research 

These examples oj product de- 
velopment work are illustrative 
oj some oj Allied Chemical's 
research activities and oppor- 
tunities. Allied divisions offer 
rewarding careers in many dij- 
jercnt areas oj chemical research 
and development. 

ALLIED CHEMICAL 

61 Broadway, New York 6, N. Y. 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



IMO 




UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS FOUNDED IN 1867 

l«T COURSE IN AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING 

i" PROFESSOR OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING 

UNIFIED CURRICULUM 

FARM MECHANICS BUILDING BUILT 

, COURSE EXPANSION 

,^ .^ SEPARATE DEPARTMENT 

^^CSfMto^y STATUS 

NAME CHANGED ; PROFESSIONAL 
IteEHONEcnNQ^ -CURRICULUM ESTABLISHED 

MASTERS DEGREE APPROVED 

CURRICULUM 
ACCREDITED 



by John Brennan 
Ag. Eng. '59 



September first is an important date 
to the agricultural engineers for two 
reasons. It marks the silver anniversary 
of the professional agricultural engi- 
neering curriculum at the University 
and also the beginning of a new era 
in the application of engineering to ag- 
riculture. 

Actually, agricultural engineering is 
about as old as the University itself. 
In 1868, one year after the University 
of Illinois was opened, a course entitled 
"Rural Engineering and Architecture" 
was offered by the Department of Ag- 
riculture. This course included farm 
buildings, surveying and mapping, 
fences, farm implements, and road build- 

Col. S. W. Shattuck was appointed 
Professor of Agricidtural Engineering, 
starting with the 1870-71 school term. 
Records reveal that the University of 
Illinois was probably the first school to 
have an agricultural engineering pro- 
fessor. Under the direction of Professor 
Shattuck, se\eral courses in drainage, 
agricultural drawing, and domestic ag- 
riculture were established. 

In 1900, Agricultural Engineering 
was assigned to the Agronomy Depart- 
ment as the Department of Farm Me- 
chanics with Professor F. R. Crane as 
department head. Five coinses were now 
being offered. Upon completion of the 
Farm Mechanics building in 1906, the 
Department moved from 600 Daven- 
port Hall to its present location on 
south campus. The period from 1906 
to 1921 was one of great expansion. 



'60 



Silver Anniversary 
for Ag Engineers 



In 1921, Professor E. W. Lehman 
was appointed head of the reorganized 
and now separate department, which 
came to be known as the Department 
of Agricultural Engineering in 1932 
when the professional curricidum was 
established. The curriculum was subse- 
quently accepted in 19S0 by the Engi- 
neer's Council for Professi(5iial Devel- 
opment. 

In September of 19S6, Dr. F. B. 
Lanham took the post, which he present- 
ly holds, as the second head of the De- 
partment of Agricultural Engineering. 

The Department is not without its 
humorous history either. Old timers 
still wonder who ignited the load of 
hay while demonstrating the merits of 



hay drying. And there was the depart- 
ment blacksmith who seemed to think 
that a lap weld held tighter when he 
used colorful language for flux. 

The Department of Agricultural En- 
gineering has contributed much to Illi- 
nois Agriculture as well as to that of 
the nation. Agricultural Engineers of 
the University of Illinois have led the 
way in the development of the corn 
picker-sheller, feed processing and han- 
dling equipment, self-unloading struc- 
tures, farm housing, farm sanitation, 
farm electrification and better harvest- 
ing methods. However, of even greater 
importance is the new era which is now 
starting and whose advances appear al- 
most daily in the newspapers. 



OCTOBER, 1957 



63 



1^ 




and you put Synthane laminated plastics to work 




Think of the many conveniences avail- 
able simply by plugging into an electrical 
outlet. 

On both sides of the outlet Synthane 
laminated plastics are at work in power 
generation and distribution, home appli- 
ances and other electrical equipment. 

You find Synthane laminated plastics 
in circuit breakers, buss bar coverings, 
transformers. Synthane laminated plas- 
tics are important insulators in toasters, 
ranges, food mixers. Synthane is at work 
in thermostats, voltage regulators, 
power tools. 

Synthane is valued in electrical appli- 



cations chiefly for its high dielectric 
strength, low moisture absorption and 
low dissipation factor plus its additional 
properties of dimensional stability, ma- 
chinability and mechanical strength. 
Synthane is available in over 30 standard 
grades in sheet, rods, tubes or you can 
availyourself of our complete fabricating 
services. 

For more information about the many 
properties of Synthane and how you can 
benefit by using Synthane materials and 
fabricating services, write for our product 
catalog. Synthane Corporation, ISRiver 
Road, Oaks, Pennsylvania. 




Automatic Circuit Recloser Parts made from Syn- 
thane sheet and tube provide insulation for high DIELECTRIC STRENGTH IMPACT STRENGTH HEAT RESISTANCE LIGHT WEIGHT 
voltages. 



[SYNTflANE] 
^ SI ^ 



. . . industry's unseen essential 



SYNTHANE CORPORATION, 13 RIVER ROAD, OAKS, PA. 



64 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




How RCA tracking equipment will escort 
first man-made moon into its orbit 



"Ten . . nine . . eight . . seven . . six . ." 

At the launching site, and for 2,000 
miles down range, RCA men stand by 
U. S. Air Force equipment, listening 
to the countdown. 

In seconds — just five now — their 
tracking data will begin to pour like a 
flash flood into the Central Control 
room at the Air Force Missile Center. 
And the first man-made moon in all 
history will be rocketing toward its 
orbit in outer space. 

Rocket speed, position, angle of 
climb, course, and much, much more 
must all be resolved into one vital de- 
cision bv the men in Central Control: 

Whetlier and when— to the split sec- 
ond—to trigger a ground cornmcmd 
that can aim the satellite into its orbit 



or, if necessary, destroy it. 

The tracking data will come from 
the most ingenious and accurate in- 
struments it is now possible to devise. 
From start to finish they have been 
planned, engineered, installed, main- 
tained and operated by RCA. 

In helping bring man to the thresh- 
old of The Space Age, RCA helps ful- 
fill the promise of untold benefit to 
people the world over — and proves 
again that there is real meaning in the 
slogan— "RCA— £/cciTOn(c.s for Living." 



V/HBRE TO, 
MR. ENGINEER? 

RCA offers careers in rcsearcli, de- 
velopment, design and manufactur- 
ing for engineers with Bachelor or 
advanced degrees in E. E., M. E. or 
Physics. For full infoniiation, write 
to: Mr. Robert Haklisch, Manager, 
College Relations, Radio Corpora- 
tion of America, Camden 2, N. J. 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

Electronics for Living 



OCTOBER, 1957 



65 




sfarfs you foward o 

BRIGHT FUTURE 

continued success w 11 denenri ^'''^'"'- ^"' y°"r 

'^'ent. close applica ion'^'"'' °" ^°"^ "''''''>■• Native 
smoother, stronger grar-,,.?,/""^^'"'''" and the 

adds skill to the hands of season ^Tp""*""- ^^^^^^^ 
habit acquired in your form".? '^'°'- "^he Castell 
■n good stead when you Tri'l''"' """ ^'^"^ y°" 
graded for ,ns,ant identmcaL "i°"' "^"^ ^°'°^- 
super.or degrees, 8B to I OH '"°'' °^ 'he 20 

;h/Tun^^S:7cS'ct\^;/- -'^y I-OCKT,.E With 

'ead. Shop in your colSsSe ""''°'''' ^^"='''- 




7 Seconds From Nothing Flat! 

It takes only seven seconds for the new 00 Brown & 
Sharpe Automatic Screw Machine to produce the brass 
part shown above. That's a 42' > increase in rate of pro- 
duction over the previous B&S model. 

One of many new features that contribute to the re- 
markable performance of the 00 machine is a chain 
driven ball bearing spindle (diagram). Fafnir engineers 
worked with Brown & Sharpe in selecting bearings for 
this application, involving some 208 spindle speed com- 
binations ranging from 3-1 to 7200 RPM. To assure 
absolute spindle rigidity and running accurac)', Fafnir 
super-precision ball bearings are mounted in the posi- 
tions indicated. 

Thousands of similar bearing success stories help ex- 
plain why design engineers turn to Fafnir for help with 
bearing problems. The Fafnir Bearing Company, New 
Britain, Connecticut. 

SO YOU WANT A CAREER IN A GROWTH INDUSTRY 




The New Brown & Sharpe No. 00 
Aulomotic Screw Machine with 
Fafnir-equipped spindle. 

FAFNIR 

BALL BEARINGS 



Since the advent of the automotive age, Fafnii 
record of growth has been inseparably linked wi 
the over-all mechonizotion and phenomenal grow 
of industry itself — right down to present-day c 

field of operations is, moreover, industry-wide . . 



little affected by momentary ups and downs of in- 
dividual componies or industries. Find out who! 
Fafnir offers you in the way of professional chal 
lenge, diversity, ond stability in a "growth indus- 
try" with a future as promising as the future of 
America. Write todoy for an interview. 



Why Vought Projects 

Bring Out The Best 

In An Engineer 

At Vought. the engineer doesn't often 
forget past assignments. Like all big 
events, they leave vivid memories. 
And it's no wonder 

For here the engineer contributes to 
history-making projects — among 
them the record-breaking Crusader 
fighter; the Regulus II missile, chosen 
to arm our newest nuclear subs; and 
the new fast-developing 1,500-plus- 
mph fighter, details of which are still 
classified. 

The Vought engineer watches such 
weapons take shape. He supervises 
critical tests, and he introduces the 
weapons to the men with whom they 
will serve. 

Engineers with many specialties share 
these experiences. Today, for exam- 
ple, Vought is at work on important 
projects involving: 

electronics design and manujactiire 

inertial navigation 

investigation of advanced propulsion 

methods 

Mach 5 configurations 

Vought's excellent R&D facilities 
help the engineer through unexplored 
areas. And by teaming up with other 
specialists against mutual challenges, 
the Vought engineer learns new fields 
while advancing in his own. 

**• 
Would you like to know what men 
with your training are doing at 
Vought . . . what you can expect of a 
Vought career? 

For full information, see our repre- 
sentative during his next campus visit. 
*** 
Or write directly to: 

C. A. Besio 

Supervisor, Engineering Personnel 

Dept. CM-1 



^tMGMfT JiMnCnjlFT' 



66 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



A 

Vought 
Vignette 




The propulsion engineer who 
was allergic to switches 



During the Vought Crusader's N.A.A. record- 
breaking flight across the continent, fuel management 
was a vital factor. But it wasn't the constant worry it 
might have been. Fred Alvis had seen to that, beginning 
four years ago. 

When the Crusader project was formed, Fred was 
just a few years out of Alabama Poly. His was still a 
new face. Mighty new, Fred would have agreed when 
he was tapped to develop the functional design of the 
Crusader fuel system. 

Navy specs told Fred his system should be reliable 
and very lightweight. Pilots, too, gave him a special 
request. In the ready room near the flight line they 
described the constant in-flight attention required by 
complex fuel systems. "Can you fix it so we can forget 
fuel for a minute?" they asked the young designer. "Can 
you cut down on those switches?" 

Fred went all-out for simplicity, plunging into a 
three-month whirl of schematics. He was encouraged by 
close design group assistance in studies and layouts. 
Soon he was making procurement selections and writing 
functional reports. Then, with the fuel system mockup, 
Fred unveiled what he'd done. 

It was a showpiece of simplicity. Absent was the 
usual complex CG control system. Fred had bypassed 



the problem entirely by canny choosing of fuel cell loca- 
tions and fuel line sizings. Absent, too, was an emergency 
system — together with the need for it! There was a 
unique air transfer system for moving fuel from the 
Crusader wing tank to the main sump, plus some freshly 
conceived lesser features. 

As mockup and flight tests proved, Fred's ideas 
more than met weight and reliability requirements. And, 
as pilots were shown, all simplification features led 
directly to the cockpit. There Fred had won his war 
against switches. 

Only one had survived. 



At 'Voiighl, the invitation to find a fresh 

approach is extended to every engineer. 

Here, in groups that coordinate for 

mutual progress, and in test facihties _ 

that can evaluate the most advanced pro- "^ ANNIVERSARY ^ 

posals, ideas receive the attention they '917 to 195'' 

deserve. 



. OFMILITADj. 

f40-] 



^€>EMGMrT jimcyrtJi.F'r' 



OCTOBER, 1957 



67 




Inco mine engineers coiibtruct u ^-dimensional "picture" that shows where new, untapped ore bodies lie. 

This 3-D model of an ore body shows where 
future supplies of Inco Nickel will be mined 



How do Inco engineers keep a mine 
"alive"? For one thing-, they try to 
learn as much as possible about the 
location of ore for the future. 

New levels— new exploring 

As soon as they open up new levels, 
the engineers start up exploratory 
drilling, to probe and "feel" in many 
directions. 

Their hollow-shafted drills bring 
out specimen cores that show where 
there is worthwhile ore and where 
only worthless rock. 

Hundreds and hundreds of 
ore samples 

These ore samples enable Interna- 
tional Nickel engineers to build small 
models of their mines' ore bodies. So 
they know where each ore body lies. 



how large it is, and of what grade. 
They know, as well, how to get that 
ore out of the ground in the safest, 
most sensible, most economical way 
possible— know what shafts may have 
to be sunk, what tunnels and drifts to 
drive. Know, in a word, how to reach 
and mine every possible ton of usable 
ore. And, having mined it, how to 
extract every possible pound of use- 
ful metal. 

Reserves— at new highs 

Today Inco has larger reserves than 



ever before — although some of this 
ore lies a mile or deeper under- 
ground. And the Company also reports 
another fact: its multi-million dollar 
"mine-more" program makes possible 
today's high output of Inco Nickel. 
And looking to the future-in 1961, 
Inco Canada's Nickel output should 
be 38.5 million pounds a year. A hun- 
dred million more than in 1956! 
"Mining for Nickel," color film, is loaned 
to technical societies, universities, in- 
dustry. The International Nickel Com- 
pany, Inc., Dept. 143f, New York 5, N. Y. 



©' 



/'^N International Nickel 

The International Nickel Company, Inc., is the U. S. affiliate of The International Nickel 
Company of Canada, Limited (Inco-Canada) — producer of Inco Nickel, Copper, Cobalt, 
Iron Ore, Tellurium, Selenium and Platinum, Palladium and Other Precious Metals 



68 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



I 



WaiaerEkdiric Gbrporation 

SERVES 2 GREAT GROWTH INDUSTRIES! 




ELECTRIC MOTORS. A complete line 
—single-phase and polyphase, to 
meet every requirement. 1000 horse- 
power and below. 



TRANSFORMERS. Power and dis- 
tribution transformers for utilities. 
Load center and dry-type trans- 
formers for industry. 



INDUSTRIAL BRAKES AND CON. 
TROLS. l-.T .AcrhcaJ .rjncs. heavy 
chinery, and for air 
and hydraulic actuation. 




WAGNER LOCKHEED BRAKE PROD- 
UCTS. Hydraulic Brake Fluid, Brake 
Parts, and Brake Lining for auto- 
mobiles, trucks, busses. 



AIR BRAKE SYSTEMS AND COM- 
PONENTS. To provide safe, sure 
stops for heavy-duty uucks. trailers 



TACHOGRAPHS, Recording speed- 
ometers that provide vital infor- 
mation needed for safer, more 
economical vehicle operation. 



If you are interested in a career where you can 
grow — visualize your many opportunities at 
Wagner Electric Corporation, St. Louis' largest 
manufacturer of products for the great-growth 
electrical and automotive industries. 

Wagner is engineering-minded: established in 
1891 by two engineers . . . our present top manage- 
ment is chiefly composed of men who began their 
careers at Wagner as graduate engineers. 



Wagner offers many advantages to the engineer- 
ing graduate: 

• Further training in the area of your special interest. 

• Attractive working conditions and salary, 

• Adiancement from within. 

• Excellent group insurance and retirement plan, 

• Graduate degree programs. 

• Athletic and recreational programs, 

• Many other benefits and activities. 



To see how you can share in Wagner's success — sign up with your college 
placement officer, or write to the Wagner Industrial Relations Division today. 



^^>^a$yocv^ 



Qsst^'W* 



?\va^ 



«j4\>^^\V^' 



cs^s^^ '^^^ 



C«s!L^N«=«^ 



BRANCHES AND DISTRIBUTORS IN ALL PRINCIPAL CITIES 

WainerElctfiric Gnporation 

6400 Pljinaalh Atc, Si. Louia 14, Ho.. U.S.A. 



ELECTRIC MOTORS •TRANSFORMERS • INDUSTRIAL BRAKES •AUTOMOTIVE BRAKE SYSTEMS — AIR AND HYDRAULIC 

OCTOBER, 1957 69 



nfls 




New Products Corporation produces intricate 

die castings with skill and precision for industries 
in all product lines. 

NPC characteristics of Integrity, Quality and 

Service are characteristics which result 
from the vigorous, integrated teamwork 
of skilled personnel. 



Excellent TofOl-Miaking Facilities 



RODUCTS ^CORPORATION 

O. BOX 666 . BENTON HARBOR 1, MICHIGAN 




70 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



JOB FACTS FROM DU PONT 




DU PONT SIZE, GROWTH PRESENT VARIED CHOICE 
OF JOB LOCATIONS TO OUALIFIED TECHNICAL MEN 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

BENEFIT PROGRAM 
MEANS ADDED INCOME 



by 

E. H. Cox 

DuPont 
Representative 



Don^t forget the "extras" 
of an employee benefit pro- 
gram when you compare 
the job offers and salaries 
of different companies. At 
Du Pont, these extras mean 
added income that doesn't 
aluays meet the eye. They 
include life insurance, 
group hospitalization and 
surgical coverage, accident 
and health insurance, pen- 
sion plan and paid vacation. 

In addition, the Company 
sponsors a thrift plan. For 
every dollar you invest in 
U. S. Savings Bonds, the 
Company sets aside 25 
cents for the purchase of 
common stock in your 
name. Roughly 65 per cent 
of our 90,000 employees 
are noiv participating in 
this plan. 

If you have specific ques- 
tions on Du Pont benefits, 
just send them to me. I'll 
be happy to try to answer 
them. E. I. du Pont de 
Nemours & Co., Inc., 
Room 2504-A Nemours 
Bldg., Wilmington 98, Del. 



♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

OCTOBER, 1957 



Bviilding Program, Expansion 
Create Many Opportunities 
at Company Plants and Labs 



Engineers and scientists of all 
kinds work in 75 Du Pont plants 
and 98 laboratories scattered over 
26 states. Where you're assigned 
depends on your qualifications and 
the openings in the kind of work 
you want. 

Geogrnphical Spread 

Right now, most of the Du Pont 
units are located east of the Missis- 
sippi, but there are plants in Texas, 
Colorado and on the Pacific Coast, 
too. And new building is under 
way in Kansas, Tennessee, Virginia 
and North Carolina. 

Du Pont headquarters and many 
of the Company's labs and some of 
its plants are situated in and around 
Wilmington, Del., an attractive 
residential area within convenient 
traveling range of Philadelphia, 
New York and Washington. 

Community Life 

Wherever you're assigned, you'll 
find that the Du Pont Company and 
its people are interesting, compan- 



ionable and active in the life of 
the community. 

As you move ahead, as you grow 
in your job, you may move to an- 
other plant or laboratory — a pos- 
sibility that adds to the variety and 
interest of your job. 

METALLURGISTS PLAY 
VITAL ROLE AT DU PONT 

Opportunities in metallurgy at Du 
Pont include research into the nature 
and properties of elements; develop- 
ment and supervision of pilot plant 
work; and the actual production of 
titanium metal and high-purity ele- 
mental silicon. 

Other DuPont metallurgists study 
problems relating to plant processing 
equipment. Some, for example, carry 
out research on intergranular cor- 
rosion or investigate failure relation- 
ships encountered In high -pressure 
operations. 

These projects offer an Interesting 
career to graduating metallurgists. 



SEND FOR FREE BOOKLET 



Booklets packed with information 
about Du Pont are yours for the ask- 
ing. Subjects: mechanical, civil, met- 
allurgical, chemical, electrical, 
instrumentation engineers at 
Du Pont; technical sales, research 



and development. Just name the 
subject that interests you and send 
your name, school and address to 
E. I. du Pont de Nemours &. Co., Inc., 
Room 2504-A Nemours Building, 
Wilmington 98, Del. 



71 



If it goes through pipe 

anywhere in the world- 



CHANCES ARE IT'S 
CONTROLLED BY 




^ 



Leadership in any fieUl is never casually 
achieved. In the case of Fisher it rep- 
resents more than three quarters of a 
century of continuing research and 
cumulative know-how. 

Today, wherever gases, steam and 
liquids are to be controlled, engineers 
in the nation's outstanding plants in 
the oil, gas, power, chemistry, paper 
and other processing industries... 
think fint of Fisher for the maximal 
solution. 



Fisher 

Manufacturers of: PRESSURE REGULATORS, DIAPHRAGM MOTOR VALVES and LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLERS 




FISHER GOVERNOR COMPANY 

Marshailtown, Iowa/ Woodstock, Ontario 



72 



Since 7880 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 










W^ like to send you this record I 



No matter what branch of engineering 
you're following — no matter which phase of 
engineering interests you most — we want 
you to know Square D and what we have to 
offer. Of special interest to you, we beheve, 
is the "human touch" side of our Company. 
There are some things you simply can't 



evaluate in terms of cold facts and figures. 
A company's basic philosophy, for example 
... its attitude and approach to its customers 
and to its working team. 

The "Human Touch" record we want to 
send you deals with some of those intangi- 
bles —musically. We think you'll enjoy it. 



mail this coupon for your 
"Human Touch " record 



Square D Company, Dept. EM 

6060 Rivard Street, Detroit 11, Miciiigan 

I'd like a "Human Touch" record and a copy of Square D's brochure, 
"your engineering career" 

I am primarily interested in D Research, Design & Development 
Engineering □ Manufacturing Engineering □ Sales Application and 
Field Engineering 




OCTOBER, 1957 



73 



^^Yoiir future has 
already started' 

"Yoitivotild need a coviiniter to figure out Iioiv many 
phases of etigineerhig and science go mto the making 
of one type of airplane or missile. Aerodynamics, ther- 
modynamics, jet propidsion, electronics, communica- 
tions, even anthropology .. .and these are just a few. 
Such a diversity of fields means unlimited opportunity, 
ivhether you intend to specialize or not. 

"You know it's never too early to select yoxir field. 
Yott seniors have started to thiyik about where your 
experience can do the most for you: htit the juniors 
and lowcr-classmcn shoidd also be selecting courses 
that will give them the training they need for the job 
they want. Actually, your future has already started. 

"So, my advice is that you start thinking about the 
aircraft industry. It offers the greatest opportunities . .. 
opportunity to use your training, to advance, to make 
a comfortable living. It's still a young industry and it 
thrix-es on and encourages young ideas'.' 

Scenes like this are taking place on campuses all over 
the country. Engineering professors must keep up 
with scientific advances. They realize that these ad- 
vances mean added opportunity for soon-to-graduate 
students. Research in the aircraft industry has 
uncovered so many areas for further study that young 
men are urgently needed to solve these problems. Long 



a pioneer in new facets of aviation, Northrop is one of •«£_ 



the companies that wants such aggressive young men. 

At Northrop you can put your training to work on 
the Snark SM-62, the world's first intercontinental 
guided missile. And new projects like the twin jet, 
supersonic trainer, the USAF-Northrop T-38, and 
others of top priority are moving ahead steadily. 

Products are only as good as the engineers behind 
them and good engineers require good surroundings. 
In line with this thinking, Northrop has built a multi- 
million-dollar Engineering and Science Center in 
Hawthorne, California, that is as modern as any in the 
industry. Here, you will be working with leading 
engineers who respect your individuality, initiative and 
engineering abilities. In addition, at Northrop you will 
receive added benefits that are among the finest in the 
industry. 

Why not write us now . . . regardless of your class at 
college. Ask us questions about how you might best 
gain a career with Northrop. Write to Manager of 
Engineering Industrial Relations, Northrop Division, 
Northrop Aircraft, Inc., 1031 East Broadway, Haw- 
thorne, California. 




NORTHROP 

Northrop Division of Northrop Aircraft, Inc. 

BUILDERS OF THE FIRST INTERCONTINENTAL GUIDED MISSILE 




74 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




WRITE for your copy of A Career for You With Alcoa 



Aluminum is where the excitement is. New uses, new designs, 
more metal being produced than ever before. Tomorrow will 
be even better. Maybe you've seen Alcoa's Forecast ads in 
Time, Saturday Evening Post, The New Yorker. 

The men who will make this forecast come true are in 
college today. Perhaps it's the man who sits next to you in 
Advanced Phys Met or Machine Analysis or Heat Power 
Design or Chem Engineering Kinetics or Marketing or Cost 
Accounting. Or maybe it's you. 

If you have that extra spark of imagination . . . creativity 
. . . adventurousness . . . take the first step: see your Place- 
ment Director or write for your copy of Alcoa's Career 
Guide. It tells an exciting story ... of the future of the 
young Imagineers who join up with the men who built the 
aluminum business. g^^ new! -alcoa theatre- 

K«£;59 EXCITING AOVEiUIIBE 




Aluminum Company of America 

1825 Alcoa Building 
Pittsburgh 19, Pennsylvania 



Pie 



send 



copy of A Co 



CITY AND STATE- 



DATE OF GRADUATION- 



OCTOBER, 1957 



75 



H/o////o//ts of 

your future ^P^ ^^f 

'ucit/i Ho}icywcI/ \ ^^J"^ 




The many 




Pcop/c^ Places^ 
Projects 



Glenn Seidel, Vice President in Charge of 
Engineering, BME, Minnesota, '36 




"The story of Honeywell, as I know it, is a story of 
growth— from a thermostat to over 12,000 products; 
from a handful of employees to more than 30,000; 
from a basement in Minneapolis to a world-wide 
organii;ation. For Honeywell, world leader in auto- 
matic controls, has expanded as rapidly as this excit- 
ing field. And employment, sales and income have 
increased steadily year after year. 



"The future is even more challenging. Plannec 
diversification puts Honeywell in such new fields ai 
office and factory automation, process control, plas 
tics, atomic energy, electronics, missiles and satel 
lites. Whole new areas of opportunity are waiting 
for today's engineering graduates in each of Honey 
well's divisions. Here are some division representa 
tives to tell you about them." 



CORPORATE RESEARCH 
HOPKINS, MINNESOTA 






Dr. Pint! Larscn, PhD, 

Iowa State, 1948 

Director of Corporate Research 

"Our Research Center is a focal point 
for Honeywell's over-all research 
program. Here, Honeywell scientists 
and engineers conduct basic research 
into areas such as Heat Transfer, Met- 
allurgy, Thermodynamics, Solar En- 
ergy, Radioactivity, Electronics, etc. 
This research supplements other re- 
search carried on by Honeywell's sep- 
arate divisions, plays an important 
part in the company's development 
program. There's certainly plenty of 
opportunity for the imaginative 
scientist or engineer here." 



AERONAUTICAL DIVISION 

MINNEAPOLIS; LOS ANGELES; 

ST. PETERSBURG 




E. H. Olson. BA, 

U. of Minnesota, 1937 

Director of Aero Engineering 

"In the past six years our engineer- 
ing force has trebled through our 
expansion into such advanced fields 
as inertial guidance, jet engine con- 
trol, computers, fire control and 
bombing systems, fuel management, 
and precision gyros. We have devel- 
oped and produced more autopilots 
than any other manufacturer, and 
built the reference system for the 
Earth Satellite Rocket. The diver- 
sity and wide acceptance of our prod- 
ucts indicates the boundless oppor- 
tunities we have for engineers and 
scientists." 



ORDNANCE DIVISION 

MINNEAPOLIS; SEATTLE; 

MONROVIA, CALIF. 




Clyde A. Rirh/i. BSEE, 
U. of A/aha ma, 1940 
Director of Ordnance 

"Here at Honeywell Ordnance we're 
putting all our experience and imag- 
ination into maintaining America's 
technological lead. We work in such 
new fields as infrared sensors, mis- 
siles, servo mechanisms, new types 
of turret control systems. We've de- 
veloped proximity and mechanical 
fuzes, antiaircraft fire control sys- 
tems, unden\'ater warfare equipment 
and other products in widely diver- 
sified fields. Our more advanced 
products, naturally, are still classified, 
but they offer outstanding challenges 
and opportunities." 



sides of Honeywell 



BOSTON DIVISION 
BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 




George J. Schwurtz, MI1\ '42 

Vice President 

and General Manager 

"Our Honeywell division is making 
the brains of automation. We turn 
out such small, but complex and 
important components as gyros, 
flight controls, servos, synchros, elec- 
tronic amplifiers and magnetic con- 
trols. Engineering projects now in 
progress point to many new prod- 
ucts and applications from our divi- 
sion, including development of new 
transistor applications. Opportuni- 
ties.-' Tliey're here by the score." 



MICRO SWITCH DIVISION 
FREEPORT, ILLINOIS 




R. If". Pas/jhy, BSEE, 

U. of Illinois, 1932 

Director of Product Research 

"Products of our Micro Switch Di- 
vision help giant aircraft land safely, 
interlock machine tool operations, 
feed instructions into electronic com- 
puters. These are just a few of their 
applications — applications which are 
growing year after year. The devel- 
opment of these precision switches 
requires high engineering skill, puts a 
premium on your imagination, offers 
you tremendous opportunities for 
advancement and recognition." 



RESIDENTIAL, RETAIL AND 

COMMERCIAL DIVISION 
MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 




H. T. Sparrow, BSEE, 

U. of Minnesota, 1930 

Director of Product Research 

"We specialize almost entirely in 
comfort control. Typical of the ad- 
vances our division has made re- 
cently is the Supervisory Data Center* 
which enables one man in one loca- 
tion to read and control the tempera- 
ture of every room in a large building. 
Our other new products include Air 
Blenders, Zone Control Systems, 
Electronic Air Cleaners and many 
more. Our business is a rewarding 
one for engineers!" 



INDUSTRIAL INSTRUMENTS DIVISION 
PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA 



HEIIAND DIVISION 
DENVER, COLORADO 





C. L. Peterson. BSEE. 

U. of California, 1924 

Vice President and Gen. Mgr. 

"No company in the fast growing in- 
strumentation field is growing faster 
than Honeywell's Industrial Instru- 
ments Division. There's practically 
no physical quantity under the sun 
that Honeywell instruments cannot 
measure, and, in most cases, control, 
from open hearth furnaces to com- 
plex processes still on the designer's 
boards. Finding new applications 
and designing the instruments, com- 
puters and read-out devices of to- 
morrow, offer you a fascinating 
present and an unlimited future." 



S. A. Keller, BS, 

U. of Pennsylvania, 1941 

General Manager 

"This division of Honeywell manu- 
factures two different classes of prod- 
ucts: Instruments and Photographic 
Equipment. Our recording oscillo- 
graphs — typified by the radically 
new 'Visicorder' — are used in a wide 
range of industrial, scientific, and 
military applications. Our famous 
'Strobonar' electronic flash equip- 
ment is used by 5 out of 6 news- 
papers and all important press serv- 
ices. The variety of products and 
markets of the Heiland Division 
promises an ever-expanding field that 
challenges young engineers." 



This is Honeywell: more than 
12.000 highly engineered prod- 
ucts, 14 separate divisions, loca- 
tions sprinkled throughout this 
country and abroad, projects by 
the hundreds on the outposts of 
every major technological ad- 
vance. It's a land of opportunity 
for the engineering graduate. 
Want to learn more about it? 
Send for our free booklet, "Your 
Curve ofOpportunity." Write to: 

R. L. Michelson, Dept. TC29C 
Personnel Administrator 
Minneapolis-Honeywell Reg. Co. 
Minneapolis 8, Minnesota 



Honeyivell 



C&^^iAMJ^ 



RECIPE FOR MUD 




Mud pies and oil wells liave one thing in 
common— nuiil. 

If Suzy tries to halve her pie, it either gets hard 
or crumbles. The same thing can happen to drill- 
ing muds which are used to lubricate bits and to 
carry away rock cuttings. 

The deeper \ou drill, the hotter it gets, the 
greater the pressure. Three to four miles down 
into the earth, temperatures often exceed 400° 
— twice that of boiling water. In such heat, 
drilling muds used to break down, solidify. 
Drilling stopped — wells had to be abandoned. 

Mobil scientists worked years on the problem 
— part of the company's SI. 5 million-a-month 
research program. Now the answer — a mud that 
stays muddy at higher temperatures and greater 
pressures than ever before. 

This Mobil Recipe for Mud made it possible 



to complete the world's deepest well — four and 
a quarter miles, enabling America's oil men to 
tap heretofore inaccessible petroleum. 

Chemical research is only one of many pro- 
fessions represented on the world-wide roster of 
Mobil personnel. We also employ nuclear physi- 
cists, geologists, mathematicians, engineers of 
every type, marketing analysts, marketers . . . 
people prepared to handle more than 100 differ- 
ent positions. 

If you qualify, the Mobil companies offer you 
an opportunity to build a career through training 
that will utilize your talents to the fullest . . . 
constantly challenge your ingenuity . . . reward 
you with a lifetime of richly satisfying work. 

For more information about your opportunity 
with the world's most experienced oil company, 
see your College Placement Oflicer. 



SOCONY MOBIL OIL CO., INC., Nev/v York 17, N. Y 
Leader in lubrication for 91 years 



Mobil 

:^^ 

AFFILIATES: ^^^^»^* 

Angeles 54, Cal. • Magnolia Petroleum Co , 
Dallas 21, Tex. • Mobil Oil of Canada ltd,, Calgary, Alberta, Canada 
Mobil Overseas Oil Co , New York 17, N. Y. • Mobil Producing Co., Billings, Mont. 
I'l ^. Socony Mobil Oil Co. de Venezuela and other foreign producing companii 



78 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




How to make the most 
of your engineering career 



go where 

engineers can study 
for advancement if yo^-^^int^^^^t^d in ,..//; 

' getting to the top, you should 

have an opportunity — while on the job — to 
take advanced engineering or science courses. 

This means you'll reach your career goal 
faster with a company like Boeing, which 
not only permits, but actively encourages, 
graduate study. At Boeing, you can arrange 
your full-pay work schedule to fit ) our 
graduate study schedule. Boeing pays all 
tuition costs, plus an additional sum 
based on earned credit hours of study. 

You'll feel at home at Boeing, for here you'll 
find graduates of virtually every school, 
including )ours. You'll work with them on 
advanced projects in the expanding, limitless 
field of supersonic flight, jet-powered civil and 
military aviation, gas turbine engines, and a 
supersonic guided missile weapon system. 

At Boeing, starting salaries are high. Rapid 
company growth assures opportunities for 
advancement and long-range career stability. 
You'll live in wide-awake, youthful 
communities, and enjoy the security of 
liberal retirement plans. Boeing pays moving 
costs, helps you get settled, and backs you 
up with an array of research and test 
laboratories unequalled in the industry. 



NOW is the time to start planning ahead. 
Consult your Placement Office, or write: 

JOHN C. SANDERS, 

Staff Engineer, Personnel Administrator, 
Boeing Airplane Co., Seattle 24. Washington 

R. J. B. HOFFMAN, 

Chief of Engineering Personnel, 
Boeing Airplane Co., Wichita 1, Kansas 



OCTOBER, 1957 



Aviation leadership since 1916 

Sealllo, Washington Wichita. Kansai Melbourne, Florida 



79 




does green weigh? 



An Intlustrial Engineer's analysis of an unusual 
application of atomic energy recently became 
a valuable contribution to our manufacturing 
eiriciency. His assignment was to evaluate a 
nuclear gauging system for controlling saturants — 
one of which is green — used in felt backing for 
linoleum. 

Through use of radioisotopes, or Beta Gauges, 
the green saturant is now continuously controlled 
by percentage of weight while it is actually being 
processed. This was previously impossible. 
Using one of the most advanced methods in the 
field, the Armstrong Industrial Engineer 
determined the economic practicality of this use 
of radiation and has given Armstrong a reliable 
insight into future results that can be expected 
from Beta Gauges. 

This use of statistics and modern sampling tech- 
niques is an example of the creative approach used 
at the Armstrong Cork Company to increasingly 
complex problems in the field of Industrial 
Engineering. It represents one of many interesting 
assignments that new Industrial Engineers at 
Armstrong can expect following eight weeks of 
individualized instruction at the Company's 
Industrial Engineering Center. 

For a wide range of assignments, consider the 
Armstrong Cork Company in planning your 
Industrial Engineering career. 

See your placement officer or write for the 
illustrated booklet, "Careers in Business." 

(A)-mstrong 

Personnel Administration Department 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania 

A rmstrong Products for home and industry . . . 
Building Materials and Resilient Flooring, 
Industrial Specialties and Packaging Products. 



80 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



MLIS-CHALMERS 

. . . where you can design, build, 
research or sell products like these 
• . • and gro^ v/ith 3 grov/th industries 




Types 



^^Is 




.'^t: 






CONSTRUCTION 



Road Building Equipment 




Pumps, Blowers Cement-Makrng Equipment 

r X3 I 



MANUFACTURING 







Opportunities 
in these fields 

Thermodynamics 
Acoustics 
System Analysis 

(Electrical and 

Mechonicoll 
Stress Analysis 
Hydraulics 
Electronics 
Process Engineering 
Mechanical Design 
Structural Design 
Metallurgy 
Nucleonics 

High Voltage Phenomenon 
Analog and Digital Computers 
Fluid Dynamics 



^« * Basic Research 



You can grow faster in a company that supplies the 
basic needs of growth! Power, construction and 
manufacturing must grow to supply the needs of our 
population which is increasing at the rate of 50,000 
per week. Allis-Chalmers is a major supplier of 
equipment in these basic industries. 

But there's another factor of equal importance: 
Allis-Chalmers Graduate Training Course offers un- 
usual opportunities for the young engineer to: 

• Find the type of work he likes best 

• Develop engineering skill 

• Choose from a wide range of career possibilities 

Allis-Chalmers graduate training course has been 
a model for industry since 1904. You have access 



to many fields of engineering: electric power, hy- 
draulics, atomic energy, ore processing. 

There are many kinds of work to try: design 
engineering, application, research, manufacturing, 
sales. Over 90 training stations are available, with 
expert guidance when you want it. Your future is 
as big as your ability can make it. 

Or, if you have decided your field of interest and 
are well qualified, opportunities exist for direct as- 
signments on our engineering staff. 

In any case — learn more about Allis-Chalmers. 
Ask the A-C manager in your territory, or write 
Allis-Chalmers, Graduate Training Section, Mil- 
waukee 1, Wisconsin. 



ALLIS-CHALMERS <0> 



OCTOBER, 1957 



CAREERS WITH BECHTEL 




Karl Bausch, Chief Electrical Engineer, 
Power Division of the Bechtel Corporation. 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 

One of a series of interviews in which 
Bechtel Corporation executives discuss 
career opportunities for college men. 



Question: Mr. Bausch, in con- 
sidering a position with Bechtel, or 
any other firm, isn't it true that what 
most college men want to l<now first 
of all is "What will I be doing?" 

Bausch: That's true, and it isn't an 
easy question to answer. So much de- 
pends on individual preferences and 
abilities and the way a man develops. 
On joining us, he would be asked if 
he'd like to work on the drafting 
board doing layout work. As an 
alternate, he might prefer a starting 
assignment involving helping out on 
calculations, requisitioning materials, 
writing specifications, etc. 

Question: In other words you try to 
give the new man some freedom of 
choice? 

Bausch: As far as possible. We 
know that the beginning period is a 
difficult one. It takes some time for 
him to get his feet on the ground and 
we try to "expose" him to many dif- 



ferent activities. In that way he gets 
needed experience and familiarity 
that help him decide the work for 
which he feels best qualified. It also 
gives us the opportunity to evaluate 
his potential. 

Question: Assuming a man shows 
the necessary ability and begins to 
produce, how does he branch out? 

Bausch: Generally, in either of two 
ways. He may work on the electrical 
portion of power plants, designing 
circuits, control and relaying systems, 
unit protection, etc. The other way is 
on the physical layout of power plants 
— that is, location of equipment, con- 
duit and raceway systems, etc. In 
either case he would be put in charge 
of one section of the project. 

Question: And his next advance 
would be...? 

Bausch: Assuming he progresses 
satisfactorily, he would ultimately 



move into a lead job as a group 
supervisor in charge of the design of 
the electrical system of the complete 
plant. 

Question: Could you give an 
estimate of the time involved in tlie 
various steps? 

Bausch: That's impossible. We have 
no hard and fast schedule. In general, 
we have found that it takes a man 
about a year to get his feet on the 
ground and become a real producer. 
From that point on, it's up to him. 

Question: In other words, he can 
advance in keeping with his indivi- 
dual ability? 

Bausch: That's right. Of course, 
there are many other factors in- 
volved, including the vitally impor- 
tant one of the great advancements 
being made in every phase of the 
electrical industry. These create new 
jobs and new types of jobs involving 
new skills. And for every opportunity 
existing today, it is safe to predict 
there will be at least two tomorrow. 



Bechtel Corporation (and its Bechtel 
foreign subsidiaries) designs, engineers 
and constructs petroleum refineries, 
petrochemical and chemical plants; 
thermal, hydro and nuclear electric 
generating plants: pipelines for oil and 
natural gas transmission. Its large and 
diversified engineering organization 
offers opportunities for careers in many 
branches and specialties of engineering 
— Meclianical. . .Electrical. . .Structural 
. . .Chemical . . . Hydraulic. 

Write for new brochures showing the 
wide variety of projects Bechtel builds 
throughout the world. 

Address: John F. O'Connell. 

Vice President, Industrial Relations 

220 Bush Street, San Francisco 4, Calif. 




BECHTEL 
CORPORATION 

S.AN FRANCISCO 
Los Angeles • New York • Houston 



82 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



) 




The California Division of Lockheed has a special problem. It doesn't limit itself to a few types 
of planes. It develops virtually all types - cargo and commercial transports, extremely 
high-speed fighters, radar search planes, jet trainers, patrol bombers and others still classified. 
And it takes a constant flow of new engineering ideas to feed this ever-expanding program. 
Do you have new ideas? They'll get attention at Lockheed. Your future relationship 
with us is certainly worth exploring. Openings are in virtually every field of engineering. 
We invite you to contact your Placement Officer regarding Lockheed's role in your future. 



LOCKHEED 



Master's Degree Work-Study Program 

The Program enables graduates in Engineering, Mathematics and Physics 
to attain a Master's Degree at the University of California at Los Angeles or 
University of Southern California while gaining practical experience on 
the engineering staff of Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in Burbank, California. 

Additional information may be obtained from your Placement Officer 

or by writing E. W. Des Lauriers, Employment Manager and Chairman of 

the Master's Degree Work-Study Program. 



THE CALIFORNIA DIVISION OF LOCKHEED AIRCRAFT CORPORATION • BURBANK, CALIFORNIA 

OCTOBER, 1957 



83 



THERE ARE NO JOBS AT COLUMBIA-SOUTHERN. In the forming of 

your career, the most important ingredient— beyond your own natural skills 
and experience — is the company for which you work. Before deciding where 
you will begin your career, among the things you'll want to know are your 
chances for advancement . . . whether your ideas will be considered , . . how 
you will be trained and fitted to your new position. At the Columbia-Southern 
Chemical Corporation, we don't speak in terms of jobs, we talk careers. 
We like to take men with ability and initiative — men who like to talk about 
new ideas— and place them in interesting and challenging assignments. As an 
employee of Columbia-Southern, you'll be given assignments which gradually 
increase in responsibility. The fast growing chemical industry is continually 
opening new fields for research and development which means opportunity for 
you. Columbia-Southern, as one of the "growth" leaders in chemicals, is con- 
stantly expanding its facilities. These expanded facilities and enlarged pro- 
grams make Columbia-Southern an ideal place to begin your career. To find 

out more about the outstanding career 
^ ^ \ opportunities with Columbia-Southern, 

write today to the Personnel Manager at 
our Pittsburgh address, or to the Columbia- 
Southern plant nearest you. 



•fa^f^l 



OFFICES IN 


PRINCIPAL 


CITIES. 


PLANTS: Barb 


erton, Ohio 


• 


art- 


lell, Calif 


• Corpus 


Ch 


isll, 


Texas. • 


lake Cha 


les, 


La. 


New Marti 


asville. W.Vo. • 


Jer- 


sey City, 


N. J. 






IN CANADA 


Standard 


Chen 


ical 




84 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



A 



o 



Tear out this page for ^OUR BEARING NOTEBOOK 



How to lick 



a mixing 



o 



o 



p 



roblein 



IN designing the bearing 
mounting for the drum axle 
of this heavy-duty mixer, the 
engineers had to consider the 
punishing radial and thrust 
loads as the drum rotates at an 
angle. And heavy shock loads 
from the impact of driving on 
rough roads had to be con- 
sidered, too. To handle these 
loads simultaneously, keep 
the drum shaft aligned, the 
engineers specified Timken'"' 
tapered roller bearings. Result 
— free rolling, longer life, less 
maintenance. 





Tapered design lets Timken' bearings taiie both radial 
and thrust loads 

The taper enables Timken bearings to take radial and thrust 
loads in any combination. And full line contact between 
their rollers and races gives Timken bearings extra capacity 
for the toughest loads. 




Want to learn more about bearings 
or job opportunities? 

You'll probably face some bearing prob- 
lems after graduation. Why not learn 
about them now with our free 270-page 



General Information Manual on Timken 
bearings.' And for job information write 
for "Career Opportunities at the Timken 
Company". The Timken Roller Bear- 
ing Company, Canton 6, Ohio. 



TIMKEN 



TAPERED 
ROLLER BEARINGS 



TRADEMARK REG. U.S. PAT. OFF. 




NOT )UST A BALI Q NOT lUST A ROllER (ED THE TIMKEN TAPERED ROLLER (m BEARING TAKES RADIAL i) *ND THROST -ffl- LOADS OR ANY COMBINATION -f)^ 



OCTOBER, 1957 



85 



Now YOU can Q^ whY onlY 
leads & pencils give you perfectlY 




GRAPHITE LIKE THIS 



tuRouoist 



CLAY LIKE THIS 



MAKES THIS LEAD STRUCTURE 



100% "ELECTRONIC" GRAPHITE l^ SUPERFINE CLAY 




MAKES THIS LEAD STRUCTURE 



YOU ALWAYS GET PROVEN QUALITY FROM TURQUOISE DRAWING LEADS AND PENCILS 

PROVEN GRADING- 17 different formulae make sure you get exactly the line you expect- 
from every pencil, every time. 
PROVEN DURABILITY— Because compact lead structure gives off no chunks of useless "dust" 
to blow away, Turquoise wears down more slowly. 
PROVEN NEEDLE-POINT STRENGTH— as electron photomicrograph shows. Turquoise lead struc- 
ture is finer-and therefore stronger. It holds a needle point under 
drawing pressures for long lines of unchanging width. 



EAGLE PENCIL COMPANY • NEW YORK • LONDON • TORONTO • MEXICO • SYDNEY • BOGOTA 



Eagle Turquoise 
sharp drawings 





This Electron Microscope takes per ■ 
feet pictures 7,500 times actual size 
— lets you see the startling difference 
between Eagle's "Electronic" Tur- 
quoise Lead and the lead in the 
usual quality drafting pencil. 



Photogrophs courresy of 
Lodd Research Industries, I 



Relatively large, irregular particles 
of graphite make a rough-edged 
line. Drawings will be inferior. 



AND MARKS LIKE THIS 




AND MARKS LIKE THIS 



Tiny, more uniform particles deposit as 
a clean-edged, solid line. Drawings 
will be perfectly sharp, clearly defined. 

WRITE FOR FREE SAMPLE DEMONSTRATION KIT 

(including Turquoise wood pencil. Turquoise lead, and 
Turquoise "skeleton" lead) naming this magazine. Eagle 
Pencil Company, 703 East 13th Street, New York. N. Y. 



^r.'S3 EAGLE "CHEini * SEflCED' TUFraUOISE DRflUims 



• TURQUOISE DRAWING PENCILS: "'"Electronic" graphite. 17 grades, 6B through 9H. 



• TURQUOIS 

CLEANTEX 

ERASER: 

Super-soft, 

non-abrasive 

rubber. 



' \ 

K 

2: 

I 




• TURQUOISE DRAWING LEADS: 
Fit any standard lead holder. Grades 5B through 9H. 



r.^^ EAGLE TURQUOISE 3379 



EAGLE 
TURQUOISE 

PENCILS AND LEADS 

are the largest-selling 
in the United States! 



• TURQUOISE LEAD HOLDERS: Hold any grade ol Turquoise lead. 




on science an 



di 



mpossi 



Lility 



"Scientific kno%vleclge is derived from obser\'ations of 
tlie world. Our imaginations, however, are not bounded 
by this constraint — we can easily imagine physical non- 
sense. Not everything is possible. We sometimes get the 
opposite impression because new scientific discoveries 
force us to modify an old theor>', and give rise to new 
and unexpected possibilities. But the point is that the 
old theory was verified for some class of physical phe- 
nomena, and a domain of validity was established. The 
new theory, however radically it may differ from the old 



one in its conceptual basis, must always agree with the 
old theor>' in the predictions it makes for that class of 
phenomena. Despite the greater generality of quantum 
mechanics. Newton's laws still apply to macroscopic 
objects. Parity is still conserved for the strong inter- 
actions. The old impossibilities still remain. Within the 
limits defined by the impossibilities, there is plenty of 
room for mans inventiveness to operate. In fact, the game 
is even more challenging that way. ' 
^Richard Latter, Head of the Physics Division 



THE RAND CORPORATION, SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA 

A nonprofit orgunizulion cngumd in rcscarcli on problems rtlutcd to national security and the public interest 



88 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



IF 



your urge to knovir more 




Slick-force reversal, a problem oj reverse elevator response occurring 
at sonic speeds, was solved by this sensitive AiResearch air data system 
incorporating transducer, computer and actuator. Engineers taking part 
in its development included mathematicians and specialists in analog 
computation, preliminary design, fractional hp motors and gears. 




genie and nuclear systems; pneu- 
matic valves; controls and air 
motors; system electronics; com- 
puters and flight instruments; gas 
turbine engines and turbine motors; 
prime engine development and 
industrial turbochargers. 

Upon employment, you may 
choose either a direct assignment or 
enter a 9 month orientation program 
which permits you to survey Garrett 



Your formula for advancement in 
present day technological industry is 
growth in knowledge and ability. 

Applying this principle at Garrett, 
engineers are achieving outstanding 
reputations for excellence in the 
following aircraft, missile and indus- 
trial fields: air conditioning and 
pressurization; heat transfer; cryo- 



THE 



985 » S. SEPULVEDA BLVD.. LOS ANGELES •« 5 . CALIFORNIA 

DIVISIONS: AIRESEARCH MANUFACTURING. LOS ANGELES • AIRESEARCH MANUFACTURING. PHOENIX • AIRSUPPLY 
AIRESEARCH INDUSTRIAL • REX • AERO ENGINEERING • AIR CRUISERS • AIRESEARCH AVIATION SERVICE 



engineering activities to aid you in 
selecting your field of interest. With 
company financial assistance you can 
continue your education at neighbor- 
ing universities. 

Typical project work is done in 
small groups where opportunities 
for learning, added responsibility 
and advancement are enhanced. To 
receive full information write to 
Mr. G. D. Bradley 



OCTOBER, 1957 



89 




Frank Kovalcik, Purdue '48, Covered 24,000 Miles in 
1956 as Western Editor of ELECTRICAL WORLD 



IF you're like most people, you think of an 
editor as a man who's "chair-borne" most of the 
time . . . tied to a desk at an indoor job. 

Nothing could be further from the facts when it's 
a McGraw-Hill editor you're thinking about. Frank 
Kovalcik, Western Editor of McGraw-Hill's 
ELECTRICAL WORLD Magazine, can quickly tell 
you that. He's anything but a desk man . . . covers 
11 states and part of Canada. Frank says: 

"In 1956, I made eight major field trips, covered 
close to 24,000 miles. I was underground in a trans- 
former vault in Los Angeles, inside a diversion tun- 
nel in Idaho, atop a steel transmission tower in 
northern California. Projects visited included The 
Dalles multi-purpose project, Hoover Dam, Hells 
Canyon, and even behind the scenes (electrically) at 
the Republican National Convention. But none of 
them can touch the "Operation CUE" A-Bomb test 
I covered a year ago! 

"My chance to witness the detonation of a nuclear 
device came when the Federal Civil Defense Admin- 
istration and the A.E.C. decided to test non-military 
effects of the blast. I reported on what happened to 
electrical utility lines and equipment." 

{Frank wouldnt say so, but his story set a record . . . 
from explosion to editorial pages in four days! The 
pictures at right were part of his original coverage of 
this fast-breaking— "hot" — news story for his maga- 
zine.) 

McGraw-Hill As A Place to Work 

Frank can tell you about this, too: 

"My first editorial job— with the Purdue Expo- 
nent in college — didn't use my engineering training, 
but it showed me the way to communicate what's 
new in engineering ... to report and interpret the 
work of engineers for the benefit of other engineers. 



"When I got my B.S. in E.E. I started with 
ELECTRICAL WORLD in New York. Within a year 
I was promoted to Assistant Editor and made re- 
sponsible for a department of the magazine. Before 
the big jump to San Francisco as Western Editor in 
'54 I served briefly as assistant to the managing 
editor. 

"As Western Editor my search for news takes me 
into all important phases of the electric utility indus- 
try — and into association with top management and 
engineering men. Working with them is a constant 
reminder that the choice of an engineering-editorial 
career was the right one for me." 

YOU— and McGraw-Hill Magazines 

You, too, may find the right opportunity for your- 
self with McGraw-Hill — the world's largest pub- 
lisher of business and technical magazines. If you 
are the kind of man we're looking for — both an engi- 
neer and an alert, inquisitive, knowledgeable man 
who likes to report, appraise and write, we want to 
talk with you. 

Send today for your copy of "Successful Careers 
in Publishing at McGraw-Hill" for information 
about career opportunities. Or write to us about 
yourself. We're interested in your background, extra- 
curricular activities, coUege record, summer jobs and 
career goals. Write to: 

Peter J. Davies, Assistant to The Editorial Director 

McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, Inc. 

330 West 42nd Street, New York 36, N. Y. 



Advertising sales opportunities, too! 

Excellent job openings exist on many McGraw-Hill 
magazines, domestic and international, for advertising 
sales careers. "Successful Careers" will give you the facts. 



McGraw-Hill Publications 



McGraw-Hill Publisliing Company, Incorporated • 330 West 42nd Street, New York 36, N. Y. 



. . . an editor on the go 




Frank Kovalcik (right) and 
Karl M. Bausch, Chief Elec- 
trical Engineer of Bechtel Co. 
and official observer at "Oper- 
ation CUE" for the Edison 
Electrical Institute. Smaller 
Olustrations taken by Frank 
show typical blast damage 
caused by a test detonation 
of a nuclear device to electric 
utility lines and other faciUties. 








IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS AT JPL 




The Jet Propulsion Labora- 
tory is a stable research anil 
development center located 
north of Pasadena in the 
joothills of the San Gabriel 
mountains. Covering an 80 
acre area and employing 
2000 people, it is close to 
attractive residential areas. 

The Laboratory is staffed by 
the California Institute of 
Technology and develops its 
many projects in basic re- 
search under contract with 
the U.S. Government. 

Opportunities open to quali- 
fied engineers oj U.S. citizen- 
ship. Inquiries now invited. 



JOB OPfOHTUNirilS 
IN THESE FIELDS NOW 



Weapons Systems Responsibility 



In the development of guided missile 
systems, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
maintains a complete and broad respon- 
sibility. From the earliest conception to 
production engineering— from research 
and development in electronics, guidance, 
aerodynamics, structures and propulsion, 
through field testing problems and actual 
troop use, full technical responsibility rests 
with JPL engineers and scientists. 

The Laboratory is not only responsible for 
the missile system itself, including guid- 
ance, propulsion and airframe, but for all 
ground handling equipment necessary to 
insure a complete tactical weapons system. 



One outstanding product of this type of 
systems responsibility is the "Corporal," 
a highly accurate surface-to-surface ballis- 
tic missile. This weapon, developed by JPL, 
and now in production elsewhere, can be 
found "on active service" wherever needed 
in the American defense pattern. 

A prime attraction for scientists and 
engineers at JPL is the exceptional oppor- 
tunity provided for original research 
afforded by close integration with vital and 
forward-looking programs. The Laboratory 
now has important positions open for 
qualified applicants for such interesting 
and challenging activities. 




92 



SYSTEMS ANALYSIS • INERTIAL GUIDANCE • COMPUTER EQUIPMENT 

INSTRUMENTATION • TELEMETERING • FLUID MECHANICS 

HEAT TRANSFER • AERODYNAMICS • APPLIED PHYSICS • PROPELLANTS 

MATERIALS RESEARCH 



JET PROPULSION LABORATORY 

A DIVISION OF CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 
PASADENA • CALIFORNIA 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



announcing .. 



RAYTHEON 
GRADUATE 
PROGRAM 






FOR STUDY AT CALTECH, 
HARVARD AND M.I.T. 
IN 1958-59 



Excetlence in Electronics 



RAYTHEON 



The Raytheon Graduate Program has been established 
to contribute to the technical development of scientists 
and engineers at Raytheon. It provides the opportunity 
to selected persons employed by Raytheon, who are 
accepted as graduate students by Harvard, M.I.T. 
or California Institute of Technology to pursue, at 
Raytheon's expense, regular courses of study leading 
to a master's degree in science or engineering in the 
institution of their choice. 

The Program requires, in general, two or three semes- 
ters of study, depending on circumstances, with the 
summer months spent in the Company's research, en- 
gineering, or manufacturing divisions. It includes full 
tuition, fees, book allowances and a salary while at 
school. Students also receive health, accident, retire- 
ment and life insurance benefits, annual vacation and 
other privileges of full-time Raytheon employees. 

To be considered for the Program, applicants must have 
a bachelor's degree in science or engineering, and should 
have outstanding student records, show technical prom- 
ise, and possess mature personal characteristics. They 
must be under 30 years of age on September 15 of the 
year admitted to the Program. They may apply for 
admission to the Program in anticipation of becoming 
employees of Raytheon. 

YOU ARE INVITED TO ADDRESS YOUR INQUIRY 
to Dr. Ivan A. Getting, Vice President, Engineering 
and Research, outlining your technical background, 
academic record, school preference, and field of interest, 
prior to December 1, 1957. 

RAYTHEON MANUFACTURING COMPANY, Waltham S4, Mass. 



OCTOBER, 1957 



93 



r:C: rr^.., ■v:::-_-r,-'^-:r^j;i-!V^^^^i:^-^^ 







^'^-'r•>~■■>i'"■^"•'-•-'■l''i•"•' 










The direct conversion of the clieniical 
energy of gases into electricity — long a 
dream of scientists and for years a lab- 
oratory curiosity — has been accomplished 
here with the development of the first 
fuel cell capable of economically pro- 
ducing thousands of watts of power. 
Using hydrogen and oxygen as tuei, 
the new silent source of power has been 
ileveloped by scientists at the Research 
Laboratories of National Carbon. 

First significant application of the 
new fuel cells is in providing silent elec- 
trical power for the U. S. Arm\ Signal 
Corp's new "Silent Sentry," which is 
being demonstrated this week at the 
Association of the L'. S. Army's Com- 
munications and Electronics Symposium 
in Arizona. The world's smallest known 
radar set, the lightweight, portable unit 
provides mobile Army forces with local 



combat sur\eillance of enem\' mo\e- 
nients despite smoke, darkness, or fog. 
A battery of fuel cells provides power 
to operate the radar set at the U. S. 
Army Electronic Proving Ground at 
Fort Huachuca, Arizona. Leading com- 
munications and electronics authorities 
fi'om both military and industrial or- 
ganizations are attending the three-day 
technical meeting. 

"Secret of the new fuel cell's suc- 
cess," Dr. C. E. Larson, NC's research 
\ice president, said, "is the chemically 
treated, hollow, porous carbon electrodes 
through which the gases enter the cell 
and which also conduct the electricit\ 
produced by the electrochenu'cal reac- 
tion. " 

Designed to work at ambient temper- 
atures, and at approximately atmospheric 
piessure, the new fuel cell is the first 



that does not depend on high tem|iera- 
tiu'es or pressures for efficient opeiation. 
Dr. Larson explained. 

The production of electricity directly 
from hydrogen and oxygen in a fuel 
cell is inherently more efficient than its 
production in a conventional steam sys- 
tem in which the heat is supplied by 
buriu'ng these same ga.ses. Practical limi- 
tations in utilizing all of the heat pro- 
duced reduce the overall efficiency of a 
steam system to approximately M) or .^^ 
per cent, while a fuel cell, which elim- 
inates the intermediate heat step and 
converts directly from chemical to elec- 
tiical energy, has a top efHciencx of 
about twice that figure. 

"Unlike conventional batteries, fuel 
cells remain essentially unchanged din- 
ing their operating life and produce 
electrical energy from chenucal fuels 



94 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Hydrogen and oxygen 
can now be converted 
into electrical energy 
as demonstrated by U. S. 
Ar'my's new 'Silent Sentry/ 
world's smallest radar set 



Yield Electricity 



supplied as needed," said Dr. Karl kor- 
desch, who has been responsible for the 
research work. "A primary battery, such 
as used in a flashlight, produces elec- 
trical energy by the consumption of its 
chemical elements. When the chemicals 
are used up, the battery is 'dead.' A 
secondary battery, such as used in an 
automobile, can be recharged during its 
life by passing electricity back into it 
where it is stored for future use. 

"This new fuel cell," Dr. Kordesch 
explained, "is merely a sealed jar into 
which are fed hydrogen and oxygen 
through the special hollow electrodes. 
The electrochemical reaction of the 
gases at these electrodes produces an 
electric cuirent, with oidy water as a 
b\-product. With the water disposed of 
by evaporation, the life of the fuel cell 
is theoretically unlimited. Cells have 

OCTOBER, 1957 



been operating here at Parma S hours 
a day, 5 days a week for the past year, 
with no signs of deterioration. This type 
of operation was purposely chosen for 
testing because the repeated starts and 
stops are much harder on the cell than 
would be continuous, around-the-clock 
operation. 

No power plant is 100 per cent ef- 
ficient. Dr. Kordesch went on, and some 
of the energy produced is wasted as 
heat. Operation of the new fuel cell at 
ambient temperatures results in high ef- 
ficiency. The new cell's normal operat- 
ing temperature ranges from 120 to 140 
degrees Fahrenheit. 

Ability of the new fuel cell to oper- 
ate at approximately atmospheric pres- 
sure has the obvious advantage of elim- 
inating hea\y, costly pressure \essels. If 
increased output is desired, however, it 



can be obtauied by mcreasmg the pres- 
SLue. For a gi\en cell, higher outputs 
vary directK with pres>ure. 

One Kilowatt Per Cubic Foot 

" I he efficiencN of operation of the 
new fuel cell depends on how it is used, 
but the general efficiency range is from 
f)5 to HO per cent when operated at nor- 
mal temperatures and pressures," Dr. 
Kordesch said. "Just as an automobile 
gives better mileage at moderate speeds 
than when it is 'gunned," .so does a fuel 
cell operate most efficiently when no at- 
tempt is made to draw the maximum 
power from a minimum volume. Effici- 
ency is affected by power density — that 
is, at lower currents, a greater percent- 
age of the chemical energy is converted 
to electrical energ\. Research and de- 
velopment to date indicate that the op- 



95 



' '-^^y 



"-ivL^^;.;f.>;-,-«.S 



tmiiHii tucl cell ili'sign will be iiiic wliuli 
will produce approximately one kilowatt 
of power froni a packaged unit one 
cubic toot in volume. 

The voltage across the electrodes of 
the new fuel cell is approximately one 
volt, and it is simply a matter of con- 
necting a number of cells in a circuit to 
get any voltage desired. The amount of 
electrical current produced b\ the cell 
depends on its physical size, so by var\- 
ing the number or size of cells, man> 
combinations of voltages and currents 
can be obtained. Basically, the fuel cell 
is most desirable for high current, low 
voltage use. 

Operation on Air Possible 

Although pure oxygen is required for 
higher current densities, the new fuel 
cell can be operated with hydrogen and 
air for producing smaller amounts of 
power. This is particularly advantageous 
for small, mobile units which can be op- 
erated simply on a tank of hydrogen 
and the surrounding air. 

The new design is also unique in that 
the cell can operate with hydrogen con- 
taining considerable impurities, which 
means that standard industrial grades of 
commercial purity can be used. 

Cell Construction and Operation 

Present designs call for the grouping 
of a number of specially catalyzed, hol- 
low porous carbon electrodes in a sealed 
cell containing a solution of potassium 
hydroxide as the electrohte. H\(lrogen 
and oxygen enter the cell through the 
hollow electrodes and diffuse through 
the porous carbon to the surface, where 
they come in contact with the electro- 
lyte. At the hydrogen electrode, the 
electrochemical reaction with the potas- 
sium hydroxide produces water and re- 
lea.ses an electron that enters the elec- 
trical circuit. The electron flows through 



the external circuit and returns to the 
cell at the oxygen electrode, where in 
the electrochemical reaction of the oxy- 
gen and the electrolyte, the electron is 
accepted. Ionic conductivity through the 
electrolyte completes the electrical cir- 
cuit. 

A concentric tube design has also been 
developed in which one electrode tube 
nestles within the other, with the elec- 
trolyte in between. The tubes are sim- 
ply made long enough to give the proper 
cell \olume for the current desired. 

Fuel Cell's Future 

The inherent advantages of the fuel 
cell make it an ideal source of silent 
electrical power in remote locations 
where conventional fuels or water power 
are not available. Military communica- 
tions systems, mobile power units, and 
stand-by power plants are but a few of 
the expected applications. 

As a producer of electrical energy, 
the fuel cell depends on a practical and 
economical source of hydrogen, a gas 
that at present is quite expensive and re- 
quires relatively bulky pressure vessels. 
Possible hydrogen sources include coal, 
which yields hydrogen when exposed to 
steam in the water gas reaction. Am- 
monia is another possible source, and 
the catalytic cracking of petroleum pro- 
ducts can also produce hydrogen. An in- 
expensive source of hydrogen is a must 
if the fuel cell is to compete with con- 



\entional power systems as thev are 
known today. 

Another possible future use of the 
fuel cell is in connection with the utili- 
zation of both solar and nuclear energy. 
One of the problems in harnessing the 
energy of the sun is the storage of 
power. During sunny periods, the en- 
ergy of the sun could be used to decom- 
pose water into hydrogen and ox\gen 
for later use in fuel cells. Nuclear en- 
ergy is known to decompose water, and 
in present nuclear plants in which the 
reactor serves only as a .source of heat 
in the conventional steam cycle, efiforts 
have to be made to prevent this decom- 
position. Perhaps it will work the other 
way, with nuclear energy directly pro- 
ducing hydrogen and oxygen for fuel 
cell operation. 

"The demand for portable and re- 
mote silent sources of power has in- 
creased rapidly in the last few years," 
Dr. Larson concluded, "and countless 
u.ses await a practical solution to the 
problem. The fuel cell holds great prom- 
ise for the future, and the day may well 
come when such common devices as 
lawnmowers, outboard motors, and even 
small cars will silently be propelled by 
the power output of fuel cells. Gone will 
be the noisy put-put of the combustion 
engine, for fuel cells will be using the 
same fuel to convert directly to elec- 
trical energy for powering quiet mo- 
tors." 



96 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



PHOTOGRAPHY AT WORK— No. 29 in a Kodak Series 



Sturdy 

sea legs 

for 

Radar eyes 




One of America's otfshore radar warning towers— Texas Tower III — built 
by Walsh Holyoke Division, Continental Copper and Steel Industries, Inc. 



— with every seam proved sound on X-ray film 




CAREERS WITH KODAK 

Witli pliutograpliy ;nul photDgrapliic 
processes becoming increasingly impor- 
tant in the business and industry' of 
tomorrow, there are new and challeng- 
ing opportunities at Kodak in research, 
engineering, electronics, design and pro- 
duction. If you are looking for such an 
interesting opportunity, write for infor- 
mation about careers with Kodak. Ad- 
dress: Business and lechnical Personnel 
Department, Eastman Kodak Company, 
Rochester 4, N. V. 



In record time, Continental Copper 

and Steel Industries, Inc. built and launched 

"Texas Tower III" and every 

weld was checked by radiography. 



Oere is a steel island 110 miles 
at sea— 2700 tons of 2-deck plat- 
fonn setting on staunch and stal- 
wart caisson legs 272 teet long. It 
is destined to stand against the 
hammering of giant seas and howl- 
ing hurricane gales. 

No place here for the tiniest 
flaw in a single weld! So the magic 
of radiography was called on to 
make sure. Two and a half miles 
of x-ray film hold positive proof 
that every seam has showed itself 
flaw-free and secure. 



Everyday radiography is work- 
ing like this for welders, large 
and small — for foundries inter- 
ested in making sound castings 
— for any manufacturer who must 
know internal conditions of a 
product without destroying it. It 
is one example of the many ways 
photographic processes work 
for business and industry — 
how it helps make better 
products and improve 
manufacturing 
procedures. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 
Rochester 4, N. Y. 





One of a 



s e r ; e s 



Interview with General Electric's 

Frank T. Lewis 

Mgr., Manufacturing Personnel Development 

The Next Four Years: 
Your Most Important 



The United States is now doubling its use 
of electrical energy every eight years. 
In order to maintain its position as the 
leading manufacturer in this fast-growing 
electrical industry, General Electric is 
vitally interested in the development of 
young engineers. Here, Mr. Lewis answers 
some questions concerning your personal 
development. 

Q. Mr. Lewis, do you think, on entering 
industry, it's best to specialize Immedi- 
ately, or get broad experience first? 

A. Let me give you somewhat of a 
double-barreled answer. We at Gen- 
eral Electric think it's best to get 
broad experience in a specialized 
field. By that, I mean our training 
programs allow you to select tl^e 
special kind of work which meets 
your interests — manufacturing, en- 
gineering, or technical marketing — 
and then rotate assignments to give 
you broad experience within that 
area. 

Q. Are training assignments of a pre- 
determined length and type or does the 
individual have some Influence in deter- 
mining them? 

A. Training programs, by virtue of 
being programs, have outlined as- 
signments but still provide real op- 
portunities for self-development. We 
try our best to tailor assignments to 
the individual's desires and demon- 
strated abilities. 

Q. Do you mean, then, that I could just 
stay on a job If I like It? 

A. That's right. Our programs are 
both to train you and help you find 
your place. If you find it somewhere 
along the way, to your satisfaction 
and ours, fine. 



Q. What types of study courses ore in- 
cluded In the training programs and 
when are the courses taken? 

A. Each of our programs has 
graduate-level courses conducted by 
experienced G-E engineers. These 
courses supplement your college 
training and tie it in with required 
industrial techniques. Some are 
taken on Company time, some on 
your own. 

Q. What kind of help do you offer em- 
ployees In getting graduate schooling? 

A. G.E.'s two principal programs 
of graduate study aid are the Honors 
Program and the Tuition Refund 
Program. If accepted on the Honors 
Program you can obtain a mas- 
ter's degree, tuition free, in 1 8 months 
while earning up to 75% of full-time 
salary. The Tuition Refund Program 
offers you up to 100% refund of 
tuition and related fees when you 
complete graduate courses approved 
by your department manager. These 
courses are taken outside normal 
working hours and must be related 
to your field of work. 

Q. What are the benefits of joining a 
company first, then going into military 
service If necessary. 

A. We work it this way. If you are 
hired and are only with the Company 
a week before reporting to military 
service, you are considered to be 
performing continuous service while 
you are away and you will have your 
job when you return. In determining 
your starting salary again, due con- 
sideration is given experience you've 



GENERAL 



gained and changes in salary struct- 
ure made in your absence. In addi- 
tion, you accrue pension and paid- 
vacation rights. 

Q. Do you advise getting a professional 
engineer's license?What's itw^orth tome? 

A. There are only a few cases where 
a license is required at G.E., but 
we certainly encourage all engineers 
to strive for one. At present, nearly 
a quarter of our engineers are li- 
censed and the percentage is con- 
stantly increasing. What's it worth? 
A license gives you professional 
status and the recognition and pres- 
tige that go with it. You may find, 
in years to come, that a license will 
be required in more and more in- 
stances. Now, while your studies are 
fresh in your mind, is the best time 
to undertake the requirements. 

Your next four years are most Impor- 
tant. During that period you'll undoubt- 
edly make your Important career de- 
cisions, select and complete training 
programs to supplement your academic 
training, and pursue graduate schooling, 
if you choose. These are the years for 
personal development — for shaping 
yourself to the needs of the future. If 
you have questions still unanswered, 
write to me at Section 959-6, General 
Electric Co., Schenectady 5, N. Y. 



LOOK 


FOR other 


interviews 


dis- 


cussing: 


• Salary 


• Advancer 


nent 


In Large 


Companies 


• Qualille< 


We 


Look for 


in Young Engineers. 






ELECTRIC 



Jt 



>/ -^ 



• 




Molten iron runs white tiot from a huge 
Udle into an open hearth furnace for con- 
version into steel. The quality of this steel 
IS the responsibility of this engineer. He 
also assists in coordinating open hearth 
operations and incoming raw materials 
and plans improvements in methods. This 
is a typical example of one of the many 
opportunities for engineering graduates 
at United States Steel. 




In choosing your career... consider United States Steel 
...tlie leader in the one industry that's truly basic! 



IT has been said: "United States Steel is 
the industrial family that serves the nation 
and the world." For in our homes and fac- 
tories ... in communications ... in transpor- 
tation — steel is basic. 

This means that in the complex and rami- 
fied organization which constitutes United 
States Steel, unlimited opportunities are pre- 
sented to the college graduate — whether his 
preference is engineering, administrative 
work, or any of a score or more of other 
activities in this highly diversified industry. 

In the final analysis, United States Steel is 
men . . . men of high caliber, exceptional 
ability, broad vision and complete dedication. 
Traditionally. United States Steel looks to 
its young men of today to become its leaders 
of tomorrow. 



For complete information on the oppor- 
tunities available at United States Steel for 
young men of ambition and foresight, send 
for a copy of our free book — Paths of Oppor- 
tunity. Doing so may very well be the begin- 
ning of a successful and rewarding career for 
you at United States Steel. 



® 



United States Steel Corporation, Personnel Division 
525 William Penn Place. Pittsburgh 30, Pa. 

Please send me a free copy of your book, "Paths of Opportunity." 
Name 



(College) 
Address 



(Course) 



(Date of graduation) 



City. 



UNITED STATES STEEL 



Editorial 

James Kries 

Dennis Brennan 

Lowell Burgin 

Mike Coleman 

Kay Hirt 

Frank Hunyady 

Dennis Lantz 

Dave Penniman 

John Taseher 

Business 
Roger Harrison 

Photographic 

Dave Yates 

George Knoblock 

Dennis Lantz 

Dave Moore 

Art and Makeup 

Arlene Hornick 

Dennis Brennan 

Candy Clifford 

Jim Koertge 

Kira Krock 

Dick Peterson 

Mary Ellen Roe 

Donna Toika 

Circulation 

Arlene Hornick 

Kay Goldsmith 

Bev Arent 

Sue Barnett 

Marilyn Day 

Jack Ehrmantraut 

Suzanne Franks 

Pat Gaganidze 

Jim Gerstle 

Liz Greenfield 

Jolyn Kagan 

Ruth Ann Kidoo 

Bev Konigsford 

Rita Levey 

Pat O'Laughlin 

Judie Paris 

Roslyn Snow 

Judy Yagalski 

Donna Zverow 

Faculty Advisers 

R. W. Bohl 
P. K. Hudson 
O. Livermore 



MEMBERS OF ENGINEERING 
COLLEGE MAGAZINES ASSOCIATED 
Chairman: Prof. R. W. Bohl, 
University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 
Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, City College Vector, Colorado 
Engineer, Cornell Engineer, Denver Engi- 
neer, Drexel Technical Journal, Georgia Tech 
Engineer, Illinois Technograph. Iowa En- 
gineer, Iowa Transit, Kansas Engineer, 
Kansas State Engineer, Kentucky Engineer, 
Louisiana State L'niversity Engineer, Louisi- 
ana Tech Engineer, Manhattan Engineer, 
Marquette Engineer, Michigan Technic, Min- 
nesota Technolog, Missouri Shamrock, Ne- 
braska Blueprint, New York University 
Quadrangle, North Dakota Engineer, North- 
western Engineer, Notre Dame Technical 
Review, Ohio State Engineer, Oklahoma 
State Engineer, Oregon State Technical I'ri- 
angle, Pittsburgh Slcyscraper, Purdue Engi- 
neer. RPI Engineer, Rochester Indicator, 
SC Knunu-cr, Rose Technic. Southern Engi- 
iifci . Sp^irlan Engineer, Texas A & M Engi- 
luvr, \\■,l^hl»Btun Engineer, WSC Tech- 
nonictcr. W'avne Engineer, and Wisconsin 
Engineer. 



THE ILLINOIS 

TECHNOGRAPH 



Volume 73 



Number 2 



ARTICLES: 

Winds for the Future Dennis Brennan 27 

Braving the Cold for IGY Don Rayburn 32 

Interviewing, a Student's Guide A. Carpenter 48 

Good Recruiting Policies Amer. Soc. Eng. Ed. 49 

Students Behind the Iron Curtain Liberation Comm. 52 

The Unsung Engineer Ken Cohen 62 

FEATURES: 

Editorial lim Kries 25 

Technocuties Dave Moore 37 

Know Any Cute Girls? 40 

Inspiration 51 

How to Conduct a Lab Test Missouri Shamrock 54 

New Books Mike Coleman 56 

Skimming Dennis Lantz 58 

Help 60 

Know Your Societies Don Snedeker 66 



Cover 

Our feature article, "Winds for the Future," inspired Mary 
Ellen Roe to do this cover. Notice how much in the article is 
represented in the design. 



Copyright, 1957, by lUini Publishing Co. Published eight times during the year (Octo- 
ber, November, December, January, February, March, April and May) by the XUini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second class matter, October 30, 1920, at the post 
office at Urbana. Illinois, under the Act of March i, 1879. Office 215 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscriptions $1.50 per year. Single copy 25 cents. All rights 
ed by The Illinois Technotiraph. Publisher's Representative -Littell-Murray-Barn- 
" ■ Chicago 11, 111. 369 Lexington Ave., New York 17, 




Lundrecls do it every day, without ever leaving the 
company. Confined by an unimaginative management, 
thev sink to tlie level of pencil pushers ... or slip-stick 
artists, losing the value of their intensive academic 
training. But the youthful engineer does not have to 
suffer this fat(;. Selecting the right company . . . with 
tliought to its reputation for leadership, initiative, and 
atmosphere . . . makes the difference. 

Linde Comjtany is world renowned for its progressive 
development in many fielils ... in atmospheric gases 
and acetylene, welding and flame processes and ctpiip- 
meut, synthetic crystals and adsorbents to name a few. 



A LEADER FOR SO YEARS 

•'I.in.lc" an.l "I nioii Carhi.lc" are rcgislered IraJcmarks of UCC. 



This leadership has only been won through the creative 
powers and initiative of Ll>fDE engineers and scientists. 
And, these men have received individual recognition 
of their achievements. 

You can find out more about career opportunities at 
LiNDE, in research, development, production, sales, and 
staff positions, from vour Placement Officer. A booklet, 
"Look to LiNDE for your future," is available by address- 
ing Mr. P. I. Emch, Central Recruiting Office. Linde 
Company, Division of Union Carbide Corporation, 
30 East 42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 




THE TECHNOGRAPH 




The Honeymoon's 

just beginning -for Goodyear Engineers 



Niagara's a busy place these days — 
for Goodyear engineers, too. 

Great things are happening there at 
our chemical plants. Production of 
organic accelerators and antioxidants 
is booming. And in vinyl resins, 
Goodyear continues to turn out what is 
probably the fastest-growing family of 
resins in the field. 

One reason for all this rewarding activ- 
ity is the proximity, in Niagara Falls, 
of vital raw material sources. Another 
and possibly more important reason, is 
the magnificent work of Goodyear engi- 
neers everywhere. 

In vinyl resins especially, their contri- 
butions have been outstanding. Out of 
the bold creative talents of our chemi- 
cal engineers, working closely with 
engineers in related fields, have come 
the Pliovic resins, the uses of which 
have increased twofold in the last ten 
years. 

What's more, new opportunities and 
new horizons are opening up almost 
daily for chemical engineers. We need 



them for practically everything we 
make and everything we do. 

We need them in Production, in Funda- 
mental Research, in Development, in 
pilot plant work, and in Sales. We need 
them in the designing of plants and 
equipment. W'e need them to provide 
technical service on our products. 

And we need engineers of all kinds to 
test their training and skills on an 
array of products so many and so 
varied— we doubt you'll find their match 
in all U. S. industry. Tires, Industrial 
Rubber Products, Shoe Products, 
AiRFOAM, Pliofilm, we could fill this 
page with a partial list of familiar 
items produced by — but not always 
identified with — Goodyear. 

If you're interested in a job and a life- 
time of useful accomplishment, you'll 
very likely find both in the Goodyear 
organization. How about letting us 
hear from you? Write: Technical 
Personnel, Dept. 806-W, The Goodyear 
Tire & Rubber Company, Akron 16, 
Ohio. 



There's a World of Opportunity at 



good/I^ear 



THE GREATEST NAME IN RUBBER 



e Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company. Akron, Ohio 



NOVEMBER, 1957 




SUSPENSION STORY-Chuck Steger, M.K. 7,2, prnl.inn: dynamic properties of new Air Spring 
developt'd by Von Polhemus (1.). A nationally recognized authority on suspension systems. Mr. 
Polhemus directs Structure and Suspension Uevelopment Group of GM's Engineering Staff, helps 
guide Chuck in his professional career. 



Because engineering ]& d. profession at GM 
-we offer you a career- not a job 



ONE REASOIV engineering standards at General Motors are 
so high is that General Motors recognizes engineering 
as a profession. And the men who engineer the inany dif- 
ferent products made by GM are respected for the profes- 
sion they practice. 

That is why, when you are invited to join GM as an engi- 
neer, you don't simply take a job— you start a career. 

Jt is a career that is rewarding both professionally and 
financially — starting on your first day of association with 
GM at any one of its 35 divisions and 126 plants in 70 
cities and 19 states. 

During your early days at GM, for example, you work 
with a senior engineer who guides your career along pro- 
fessional lines. 

^ou are also actively encouraged to pursue your education 
towards an advanced degree. For we at General Motors 
recognize that, in doing so, you will become more valuable 
to us and the engineering profession. 

You are given the opportunity to obtain professional recog- 
nition through participation in engineering society forums, 
presentation of technical papers, winning of patents and 
other recognition of your accomplishments. 

And you are also encouraged to ts^ke an active role in your 



community's affairs— because a truly professional man is a 
good citizen as well as a good engineer. 

All this is for a reason— and a good one. 

Many of the men who will fill the key positions at GM in 
the future are the young engineers joining GM today. This 
is not theory, it is fact. For 14 of our 33 Vice-Presidents 
are engineers, 23 of our 42 Division General Managers are 
engineers, too. 

Today we are looking for young engineers — such as you — 
who may fill these positions tomorrow. The rewards — both 
professional and financial — are substantial. If you feel you 
have the ability, write us. It could be the most important 

letter of your life. 

• • • 

CM positions now available in these fields: 

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING • ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING • METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 

AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING • CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 

CERAMIC ENGINEERING • MATHEMATICS • INDUSTRIAL DESIGN 

PHYSICS • CHEMISTRY 

General Motors Corporation 

Personnel Staff, Detroit 2, Michigan 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 






How does a 
chemist happen? 

"New ideas," Henry Tlioreau wrote, "come 
into the world . . . with a flash and an ex- 
plosion and perhaps somebody's castle 
roof perforated." Many a budding young 
chemist has introduced his parents to 
chemistry in similar fashion. But the real 
making of a chemist takes place in quiet, 
unspectacular little ways. 

There is the challenge of a teacher who 
asks two new questions for every one he 
answers. 

There is the mental sweat and labor of 
working out a quantitative analysis — and 
the glowing pride of being right, to the 
fourth decimal place. 

There is the romance of chemistry writ- 
ten wordlessly in the twinkle of an aging 
professor's eye. 

There is memorizing and mixing . . . 
calculating and titrating and cramming. 
Hour upon unending hour of them. 

But the hours, the days, the years of 
work and study silently dissolve in that 
magic moment when a new idea strikes . . . 
in that moment when all that has been 
done is forgotten, when all that seems im- 
portant is to learn if this new thing that has 
never been done, can be done. 

In that fleeting moment, the student be- 
comes a scientist and begins for the first 
time to use chemistry to help people gain 
a little more comfort, a little extra con- 
venience, a little better health. 

It is many such moments that make a 
career in the chemical industry exciting, 
challenging, and very, very satisfying. 
Write for a copy of our booklet which 
shows how you can achieve this type of 
satisfaction at Koppers. Koppers Com- 
pany, Inc., Pittsburgli 19, Pennsylvania, 




NOVEMBER, 1957 



CAREERS WITH BECHTEL 




Porter Thompson, Assistant Chiej Engineer, Refinery Division 

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 

One of a series of interviews in which 
Bechtel Corporation executives discuss 
career opportunities for college men. 



Question: Mr. Thompson, some en- 
gineering graduates seem to believe 
their first jobs might include little 
more than filing papers. Woidd that 
be true at Bechtel? 

Thompson: It would not. When the 
young man joins the Refinery Divi- 
sion, if he is a structural engineer he 
starts immediately to do structural de- 
sign work, under proper supervision. 
An electrical engineer would join our 
electrical group, working on electri- 
cal systems for refineries, doing some 
design work, taking off materials and 
working on instrumentation. 

Question: What about mechanical 
engineers? 

Thompson: Mechanical and chemi- 
cal engineers may either go right into 
the process department, where they 
would do calculations, or into the 
project group where they would do 
routine designing and write specifica- 



tions for pumps, exchangers, vessels, 
piping, instrumentation, insulation, 
etc. 

Question: There's certainly no sign 
of "paper shuffling," is there? 

Thompson: No. The training period 
is interesting right from the start. 
After a few months, we like to send 
the young engineer out into the field 
so he can see the end result of what 
he has been doing. 

Question: What has been your 
experience as to the length of time 
required to train a man ? 

Thompson: That will vary according 
to the man, so it's impossible to gen- 
eralize. The young man will have 
some responsibility right from the 
start, but it may well be a matter of 
several years before he can actually 
take full responsibility for running 
a job. 



Question: Assuming he handles his 
first assignments satisfactorily, what 
would be his first major step upward? 

Thom pson : After from 6 to 9 months 
his first responsible assignment might 
be on a project in connection with 
handling pumps. On his next project 
assignment he might have the re- 
sponsibility for handling pumps and 
exchangers. He would likely be 
assigned some other responsibility on 
each succeeding project. In that way 
he would get a good grasp of all types 
of work and eventually be capable 
of taking overall charge of a project. 

Question: Suppose he is in tlie 
structural phase; would there be any 
difference in his "basic training"? 

Thompson: No. He would still have 
to serve his apprenticeship, moving 
gradually into more and more com- 
plex design work as he gains, a little 
at a time, the knowledge and experi- 
ence which qualify him to handle the 
overall job. 

Bechtel Corporation (and its Bechtel 
foreign subsidiaries) designs, engineers 
and constructs petroleum refineries, 
petroclicmicul and chemical plants; 
thermal, hydro and nuclear electric 
generating plants; pipelines for oil and 
natural gas transmission, lis large and 
diversified engineering organization 
offers opportunities for careers in many 
branclws and specialties of engineering 
— Mechanical. . .Electrical. . .Structural 
. . . Chemical . . . Hydraulic. 

Write for new brochures showing the 
wide variety of projects Bechtel builds 
throughout the world. 

Address: John F. O'Connell, 

Vice President, Industrial Relations 

220 Bush Street, San Francisco 4, Calif. 




BECHTEL 
CORPORATION 

SAN FRANCISCO 
Los Angeles • New York • Houston 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




ENGINEER YOUR FUTURE AT BENDIX 



Your future success as an engineer 
depends on a variety of circumstances, 
some of which you may influence, 
others which you cannot. Fortunately, 
the odds are heavily in favor of those 
who plan intelligently and well. That 
is why we urge you to give your 
future the same painstaking study and 
thought you would accord any diffi- 
cult engineering problem. VVe believe 
you will make a wise decision if you 
plan your engineering future with 
Bendi.x. And here is why: 

Bendix is one of the nation's largest 
and most diversified engineering- 
research-manufacturing firms. The 
creative ability and ambition of 
Bendix engineers have contributed 



importantly to this growth. 

Then, too, Bendix is decentralized 
— with twenty-four scmi-autononious 
divisions located throughout the 
country. Nine of these have been 
created or acquired since 1950. They 
offer a broad range of opportunities 
for personal recognition and rapid 
advancement in a wide variety of 
interesting technical fields. 

Opportunities await the young engi- 
neer qualified in such diverse fields 
as electronics, clectromcchanics, ultra- 
sonics, systems, computers, automa- 
tion and controls, radar, nucleonics, 
combustion, air navigation, hydrau- 
lics, instrumentation, propulsion, 
metallurgy, communications, carbu- 



A thousand products 




retion, solid state physics, aerophysics 
and structures. Working with the 
country's leading engineers, you will 
have chances aplenty to develop your 
talents to the limits of your capability. 
Make it a "must" to meet the 
Bendix representatives when they visit 
your campus, or write today for fur- 
ther information concerning Bendix' 
progressive personnel policies, broad 
educational assistance program, and 
other personal Ijenefits. See your 
college placement director or ad- 
dress your inquiry to Dr. Gerald A. 
Rosselot, Director of University 
and Scientific Relations, Bendix 
Aviation Corporation, 1106 Fisher 
Building, Detroit 2, Michigan. 



a million ideas 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



Have insulation, will travel 

(AT MACH 2) 




Working with design engineers of a major aircraft 
company and Armstrong scientists, an Armstrong 
Sales Engineer recently provided the answer 
to an insulation problem in one of the world's 
fastest jet aircrafts. 

The problem was to insulate camera and radio 
compartments against temperature extremes while 
hurtling through the earth's atmosphere — sometimes 
at twice the speed of sound. Using his engineering 
background, the Armstrong Sales Engineer 
gathered all available data and then coordinated a 
series of tests at the Armstrong Research and 
Development Center. 

Results proved conclusively that a new Armstrong 
flexible foamed plastic was the answer to this 
insulation problem, and the material was specified 
by the designer when the aircraft was put into 
production. 

This is an example of how the skill and 
imagination of a good engineer and the product 
knowledge of a good salesman are blended into one 
career. Actually, Armstrong Sales Engineers 
handle a complete line of industrial insulations 
ranging in temperature scale from minus 300 degrees 
F. to 2800 degrees F. The technical sales work of a 
Sales Engineer includes determining the most 
efficient way of using insulation products and 
then making a complete estimate of materials 
and installation costs. 

If you would like to combine engineering with 
interesting sales assignments, consider Armstrong 
in planning your career. 

See your Placement Officer or write for the 
illustrated booklet, "Careers In Business." 

(>\rmstrong 

Personnel Administration Department 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania 

Armstrong Products for home and industry . . . 
Building Materials and Resilient Flooring, 
Industrial Specialties and Packaging Products. 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



r 




Phillips offers 

Careers in the 

Nation's Foremost 

Growth Industry 




Petroleum, in addition to being the world's 
most important source of energy, is also a 
vital raw material for thousands of petro- 
chemicals. Keeping pace with the increasing 
demand for oil and natural gas, the petroleum 
industry is a leader among the nation's growth 
industries. And Phillips Petroleum Company 
is the fastest growing of the ten largest oil 
companies. 

Phillips rapid and continuing expansion 
offers excellent opportunities for technical 
graduates to choose careers in such varied 
fields as research, exploration, production, 
manufacturing, transportation and marketing. 
And in addition to petroleum fuels and lubri- 
cants for automotive, aircraft and industrial 



use, we produce and market a wide variety of 
petrochemicals, and operate Government- 
owned rocket fuels and atomic energy instal- 
lations. 

Thus, no matter what your interests are, 
you will find a challenging opportunity in 
some phase of our operations. Write to our 
Technical Manpower Division today for your 
copy of our new brochure, "Career With A 
Future." And be sure to arrange for an inter- 
view with the Phillips representative when he 
visits your campus. 



D. R. McKeithan, Director 

Technical Manpower Division 

PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY 

Barflesville, Oklahoma 




NOVEMBER, 1957 




4 



INDIANAPOLIS, IND. : (Special) Hundreds of engineers and technicians, applying their 
academic training first hand, have designed, developed and produced the Allison 
Model 501 Prop-jet engine and Aeroproducts Turbo-propeller (above) shown in a test 
cell at the mammoth Allison plants in Indianapolis. These General Motors experts 
have produced an engine which develops nearly 2.3-horsepower per pound of engine 
weight. Already in use with Air Force Troop Carrier Wings in the U. S. and abroad, 
Allison Prop-jet engines and Aeroproducts Turbo-propellers will power America's 
first Prop-jet commercial airliner, the ultra-modern Lockheed Electra. 

Working shoulder to shoulder with propulsion system experts, newly graduated 
engineers are assuring their futures by carving a niche for themselves on the 
General Motors team of today. If you would like to know more about this team, write 
Personnel Department, College Relations, Allison Division of General Motors 
Corporation. Indianapolis, Indiana. 

10 THE TECHNOGRAPH 



ERINC 
iOOK 




graduate study opportunity.. 

an important "plus" benefit at Los Alamos! 



When a scientist or engineer comes to Los Alamos to work, it is important to him, and 
to us, that his fund of knowledge continues to grow. For that reason, the Graduate Center 
at Los Alamos is one of this interesting community's most valuable assets. 

The Center, operated by the University of New Mexico, offers graduate programs in the 
fields of nuclear, mechanical and electrical engineering, chemistry, physics and mathematics. 

Additional facts of interest . . , 

• Instruction is by recognized leaders in their scientific fields from the laboratory staff and from the 
University of New Mexico 

• Classes are held in the evenmg, a few minutes from your Los Alamos residence 

• One-half of your tuition is paid by the Laboratory 

• Unique laboratory facilities and equipment are available 

• Los Alamos technical library, among the nation's most complete, is open 24 hours each day for study 
and research. 

College graduates in the physical sciences and engineering who are interested in accepting 
important research assignments and at the same time continuing their advanced education 
are invited to write for more information. Details about the Laboratory, the Graduate 
Center and the delightful family living conditions in northern New Mexico will be sent by 
return mail. 



loslilalamos 

scientific laboratory 

f THE UNIVERSITV OF CAIIFORNIA " 




Director of Personnel 

Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory 

Los Alamos, New Mexico 

Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is a non civil service 
operation of the University of California for the U. S. 
Atomic Energy Commission 



LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO 



TAKE A G8ANT STEP TOWARD A REWARDING CAREER AT COLUMBIA-SOUTHERN 

Recent long strides in the fast-moving chemical industry have created unpar- 
alleled career opportunities for qualified young men. Future expansion of the 
industry promises to be tremendous. The Columbia-Southern Chemical Cor- 
poration, a leading producer of industrial chemicals, has giant-stepped ahead 
through continued expansion, research and development. Now, we need trained 
men . . . men capable of wearing our seven league boots and keeping up with 
the pace. If you seek challenging opportunities, investigate your career poten- 
tial with Columbia-Southern. You'll enjoy the varied assignments, the stimu- 
lating atmosphere and the room for creative thinking afforded by Columbia- 
Southern. If you are interested in building a successful, lifetime career with 
an established, progressive organization, Columbia -Southern Chemical is 
interested in you. Write today to the Personnel Manager at our Pittsburgh 
address or to any of our plants. 



COLUMBIA-SOUTHEKN 
CHEMICAL COKPOKATION 

SUBSIDIAKY OF PITTSBUR.&H PLATE CLASS COMPANY 

ONE GATEWAY C EN TE R • PITTS B U KG H 22 PENNSYLVANIA 




12 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Dr. M. A. Biondi (Mossachusetfs Institute of Technology, B. S. '44, Ph. D. '49) measuring ultra-micro- 
wave transmission through superconductors. This experiment is a joint effort of a group of 
Weitinghouse scientists aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the nature of superconductivity. 



Westinghouse Scientists Probe Secrets of Superconductivity, using... 

The Coldest Cold 



Temperatures within a fraction of a 
degree of absolute zero are produced 
routinely by Westinghouse scien- 
tists in their search for more knowl- 
edge of the important phenomena 
of superconductivity. These phenom- 
ena rank with the nature of nuclear 
forces as one of the most funda- 
mental problems facing the theo- 
retical physicist. When supercon- 
ductivity is completely understood, 
its principles could well revolu- 
tionize the electrical and electronic 
industries. 

The basic principles of supercon- 
ductivity have eluded an explana- 
tion since 1911 when the first ex- 
ample of the complete disapi^ear- 
ance of electrical resistance in metal 
was discovered. Today scientists at 
the Westinghouse Research Labo- 
ratories in Pittsburgh, are making 
significant contributions to the field 
by their low-temperature research. 

Superconductivity occurs in cer- 
tain metals, alloys and compounds 
which, below characteristic transi- 
tion temperatures, completely lose 
their electrical resistance. While in 



this superconducting state, they a-e 
perfectly diamagnetic, i.e. will com- 
pletely exclude magnetic flux when 
placed in a magnetic field. 

While this fundamental research 
is being conducted by theoretical 
physicists in search of knowledge 
and understanding of first principles, 
from even the terse description above 
of superconductivity, the imagina- 
tion begins to run wild with engi- 
neering appUcations. An electronic 
computer using superconductivity 
memory elements will switch 10,000 
times faster than conventional com- 
puter elements, will store 10 times 
as much information per unit space 
as ordinary computers. If the con- 
ditions can be fulfilled to make a 
substance superconductive in tem- 
perature regions other than that 



around absolute zero, design of every 
electrical or electronic product will 
be radically changed. Imagine con- 
sidering the commonest electrical de- 
sign problem without having to take 
into account electrical resistance! 

While these exciting considera- 
tions whet the imagination, they are 
not the primary object of the low- 
temperature research going on at 
Westinghouse. This and many other 
research projects are being conducted 
to discover new phenomena and new 
knowledge of the universe. It is done 
on the belief that all research is an 
investment in tomorrow. 

To the young, creative engineer 
this means exciting opportunities for 
graduate engineers in these exciting 
fields: 

ATOMIC POWER RADAR 

AUTOMATION SEMICONDUCTORS 

JET-AGE METALS ELECTRONICS 

LARGE POWER CHEMISTRY 
EQUIPMENT 

. . . and dozens of others 




Highly simplified diagram of the apparatus used 
to study the absorption of millimeter wavelength 
microwaves in superconducting tin waveguide. 
Studies of this type have shown the existence of 
a gap in the energy levels of superconductors. 
These studies hove thus provided key information 
in solving the puzzle of superconductivity. 



For more information on Westing- 
house research in tlie field of super- 
conductors and low-temperature 
studies, or information on job oppor- 
tunities, write Mr. J. H. Savage, 
Westinghouse Electric Corp., P.O. 
Box 2278, Pittsburgh 30, Pa. 



Westinghouse 

FIRST WITH THE FUTURE 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



13 



YOUR LEADERSHIP CAREER 

with INGERSOLL-RAND 




Testing a double-case, high-pressure, boiler (eed pump in IngersollRands hydrauhc labora- 
tory. Pumps of this type feed hot water into steam boilers at pressures up to 6500 psi. 



If you are interested in hydraulics... 

Here's what Pump Engineering at ingersoll-Rand 
can mean to you . . . 



No business or industry could long sur- 
vive without pumps. Their vital liquid- 
moving function is a fundamental part of 
our modern civilization. That's why pump 
engineering offers such a varied and fascinat- 
ing career — cutting across virtually every 
branch of every industry. 

IngersoU-Rand's Cameron Pump Division 
in Phillipsburg. N.J., is one of the oldest, 
largest and most progressive pump manu- 
facturing plants in the world. As an engineer 



engaged in research, design, manufacture or 
sales of I-R pumps, you can be sure of three 
things — prestige, permanence and progress. 
The Company is a leader in its field, and 
so are the men you will work with. Here, 
long-range security and opportunities for ad- 
vancement are second to none. For further 
information on leadership careers at Ingersoll- 
Rand, contact your Placement Office, or write 
to Ingersoll-Rand, 11 Broadway, New York 
4, New York. 



EXCELLENT OPPORTUNITIES NOW AVAILABLE: 

• Sales Engineering — ME, IE, EM, EE, CE — Bachelor 

• Design Engineering — ME — Bachelor & Master 

• Production Engineering — ME, IE — Bachelor 

• Business Engineering — Engineering & Business Degrees — Bachelor & Master 

In0er^oll-Rand 

10-689 ^r 11 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 4, N. Y. 



Compressors 
and Blowers 




Rock Drills 




Air & Electric Tools 




Steam Condensers 



=m 



"""A 




Diesel & Gas 
Engines 



14 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Melvin Janes, a friendly, sandy-haired man in 
his early forties, may well be the world's only 
trackwalker with a doctor's degree. 

Since 1953, Dr. Janes has trudged many a mile 
along railroad tracks from Maine to Texas. His 
mission: to check with his own eyes the killing 
power of a unique railroad-bed weed destroyer. 

Weeds are a menace to railroad men. They are 
a fire hazard; wheels slip on them; they hold 
moisture which rots the ties and undermines the 
roadbed; they make maintenance difficult. More 
than 50 kinds of weeds grow along the tracks. 
Some die easily and stay dead — but many are 
too tough for ordinary weed killers. 

When Mobil scientists developed a promising 
new oil-based killer — Agrontvl R — Dr. Janes 
took to the tracks to check it out. It killed the 
weeds, all of them. Moreover, it's heavy and 
doesn't blow on to adjacent farmland. It leaves 
a film that discourages new growth (and also 
helps keep the tracks from rusting). 

Chemical research is only one of many profes- 
sions represented on the world-wide roster of 
Mobil personnel. We also employ nuclear physi- 
cists, geologists, mathematicians, engineers of 
every type, marketing analysts, marketers . . . 
people prepared to handle more than 100 differ- 
ent positions. 

If you qualify, the Mobil companies offer you 
an opportunity to build a career through training 
that will utilize your talents to the fullest . . . 
constantly challenge your ingenuity . . . reward 
you with a lifetime of richly satisfying work. 

For more information about your opportunity 
with the world's most experienced oil company, 
see your College Placement Officer. 



Mobil 

SOCONY MOBIL OIL CO., INC. 

New YORK 17, N. Y. 

Leader in lubrication for 91 years 

AFFILIATES: 
General Petroleum Corp., Los Angeles 54, California 

Magnolia Petroleum Company, Dallas 21, Texas 

Mobil Oil of Canada Ltd., Calgary, Alberta, Canada 

Mobil Overseas Oil Company, New York 17, N. Y. 

Mobil Producing Company, Billings, Montana 

Socony Mobil Oil Company de Venezuela and 

other foreign producing componies 




NOVEMBER, 1957 



15 




on tne prevention or total war 



"Modern civilization is now faced with a task of fatal only prudence and fear, that can prevent total war. 

urgency. Unless man can find ways of limiting war. And yet. in iKe liglit of reason, the efforts to avert total 

modern civilization itself may perish. The difficulties of war hold more promise of success than the hope for 

limiting warfare today contrast with the capacity of freedom from all war. It still is easier, as it has always 

major powers to wage total war with ever fewer restric- been, for man to restrict war than to establish peace 

tions and ever fewer survivors. Today, it is no longer a on earth, 

common belief in the dignity and destiny of man. but — H. Speier. Head oj the Social Science Division 



THE RAND CORPORATION. SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA 

A nonprofit organiznlion engaged in research on problems related to national security and tl.e public interest 



16 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



\^<f 



THE LOCKHEED MISSILE SYSTEMS 

Advanced Study Program for 

M.S. and Ph.D. DEGREES 

in science and engineering 

University of California at Los Angeles • University of Southern California 
University of California at Berkeley • Stanford University 



The Graduate Study Council offers an Ad\ anced Stud)- Program to enable 
qualified individuals to obtain M.S. or Ph.D. degrees. Under this program the 
participants are employed in their chosen fields of research and development 
at Lockheed Missile Systems while concurrently pursuing graduate study. 

Eligible students must be U.S. citizens holding M.S. or B.S. degrees 
in fields of Engineering, Mathematics and Science applicable to missile 
systems research and development. 

Students are invited to contact their Placement Officer for additional information 
or write: 




COLLEGE RELATIONS DIRECTOR 



^/ 



"meeaj"^ 



A DIVISION OF LOCKHEED AIRCRAFT CORPORATION 
PALO AI.TO . StTNNYVALK • VAN NUYS • CALIFORNIA 





MISSILE SYSTEMS 



c 

Opportunities 



areer 



For 



Engineers 



DESIGN and 
DEVELOPMENT 

M.E./E.E./E.M. 


1 PRODUCTION 1 

1 I.E./M.E./E.E. ■ 




^HHUHIHI^ 





Serving the 
World's Industries: 

AUTOMOTIVE 

AVIATION 

CONSTRUCTION 

MINING 

RAILROADS 

PETROLEUM 

CHEMICAL 

ELECTRONIC 

APPLIANCES 

METAL WORKING 



SALES 
ENGINEERING 

M.E./E.E./E.M./I.E./C.E. 



You are cordially invited 

/o wee/ Mr. K.L JACKSON, 

our representative at the 

PLACEMENT OFFICE 

109 CIVIL ENGINEERING HALL 

Wed., December 11,1 957 ~ 1 0:00 A. M. 



Chicago Pneumatic tool company 

manufacturers of: PORTABLE and STATIONARY COMPRESSORS . ROCK DRILLS • ELECTRIC TOOLS 



PNEUMATIC TOOLS 



DIESEL ENGINES 



HYDRAULIC TOOLS 



AIRCRAFT COMPONENTS 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



in 



TO MAKE THINGS 
BETTER 
FOR AMERICA- 



Avco Manufacturing Corporation is a builder of quality products 
for the commercial economy and high-performance military 
systems for national defense. Aircraft engines, electronics systems, 
farm implements, kitchen components and the nose cone for the 
Air Force Titan intercontinental ballistic missile are being 
produced by Avco today. 

The foundation for Avco tomorrow is being laid at our Research 
and Advanced Development Division. We know that the tech- 
nology of the future will be built on scientific research being done 
now. Amazing new materials and new means for creating useful 
power hold out the promise of great advances in transportation, 
in agriculture, in consumer products, in nearly every aspect of 
our future economy. New scientific knowledge and its imaginative 
application can turn these promises into reality. Work at the 
Research and Advanced Development Division has already shown 
what rapid strides can be taken in a short time. 

The division is composed of outstanding scientists and engineers 
who work in an en\ironment that fosters creative investigation. 
It is the "breakthrough" dixdsion of a progressive manufacturing 
organization. Avco management recognizes the role of the 
scientist in modern technology. Avco's determination to make 
things better for America places the resources of a large, diver- 
sified, aggressive company firmly behind the Research and 
Advanced Development Division. 




Ra>"mond A. Rich 
President, Avco Manufacturing Corporation 






Raymond A. Rich, President, Avco Manufacturing Cor|) 




Pictured above is our nmv Ivisianli ami I icvclopment Center now under 
construction in WilminRlcm, Mass:icliuse[ls. Scheduled for completion in 
early 1958, this ultramodern laboratory will house the scientific and tech- 
nical staff of the Avco Research and Advanced Development Division. 



Avco's new research diN^ision now offers unusual and exciting 
career opportunities for exceptionally qualified and forward- 
looking scientists and engineers in such fields as: 



Aerodynamics • Electronics • Mathematics • Metallurgy 

Physical Chemistry • Physics • Thermodynamics 

Engineering: 

Aeronautical • Applied Mechanics • Chemical ■ Electrical 

Heat Transfer • Mechanical • Reliability • Flight Test 

Write to Dr. R. W. Johnston, Scientific and Technical Relations, 
Avco Research and Advanced Development Division, 
20 South Union Street, Lawrence, Massachusetts. 



Collins helped assure the success of SAC's globe- 
circling non-stop flight. Provided the single 
sideband ground net that kept Strategic Air Command 
headquarters in almost continuous contact with 
this history making flight throughout its 24,325 
mile odyssey. Another contribution of Collins 
creative leadership in electronics. 



^,UND THE 



VVOBLl^ 



IN 45 



HOUBS, 



19 



MINUTES 




ollin.s Radio Company is a 
^-namic, fast-growing company, 
our placement office can 
11 you when a repre- 
mtative will be on 
impus, or write to— 

/ 



L. R. Nuss 

Collins Radio Company 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa 



Fred Aiken 

Collins Radio Company 
2700 W. Olive Ave. 
Burbank, California 



Harold McDaniel 

Collins Radio Company 
1930 Hi-Line Drive 
Dallas, Texas 



How to make the most 
of your engineering career 



A SERIES 



go where 
engineers don't get lost 




Zn tliP CrOUJU *^"^ °^ ^^^ "^^"^ hurdles that can slow 
down },our progress as an engineer is 
getting lost in the crowd. It can happen in 
smaller companies as well as in big ones. 

That's because size itself is not the villain. 
The thing to watch out for is the kind 
of company organization that swallows you 
up and erases your individual identity. 

Boeing is one company that takes steps to see 
that engineers don't get lost in the shuffle. 
Boeing engineers, for instance, work in small 
integrated teams where initiative and ability 
get plenty of visibility. Each engineer gets 
a personal merit re\ ievv every six months — 
assuring )ou a continuing opportunity for 
individual recognition. In addition, 
Boeing engineers are eligible for 
advancement at any time between reviews. 
There are many other advantages to careers 
at Boeing — including assignment to 
exciting missile and jet-age projects, high 
starting salaries, liberal retirement and 
company-paid graduate study programs. 

There zrefaiuily advantages, too. One is a 
choice of three sections of the country in 
which to live. In each Boeing community 
you'll find good housing and schools, a 
youthful spirit, and abundant recreational 
facilities for the whole family. 

Boeing has openings for engineers, and for 
physicists and mathematicians — openings 
with a world of opportunity for advancement. 



Now is llie lime to slait planning a/icad. 
Consult your Placement Office, or write: 

JOHN C. SANDERS, 

Staff Engineer, Personnel Administrator, 

Boeing Airplane Co., Seattle 24, Washington 

R. J. B. HOFFMAN, 

Chief of Engineering Personnel, 

Boeing .Airplane Co., Wichita 1, Kansas 



Aviation leadership since 1916 

SeoHle. Washinglon Wichita. Konsus Melbourne, Florida 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



21 




Why they chose FISHER 



A thousand miles up the Amazon 

CONTROLS MUST FUNCTION ... Wir/fOUT PAMPERING! 




A thousand miles up the Amazon puts you about 200 miles south of 
the Equator— and a whale of a long way from service, as we know it. 
But, nevertheless, there stands the Manaus Refinaria del Companhia 
de Petroleo da Amazonia, complete with the most modern refining 
equipment. 

Here, every bit of equipment must stand on its own merit . . . there 
is no time for pampering. Sources of supply and repair are too far 
away to help much. 

So, when they hacked this refinery our of the jungle, they chose Fisher 
control valves and liquid level controls. 

In a recent report, Arturo Amorim, Vice President and Director of 
Operations, states, "... All are delivering excellent performance"! 
Which again proves that you can't beat more than three quarters of a 
century of Fisher engineering know-how for day-after-day depend- 
ability. 



FISHER GOVERNOR COMPANY 

Marshalltown, Iowa/ Woodstock, Ontario 



Manaut Refinery 
COMPANHIA de PETROLEO do AMAZONIA 

Designed by 
SOUTHWESTERN ENGINEERING COMPANY 

los Angelet. Colifornio 
Inaugurated September 6, 1956 

fluid Catalytic Crocking Unit 

Designed by 

UNIVERSAL OIL PRODUCTS COMPANY 

Des Ploines, Illinois 

CONTROL VALVES— LlOUlO LEVEL CONTROLS 
Supplied by 

FISHER GOVERNOR COMPANY 
AAarshoMlown, Iowa/ Woodstock, Ontario 




22 



S//VCE 1880 
WORLD LEADER IN RESEARCH FOR BETTER PRESSURE AND LIC3UID LEVEL CONTROLS 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Pushing back the frontiers... in chemistry 



Exploring new frontiers is still a pretty excit- 
ing business, especially in the great scientific 
and research centers like the Whiting Labora- 
tories of Standard Oil Company. Here men 
like Dr. Omar Juveland are engaged in impor- 
tant exploratory work such as the search for 
new and improved catalysts for use in high 
polymer chemistry. In the photograph. Dr. 
Juveland is recording data on a polymerization 
process taking place in this research area. 

Dr. Juveland is one of the group of young 
scientists in Standard's Hydrocarbon and 
Chemicals Research Division. Born in Lake 



Mills, Iowa, he did his graduate work in or- 
ganic chemistry at the University of Chicago. 
He received his BS in chemistry from St. Olaf 
College, Northfield, Minnesota, in 1950. He 
is a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, 
and the American Chemical Society. 

Busy young men like Dr. Juveland have 
found opportunity and work to their liking in 
the Standard Oil Laboratories at Whiting, 
Indiana. They share in the progress and ac- 
complishment which contribute so much to 
the technical advancement and improvement 
required by America's expanding economy. 



Standard Oil Company (standard 



910 South Michigan Avenue, Chicogo 80, lllinoii 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



23 




Marquardt Means Opportunity 



The Marquardt Aircraft Company was founded in November, 1944 to conduct research, 
development, and manufacturing operations in ramjet propulsion. From the beginning, 
the principle company objective was to establish and maintain a high level of com- 
petence in engineering. 

Both because of the national need and the inclination and experience of the key 
people, Marquardt has continued to pioneer the development of products containing 
a high content of scientific and engineering newness. Prominent examples are the 
supersonic ramjet, providing cruise power for the Boeing Bomarc interceptor missile 
and the Lockheed X-7 Test Vehicle; ram air auxiliary power packages, on the Chance 
Vought F-8U and the Lockheed F-104A; thrust reversers; afterburners; and a wide 
range of ramjet and turbojet controls and accessories. 

Since the technical areas available to a company specializing in advanced controls 
and propulsion work are numerous, you will find a broad range of engineering oppor- 
tunities at Marquardt. Check your Placement Office for dates when Marquardt rep- 
resentatives will visit your school, or write Dock Black, Professional Personnel, Mar- 
quardt Aircraft Company, Van Nuys, California. 



Roy E. Marquardt, at 39, is the youngest 
chief executive officer in the aircraft 
engine business. A graduate of the Cali- 
fornia Institute of Technology, he was 
Director of Aeronautical Research at the 
University of Southern California prior 
to founding Marquardt Aircraft Co. 



marquardt 



Van Nuys, California 
Ogden, Utah 



F/RST IN RAMJETS 




AIRCRAFT CO. 



24 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



From the Editor's Desk . . . 



Who's at Fault? 



Every year about this time, the Technograph publishes an edi- 
torial telling you to "support your engineering society." And every 
year about this time, a fev^ readers skim this page and mutter "I 
haven't got any lime to spend chatting over a cup of coffee about 
big horizons for engineers." 

Something is wrong. The engineering societies, while providing 
a social setting for engineers with common interests, have another, 
more important function. Theirs is the job to transform the ivory- 
tower student of today into the practicing engineer of tomorrow. 
Their shortcomings in this area reflect on the student body. 

When you attend a society meeting, do you demand from the 
society the things you want and expect from the society? Or do you 
merely warm a chair and serve as a little bit of accoustical-absorba- 
tive material, helping to improve the room acoustics? Engineering so- 
cieties are like mirrors: they reflect the interest of their members. 

There are several ways in which you can help your society im- 
prove: 

1 . Attend as many meetings and social functions as possible. 

2. Ask questions about anything you don't fully understand. You 
should know what your society is doing. 

3. Present your views so that they may be acted upon. 
And most important of all, join your society . . . NOW! 

JTK 



NOVEMBER, 1957 25 










jLr.'-" ■ i'*)! 



)^^^^[^%£«^^;g:^a9»^is^ll^^>«<$^^ 



Winds 
for the 
Future 



by Dennis Brennan 



Recent developments at Illinois' 
Aero Department open new 
roads of experimentation and 
research in science of 
Aerodynamics 




A LAMINATED WOOD model used for testing in the subsonic tunnel 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



27 




RAYMOND BREWER, SENIOR lab technicion, hangs weights from wires 
which keep the model still in the tunnel. 



1^ 



1^ 



^ 




DR. A. I. ORMSBEE watches the model through test section while Brewer 
maintains an even air flow. 



rite iiuthor uixhcs lo tluiitk Prof. 
Robert McCloy ami Dr. Allni Ornfshce 
'if the Ihiivcrsily .liro Di parti/ii/il for 
thiir "tiiti and coi/iforl" in the /"</>- 
iirtitii/ii 'if this iirlulc. 



'I he roar is (icatenmji. The tiny 
model vibrates slightly and then be- 
t'omes perfectly still. The thin wires 
that hold it in place are almost invisible, 
and it seems that the model is resting 
in mid-air, completely defying any law 
ot gravity. Then the wind is turned 
off, and it dies out with a loud howl 
and a sharp whine. Another experiment 
with the wind tunnel of the Illinois' 
Aeronautical Engineering [department 
is finished. 

With the emphasis that has come to 
be placed on the science of aerodynamics 
in the past few years, new methods of 
research and analysis have also been de- 
veloped. Better and more efficient means 
of anahzing the behavior of air flow 
ha\e become necessary to facilitate its 
study and application. 

The Aero Department is now in the 
process of completing a new supersonic 
wind tunnel. Started last year, the tun- 
nel incorporates into its operation all 
of the factors necessary for the analysis 
of air flow up to the speed of Macli 
four. 

Mach number refers to the ratio be- 
tween the velocity of the airplane and 
the speed of soiuid. If the speed of sound 
at ordinary temperature is 750 m.p.h. 
and the speed of the aircraft is 1,500 
m.p.h., the Mach number is two. 

Although the new tvmnel has neared 
completion in little more than a \ear, 
the Aero Department is no stranger to 
wind tunnel operation. For ten years 
the department has operated and main- 
tained a subsonic (up In the speed of 
sound ) tunnel. 

Hoth the subsonic and supersonic 
(above the speed of sound) tunnels are 
about forty feet long and twenty feet 
high. While both are used for the same 
purpose, the observation of airflow 
characteristics, the likeness ends there. 

The subsonic tunnel resembles a huge, 
square doughnut. The continuous flow 
of air passing through the tunnel is 
generated by a four-bladed fan, measur- 
ing four feet in diameter, situated in 
the lower half of the doughnut. The 
fan is driven by a 50 h.p. electric motor 
located outside one end of the tunnel 
and connected to the fan by a long 
drive shaft. 

The test section, the portion of the 
tunnel where the model is placed, meas- 



I 



28 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



ures 36 inches by 48 inches and is oc- 
ragoiially shaped. Both sides of the sec- 
tion are paneled with Plexi-glass plates. 
The remainder of the tunnel is con- 
structed of laminated wood which has 
been sanded smooth. 

An even air flow is maintained in the 
subsonic tunnel by means of a wide, 
contracting nozzle placed ahead of the 
test section. Even flow is also controlled 
by curved vanes which guide the air 
around the four corners of the dough- 
nut. It is not necessary to change any- 
thing other than the model while test- 
ing in the subsonic tunnel. The highest 
speed attainable is only 130 m.p.h., as 
compared to the 3,000 to 3,300 m.p.h. of 
the supersoruc tunnel. Models used for 
testing in the subsonic tunnel are made 
of either laminated wood or metal. 

The model is positioned in the test 
section by one of two methods. The 
first involves the use of wires and 
scales. The model is hung from scales 
on top of the tunnel by wires attached 
to the model which pass through to the 
floor. Since the model must be absolute- 
l\ still while in the tunnel, stabilizing 
weights are suspended from the wires 
to insure perfect balance. 

The scales are used to weigh the 
model when the air is off and when the 
air is passing through the timnel. The 
difference between the weights is com- 
pared with standard data and the forces 
acting on the model (lift, drag, pitched 
moment and angle of attack) are cal- 
culated. 

The action of the air flow in the sub- 
sonic tunnel may also be observed visual- 
ly by means of small tufts of thread 
measuring about two inches in length 
attached to the surface of the model. 

Normally the passing wind shoots 
them backwards in smooth, straight 
lines. If there is turbulence present at 
any given point on the surface of the 
model, however, the tuft at that point 
will angle off to some different direc- 
tion. If the model is in a stall position, 
the tufts will show where the smooth 
air flow separates. The direction of the 
tufts are observed through the Plexi- 
glass enclosed test section and then 
compared with predicted results. 

The second method of measuring 
forces acting on the model involves the 
use of a manometer, a pressure indica- 
tor. Instead of hanging the model from 
wires attached to scales, a hollow tube 
called a "sting" is run off from the 
model's tail. The sting leads back for 
several inches and then angles off to 
the top or side of the tunnel. Since the 
forces to be measured are either in 
front or on the surface of the model, 
the sting will not interfere with the 
reading of the manometer. 

The sting is used in measuring the 
forces acting on special points of tlie 
model and as a means of securing the 




DR. ORMSBEE OBSERVES the action of the 
attached to the surface of the model. 



air i\ow on the tufts of thread 



^ 



^ 



^ 




WITH THE AID of these gauges, air flow 
constant. 



the subsonic tunnel is kept 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



29 




THE TEST SECTION of the supersonic tunnel is glass enclosed and measures four 
inches by seven inches and is rectangularly shaped 



model in the tunnel. Precision holes aic 
drilled into a thin brass or copper plate. 
The plate covers the model and tubes 
are run from its interior, back through 
the sting and out of the tunnel where 
they are connected to the manometer. 

Bernoulli's principle is used to gain 
the high speeds in both the subsonic and 
supersonic tunnels. This law states that 
the How of a liquid or gas through a 
tube reduces the pressure at right angles 
to the line of motion. If the fluid flows 
through a constriction in the tube, its 
speed increases, thus further reducing 
the pressure. Actually, the wind tun- 
nels are large scale Venturis — tubes that 
converge and then diverge. 

In the subsonic tunnel, the model is 
placed in the minimum or diverging 
point of the tube. In the supersonic 
tunnel, it is placed at the end of the 
diverging section, for here is where the 
greatest speeds may be obtained. 

The supersonic tunnel is onh' three- 
fourths of a square doughnut, and uses 
a "blow down" flow of air for its oper- 
ation. Instead of making a continuous 
circle as it does in the subsonic tunnel, 
the air passes through the tunnel and 
out into the open. The air source is a 
1,000 cubic foot tank. Air is compressed 
into it by several compressors. 

The tunnel is constructed of alum- 
inum and steel, and its test section has 



a four by seven inch rectanglar cross 
section. To obtain a different Mach 
number, it is necessary to change the 
shape of the nozzle blocks which in- 
crease or decrease the speed of the wind. 

A constant Mach number in the tun- 
nel is maintained by means of a servo 
valve. The pressure from the t:.nk to 
the valve starts at 100 p.s.i. and gradu- 
ally decreases as the air escapes. The 
valve keeps constant the pressure need- 
ed for a specific Mach number. To at- 
tain a Mach tu'o, the valve must regu- 
late the p.s.i. to a constant 30 until the 
supply is diminished. The air passes 
through the valve and into a settling 
chamber which helps reduce turbulence 
throughout the tunnel. From the settling 
chamber the air passes into the throat 
of the venturi where it changes from 
pressure to speed. 

The supersonic tunnel also utilizes 
the manometer. The models, however, 
differ from those used in the subsonic 
tunnel. Only precision metal blocks are 
used in supersonic testing. 

Observations of the air How charac- 
teristics in the supersonic tunnel are 
made by two methods at the Depart- 
ment. These are the shadowgraph and 
the Schlieren device. Both utilize pho- 
tographic plates, lenses and light 
sources, and both produce actual pho- 
tographs of the air How passing over 



the models. Both show density varia- 
tions in the air How optically. 

The simpler of the two methods is 
the shadowgraph. In this system, light 
from a small, intense source passes 
through the tunnel and onto the photo- 
graphic place that is positioned on the 
opposite side. The air flow causes the 
parallel light rays to bend, thus form- 
ing a distinct patterns on the plate. 
This system photographs the change in 
the density. The Schlieren method pho- 
tographs simply the density. 

The Schlieren is much more compli- 
cated to set up. Where the shadowgraph 
utilizes only a light source and a pho- 
tographic plate, the Schlieren involves 
these plus two parabolic nu'rrors. All 
four components are mounted on rigid 
bases about four feet high. With the 
Schlieren device, only models having a 
sharp leading edge are used. 

The light source, a high-pressure, 
monochromatic mercury light, beams di- 
rectly into one of the mirrors. This mir- 
ror is situated in a position parallel to 
the other. Each is slightly angled so 
that a light ray may be reflected from 
the source to the first mirror, reflected 
through the test section of the tunnel 
and onto the opposite mirror where it 
is then reflected onto the photographic 
plate. 

Although the Mach number in the 



30 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



supersDiiic tunnel lias been liniiteii to 
four, it is possible to attain Mach 3.4. 
This speed, however, lasts for only a 
fraction of a second and occurs only 
when the air flow is wide open and the 
pressure in the tank is at its maximum. 
The reason for the limitation to Mach 
four is that the tank will not supply 
enough air beyond this to maintain a 
usable running time. Presently a speed 
of Mach two may be maintained for 
about a minute and a half. 

The .Aero Department is now in the 
process of planning the construction of 
a hypersonic tunnel, one that would at- 
tain Mach numbers of 20 and higher. 
This is a long range project, however, 
and will not be completed in the near 
future. 

Wind tunnels are used by the large 
aircraft corporations to experiment with 
new designs and to improve old ones. 
The new supersonic tunnel here is de- 
signed after one of a much larger scale 
built by the National Ad\isory Commit- 
tee for Aeronautics at Langley Field. 
Virginia. 

The overall system of wind tunnels 
may be called a process of refining de- 
sign. The subsonic tunnel of the Aero 
Department is used mainly as an illus- 
tration and a classroom aid for aero- 
dynamics. It has been the basis for re- 




DR. ORMSBEE AND John Schierholfz, senior in Aero, observe two man- 
ometers, pressure registering devices that are attached to the model and 
which register air pressure at certain points on the model. 



search for a few theses, but since the 
emphasis in aerodynamics is now on su- 
personic speeds, the subsonic tunnel is 
seldom used for this purpose. 

The Aero Department hopes that the 
new supersonic tunnel will be used for 



experimentation and research. Because 
of the importance of aerodynamics in 
modern science, the new tunnel will 
play an important role in producing cap- 
able, qualified University of Illinois 
aeronautical engineers. 




MODELS USED FOR testing in the supersonic tunnel are made of precision steel 
and are of varying dimensions 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



31 



MALLLI 1 SOUND 




For IGY . . . 



Bravinc 
Down 



Lighted only by glittering stars and 
an occasional, spectacular Aurora Astra- 
lis, seven small Antarctic outposts have 
battened down the hatches for a long, 
cold winter's night. The sun has set 
below the northern horizon, not to re- 
appear again until October. With it 
went the 12 ships, 40 aircraft and more 
than 3,500 Navy, Coast Guard, Air 
Force, Army and Marine personnel that 
had bustled around and across this deso- 
late, ice- and snow-covered wasteland. 

Only 169 Navy men and 148 scien- 
tists remain behind, scattered at five sta- 
tions around the continent and at two 
stations inland, one 10.000 feet high at 
the geographic South Pole, the other 
high on the Rockeller Plateau. 

Only 169 Navy men and 148 scien- 
tists remain behind, scattered at five sta- 
tions around the continent and at two 
stations inland, one 10,000 feet high at 
the geographic South Pole, the other 
high on the Rockefeller Plateau. 

Now the men can relax, and turn 
over most of the work to the scientists 
retaining only routine watches, main- 
tenance, supply handling and the run- 
ning of comnuniications stations. An al- 
most impossible schetlule has been chal- 
lenged and conquered, and the United 
States is ready for its scientists to carry 
out their assignments of observation and 



investigation during the 1957-58 Inter- 
national Geoph\sical Year. 

Frequently the tasks had seemed in- 
surmountable; the hazards too great. 
One of these was the establishment of 
Byrd Station in Marie Byrd Land, high 
on the Rockefeller Plateau. ]VIore than 
500 tons of cargo had to be moved the 
660 miles on 20-ton sleds pulled by 
special Caterpillar Low-Ground-Pres- 
sure D8 Tractors, 72,000 pound ma- 
chines with extra - long, extra - wide 
tracks, exerting less than 4 pounds per 
square inch ground pressure. 

Late last season, before the 1955-56 
sun set, a team of weasels, personnel 
carriers and D8s moved out to mark a 
trail and establish a fuel cache at the 
360-niile mark in preparation for the 
coming year. But 200 miles from Little 
America V, they encountered a heavily 
crevassed section. Cracks large enough 
to swallow the Queen Mary interlaced 
a five-mile belt where the Ross Ice Shelf 
meets the mountains rising to the Rocke- 
feller Plateau. 

Ln.iblc to go around the crevasse belt, 
the Seabees started across, gingerly feel- 
ing their way along. When a crevasse 
was located, it was blasted open with 
explosives and filled with snow dozed 
in by the DSs. Hacking up from one 
crevasse to pick up another blade load 



of snow. Max Kiel's D8 plunged back- 
ward 100 feet down into another cre- 
vasse no one had seen, crushing the 22- 
year-old Portland, Ore., Seabee in the 
cab. 

This year the men came back with a 
newly-designed crevasse detector, devel- 
oped in the Arctic. Mounted on a wea- 
sel, a light tracked vehicle about the 
size of a jeep, the detector utilized two 
dishpan - shaped transmitters towed 
astern to send 3,000 volts forward into 
the snow and ice. Five more dishpans on 
booms slid ahead over the snow, receiv- 
ing impulses from the transmitters. Voids 
under the surface, both across and par- 
allel with the trail, were easily detected 
and bypassed, or blasted open and filled 
with snow if bypassing was not possible. 

Sixteen days and 4,700 pounds of ex- 
plosives later, the battle with the dan- 
gerous chasms had been won, and the 
party sped on. Major Merle Dawson, 
Army Transportation Corps, from Wil- 
liamsburg, Va., marked the trail every 
fifth of a mile with red flags on bamboo 
poles, lining up the poles through bi- 
noculars for a course straighter than 
would be possible with a compass. 

As the trail-blazers neared the site of 
the proposed station deep in the heart 
of Marie Byrd Land, the Antarctic's 
first tractor train set out from Little 



32 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



he Cold 
Jnder 



by Don Rayburn 



AmenVa V on the morning of Decem- 
ber 5. Six Caterpillar LGP D8 Trac- 
tors, each pulling two 26-ton sleds, a 
seventh 1)8 pulling sleeping and mess- 
ing wannigans and a weasel delivered 
160 tons of cargo for the construction 
of Byrd Station, 632 miles distant, in 
just 18 days and two hours, across a 
trail climbing from near sea level on 
the ice shelf, across the crevasse belt, 
and up 5,1)00 feet onto the Rockefeller 
Plateau. 

Extreme caution had to be exercised 
in crossing the crevassed area. Only one 
37-ton D8 at a time, pulling one 26-ton 
sled, would venture up the 7j/-mile 
trail. Then Chief Warrant OfScer Vic 
tor Young, USN, of Wickford, R. I., 
in charge of train, would wait for the 
"nervous" ice to settle before sending 
another load across. As an extra pre- 
caution, operators walked behind their 
tractors, guiding their behemoths by 
reins attached to steering and master 
clutch levers. If the tractor should 
break through, the men would have a 
chance to get clear. 

When the train safely reached Byrd 
Station, the men found 30 tons of fuel, 
accurately dropped at the site by Navy 
and Air Force planes, waiting for their 
use on the return trip to Little Amer- 
ica V. These D8s, each with more than 



1,500 hours nil them from the pre\ious 
summer's operations, made the round 
trip with pauses only for refueling. Due 
to the extreme cold, tractor engines 
could be shut down only for brief ser- 
vicing. A cold engine would take up to 
eight hours heating with a Herman-Nel- 
son heater under a tarpaulin to warm 
it enough for starting. Two more round 
trips were made before the sun set to 
deliver the needed 500 tons of cargo. 

Meanwhile, the other members of 
Nav\' Task Force 43, under the com- 
mand of Rear Admiral George J. Du- 
fek, had weathered the darkest hour of 
Operation Deep Freeze. Risin'r temper- 
atures and dwindling fuel supplies forced 
the 18th Air Force to withdraw its 
C-124 Cilobemasters from the McMur- 
do Sound air base to New Zealand. A 
New Year's Day storm with hurricane 
intensity drove accumulated ice against 
the USS Arneb (AKA-56), then off- 
loading supplies for the Cape Hallett 
Station, 400 miles north of McMurdo 
Sound. Ice had packed in this area to 
the extent of 200 square miles. Pres- 
sure ridges in the ice sprung bulkheads 
and slit the hull below the water line, 
flooding several compartments. The ice- 
breaker USS Northwind (WAGR- 
282), struggling to the aid of the Ar- 
neb, lost a blade from her starboard 
screw. 

On the opposite side of the Antarc- 
tic continent, trying to reach Bowman 
peninsula to establish the Weddell Sta- 
tion, an icebreaker and a cargo ship 
were stuck in the treacherous ice, 370 
miles short of their goal. Ice slush froze 
around the ships as the sun sank low 



during the night hours. The icebreaker 
USS Staten Island had lost a blade from 
one of her screws and had used up more 
than half her fuel unsuccessfully battling 
the ice; the USS Wyandot (AKA-Q2) 
had worn off the tips of all her screw 
blades on the crushing ice, reducing her 
speed to U) knots. 

.'\nd the season was running out fast. 
In previous years, three ships had been 
crushed by the ice in these waters. 

But lowering temperatures and a 
team of Caterpillar Low (jround Pres- 
sure D8 Tractors, working around the 
clock, readied the air strip for the re- 
turn February 10 of the Globemasters. 
The USS Nespelen (AOG-55) arrived 
on New Year's Day with 540,000 gal- 
Ions of aviation gas. Friendly winds 
from the south drove the ice to sea, 
freeing the Arneb and the Northwind. 
By lowering a heavy barge over the side 
and shifting ballast, the Arneb was 
heeled over, exposing the ruptured hull 
for repairs. And favorable winds and 
rising temperatures opened a passage to 
the Bowman Peninsula for the Staten 
Island and the Wyandot. 

History books received another entry 
on October 29, 1956, when Rear Ad- 
miral Dufek landed at the South Pole. 
the first man to set foot there since the 
ill-fated expedition 44 years previously. 
Three weeks later, two other Nav\ 
R4D's set up the first colony at the 
Pole, comprising eight men, 1 1 dogs 
and a few tents. 

Then the 18th Air Force moved in 
from New Zealand with eight C-124 
Globemasters for the 1,500-niile trip 
from McMurdo Sound. L'nder the com- 




THE USS ARNEB, later damaged by ice, unloads supplies to waiting sleds. 
These sleds will be retrieved via cables to reduce ice loading. 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



33 




THE FIRST CAMP was a city of tents surrounding Capt. Scott's 44-year-olcl 
hut. The tractor moves up "main street" with supplies. 



inatul of Col. Horace Crosswell, the 
(ilobciiiasters began parachuting the 
needed 5()() tons of siippHes around the 
clock, weather permitting. The largest 
single load dropped was a Caterpillar 
Low (Iround Pressure D2 Tractor. 
With the cab and track shoes removed, 
the machine weighed seven tons and was 
so large it bareh' clearly the sides of 
the elevator well. Hut the Air Force 



riggers liad done tlieir job well, and 
the tractor was operating in less than 
an hour. 

On its return to McMurdo Sound 
after this drop, the Globemaster touched 
down 120 feet short of the runway in 
high winds and swirling snow. Plowing 
through ice blocks, the nose wheel col- 
lapsed and propellers splintered the ice. 
But the 90-ton Globemaster skiddeil to 




WITH DOORS OPEN, a Seabee approaches a giant crevasse which has 
been blasted open and filled with snow. Double rows of flags every fifth 
mile mark the trail. 



a safe stop. I'ive weeks earlier, a \a\y 
P2V Neptune had crasiied under al- 
most identical circumstances, killing 
four persons aboard. 

On the ground, with a force swelled 
to 24 men, Lt. Richard A. Bowers, 
Quonset Point, R. I., directed construc- 
tion of the Pole Station to accommo- 
date 18 men over the coining winter. 
With temperatures ranging from 25 to 
,v5 degrees below zero and in the rare- 
fied air of 10,000 feet altitude, men and 
machines could work at only 60 per 
cent efficiencN. Kven so, the entire camp 
was coni|deted in oid\' six weeks. '1 hen 
the Seabees pulled back to McMurdo 
and the wintering-over party was flown 
in — 1 1 scientists under the direction of 
Dr. Paul Siple and seven Seabees under 
I>t- (jg) John Tuck, of Auburn, Miss. 
Another record-setter of the South 
Pole operation was Air Force Sgt. Rich- 
ard J. Patton, St. Louis, Mo. When air 
drops were stalled because parachutes 
failed to open or became disengaged, 
burying supplies up to 15 feet deep in 
ice and snow, Patton \olunteered to 
jump to the station in an effort to find 
out what was wrong. Made in bad 
weather which prevented smaller air- 
craft, capable of landing on the snow, 
from climbing over the mountains, the 
jump by Sgt. Patton was the first and 
onl\- such feat in Antarctic history. 

The air strip from which the Navy 
and Air Force planes worked had been 
wrestled from the snow in two cold, 
dark months. First the Seabees had at- 
tempted to compact the snow into a 
hard surface, as they had done success- 
fully in the Arctic and on the previous 
expedition at Little America. But this 
time they could not get adequate com- 
paction to support the 90-ton Globe- 
masters. 

Next the\ tried flooding an area with 
sea water pumped up from below the 
ice — but the blowing snow formed a 
slush that froze into a treacherous svu'- 
face with soft pockets. So they were 
forced to shift to a third method — clear- 
ing the snow from the ice. 

But onh' one tractor, a standard D8, 
was available to clear the 8 to 14 feet 
of snow from the proposed strip, 300 
feet wide by 6,200 feet long. A second 
D8 had plunged through the ice the 
previous January, carrying Richard Wil- 
liams, a 22-year-old Seabee from Ap- 
penheim, N. Y., to his death when the 
temperature had risen to 40 degrees. 
Williams had been hauling supplies from 
ship side to the camp when a crack 
opened up in the ice and the D8 plunged 
600 feet to the ocean floor. 

It was already Juh' 2.^, and the planes 
were scheduled to start the fly-in from 
New Zealand October 13. So the Sea- 
bees climbed aboard "Pogo," as they 
had named their only hope, and began 
around-the-clock snow clearing. Port- 



34 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



OLD GLORY FLYING, the first supply 
train approaches the 640-mile cache. 



able generators lighted the scene, for 
the sun would not rise until September 
25. The temperature ran to 60 degrees 
below zero, and men had to be replaced 
every 45 minutes. 

By the end of the job, 8,(H)(I hours 
had been recorded on "Pogo," and two 
months of it had been with shut downs 
only for a minimum of servicing and 
maintenance. 

As Commander H. W. Whitne\, 
commanding officer of the wintering- 
over party, said: "Parts seemed to have 
greater metal fatigue in the extreme 
cold, and the work was very rough. 
We ran out of replacement parts and 
finally had to rebuild certain parts so 
ue could continue." 

When the Arneb and the Xorthwind 
returned to Cape Hallett after the New 
Year's Day storm, they found the pen- 
guins had retaken the beachhead from 
the Seabees. The battle had begun with 
a landing on the west side of the vol- 
canic-ash covered bay. The Adelaide 
Penguins, guarding their recently- 
hatched, fuzzy chicks, covered the tri- 
angular beach. 

First, one hundred yards square were 
fenced off. Then sailors gathered the 
squawking youngsters into baskets while 
their shipmates threw nets over the 
struggling adults. The ground was a 
scene of bedlam, the air pierced by sharp, 
indignant cries until the compound was 
clear. 

Then the storm struck. When the men 
returned, the fence was down and the 
penguins had reoccupied their beach. So 
the sailors started over again. This time 
they won. When a D8 bulldozed the 
area clear for buildings, it was found 
that the ground was a mixture of gravel 
and penguin guano to a great depth, 
the residue of centuries of penguin 
habitation. 

Even before the ships left Cape Hal- 




lett one man had a problem. In the 
United States, Robert R. Roy, CS2, of 
Manchester, \. H., had been asked 
what hobby or craft items he would like 
to have. Roy, a model building fan, re- 
quested a cabin-cruiser kit. In some of 
the newly arrived cargo from the Arneb 
he found a do-it-yourself kit for a 19- 
foot runabout with a 25-horsepower out- 
board motor. Roy calmly reflected, 
"Maybe I can use it for fishing when 
the weather warms up again in 1958.' 

After three weeks in Cape Hallett 
the two ships headed south of McMur- 
do Sound. There the Arneb was joined 
by the world's largest icebreaker, the 
USS Glacier (AGB-4), and the cargo 
ship USNS Greenville Victory for the 
assault on Budd Coast to establish Ells- 
worth Station, south of the Indian 
( )cean. 

Once again the heavy pack ice fought 



back. Three times the Glacier crunched 
through the pack, only to reach a dead 
end at an ice wall. On the fourth try, 
late in January, when despair was near 
in the face of a waning season, the 
ships broke through the 125-mile belt 
of ice. 

But a 15-foot ice shelf still stood in 
the wa>- of landing operations. First 
men went ashore, and with picks, shov- 
els, and 12 tons of explosives ripped a 
path through the shelf. Then a Cater- 
pillar No. 955 Traxcavator was brought 
in on a landing barge to shave a gentle 
ramp for the heavier tractors. Two 
weeks later the camp was completed — 
16 buildings, a forest of radio masts and 
odd shaped domes and towers. Construc- 
tion had been expected to take at least 
seven weeks. 

And so the camps were built. Ice and 
snow, wind and cold, all had combined 





EQUIPMENT DEATH TRAPS, crevasses were detected by this electronic crevasse detector. Two trailing disks trans- 
mitted 3,000 volts into the snow. The five forward disks picked up the radiation and warned of voids under 
the surface. (U. S. Navy Photo) 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



35 



to repel the invaders. Rut the "can do" 
men of Operation Deep Freeze beat 
both the elements and the sched\ile. 

As the sun circled lower, the ships, 
planes and most of the men withdrew. 
Only a little over 300 men remained 
behind, occupying the seven camps built 
during the pre\ious two summers. Only 
the emergency station on Beardmore 
Glacier, built for support of aircraft on 
flights to the South Pole, had been 
abandoned. 

Today, as tiu- darkness embraces tlic 
land, another .Antarctic miracle has 
taken place. Electric lights shine, turn- 
ing each camp into a glistening city 
under tlie snow. Klcctricity for lights, 
for communications, for freezers and 
stoves, for the thousands of instruments 
needed by the scientists and for the 
comforts of home — all are provided b\ 
Cat D.^15 and I).U2 Electric Sets, using 
the same type engines as in all the trac- 
tors and Traxcavators in the Antarctic 
for standardization of parts. 

Three 100-kw D.342 sets supply the 
needs at McMurdo Sound; five 30-kw 
D.MS sets are used at Little America 
V. Nearly 20, ()()() feet of wire was need- 
ed for the .^6 buildings at McMurdo. 
.And good grounds are impossible, par- 
ticularly through the 800 feet of ice 
the Little America V Station sits on. 
In all, 34 Caterpillar-built Electric Sets 
were taken to supply the needs of these 
seven camps. 

In addition to supplying electricit\', 
the engines are used for snow melting 
and heating. Exhaust gases pass through 
snow melters, producing water for cook- 
ing, drinking and washing. In some in- 
stances the electric sets are placed ad- 




INSPECTING CONDITIONS ARE Capt. Hawkes and Adm, Dufek of Task 
Force 43, Edward Goodale of the Weather Bureau, and Cmdr. Whitney of 
Antarctic bases. (U. S. Navy Photo) 



jacent to the heads, and a tan blows en- 
gine heat down box tunnels to keep the 
water pipes from freezing. Water for 
the galleys and other heads is supplied 
by hot water boilers. 

Thus the construction phase of the 
Antarctic operation has been completed. 
Now the scientists have taken over to 
study the aurora, cosmic rays, geomag- 
netism, glaciology, ionospheric physics, 
meterology, rocket exploration of the at- 
mosphere, seismology, and gravity. These 
findings will be incorporated with those 
of the other hundred stations the I'nited 



States has from pole to pole and from 
the stations around the world of the 
other 41 nations cooperating in the In- 
ternational (jeophysical Year, 1957-58. 
.Already results are being realized. 
The magnetic south pole is believed now 
to be located 600 miles east of its pres- 
ently charted position. This knowledge 
will permit more accurate correction of 
magnetic compasses. Weather informa- 
tion is being gathered to help more ac- 
curately predict weather around the 
world. And other results will soon fol- 
low. 





Cf^S"S*- 




-1^3(5^:— —Ik 



EVEN COMMON TASKS take on a dramatic air in the barren Antarctic wastes as 
exemplified by this supply train. (U. S. Navy Photo) 



36 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




TECHNOCUTIE 



This month's beautiful addition for engineering note- 
books should feel right at home on North Campus, for 
she too is in E. E. This time, however, it is South Cam- 
pus E. E., or Elementary Education. She is 5'-2" Marie 
Posten of Springfield, Illinois, currently at Walnut Hall 
in the Arbor Suites. 

Twenty-three years old, she is a junior here at Illi- 
nois, having spent her first three semesters at the Uni- 
versity of Colorado. After studying there, Marie spent 
several years as a private secretary for the Franklin Life 
Insurance Co., in Springfield. When she decided to re- 
turn to school, she chose Champaign-Urbana. 

A travel enthusiast. Miss Posten has lived five 
months in Orelans, France, touring from there all over 
Europe, and hopes to return there for another visit. Also 
on her vacation schedule are Jamaica and the Baha- 
mas, for, OS she puts it, "They sound so alluring." 



An ardent water skier, she enjoys most outdoor 
sports, especially swimming, diving, golf, tennis, horse- 
back riding, and skiing, and would like to try hunting 
and fishing. Bridge and poker rank high with her on 
the list of quieter activities. 

In addition to her many other and varied interests, 
Marie likes music of all kinds, not only classical, but 
popular and jazz as well, especially the "Cool School" 
of jazz. Ballroom and square dancing are favorites of 
hers, and though she once took ballet lessons, she is now 
content to watch from the audience. 

For the future, Marie looks ahead to teaching or 
more secretarial work, although she has no interest in 
becoming a career girl. An interesting possibility would 
be that of teaching French in the elementary schools, 
though as yet few schools offer this chance. "It doesn't 
pay to plan too far ahead," she admits with a twinkle 
in her eye. 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



37 




■S 






5« 






- £ 



a .t T 



E 3 



E ^- 



£ c -^ -s 



^ 






"= 2 



- ^ 



u 0) .:i! 



Q 
S 



Know any cute girls? 



. . . then tell us at Technograph! 



SERIOUSLY, the Illinois Technograph is interested in obtaining nominations for the Technocutie 
of the Month. For many years we have been printing photos of girls who hove won various 
queen contests on campus (or were among the finalists). We shall continue to print some of 
these pictures. 

HOWEVER, and here is where you come in, we are interested in finding new talent. We are sure 
that there are many beautiful girls on campus who never appear in contests; you see them 
every day walking down the broadwalk. All we need to do is get names and phone numbers 
of these girls and we'll take care of the rest. Just fill in the blank and drop in any University 
mail box (not U. S. moil) or drop it off at 215 C. E. H. or the basement of lilini Hall (Daily 
lllini Office). 

REWARDS are in it for you. For each girl selected, you will get a personally-autographed photo. 
Sound like a good deal? Then get busy! 




40 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




I 



*«*^" 




42 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Q 



uestion: 

What makes 

a company a good 

place to work? 



Lswer: 







This record tells why-musicallii 



There are a lot of things to consider in 
selecting the organization with which you 
will stake your future. For example, how is 
the company rated in its field? Is it known 
as a "quality" company? Is it growing? Is it 
aggressive? Is it big enough to offer you the 
opportunities you want? Is it too big — to 
the point where, of necessity, it deals with 
numbers instead of individuals? 



. . .We think that last factor is mighty 
important. We call it the "human touch" ele- 
ment and it's pretty well explained, music- 
ally, in a theme song we had recorded for a 
recent national sales conference. The Ray 
Porter singers do some rather unusual vocal- 
izing you'll probably enjoy. Clip the coupon 
and let us send you a record. It's good listen- 
ing with a little food for thought thrown in. 



mail this coupon for your 
"Human Touch " record 



Square D Company, Dept. EM 

6060 Rivard Street, Detroit 11, Michigan 

I'd like a "Human Touch" record and a copy of Square D's brochure, 
"your engineering career" 

r am primarily interested in D Research, Design & Development 
Engineering D Manufacturing Engineering D Sales Application and 
Field Engineering 




NOVEMBER, 1957 



43 




This special periscope gives Pratt & Whitney Aircraft engineer a close-up view of combustion process actually taking place within the after- 
burner of an advanced jet engine on test. What the engineer observes is simultaneously recorded by a highspeed motion picture camera. 



at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft 
in tlie field of Combustion 



Historically, the process of combus- 
tion has excited man's insatiable 
hunger for knowledge. Since his 
most primitive attempts to make 
use of this phenomenon, he has 
found tremendous fascination in its 
potentials. 

Perhaps at no time in history has 
that fascination been greater than 
it is today with respect to the use 
of combustion principles in the 
modern aircraft engine. 

At Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, 
theorems of many sciences are being 
applied to the design and develop- 
ment of high heat release rate de- 
vices. In spite of the apparent sim- 
plicity of a combustion system, the 



bringing together of fuel and air in 
proper proportions, the ignition of 
the mixture, and the rapid mixing 
of burned and unburned gases in- 
\olves a most complex series of 
interrelated events — events ocur- 
ring simultaneously in time and 
space. 

Although the combustion engi- 
neer draws on many fields of science 
( including thermodynamics, aero- 
dynamics, fluid mechanics, heat 
transfer, applied mechanics, metal- 
lurgy and chemistry), the design of 
combustion systems has not yet 
been reduced to really scientific 
principles. Therefore, the highly 
successful performance of engines 



like the J-57, J-75 and others stands 
as a tribute to the vision, imagina- 
tion and pioneering efforts of those 
at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft en- 
gaged in combustion work. 

While combustion assignments, 
themselves, involve a diversity of 
engineering talent, the field is only 
one of a broadly diversified engi- 
neering program at Pratt & Whitney 
Aircraft. That program — with other 
far-reaching activities in the fields 
of instrumentation, materials prob- 
lems, mechanical design and aero- 
dynamics — spells out a gratifying 
future for many of today's engi- 
neering students. 




Wounting an afterburner in a special high-altitude test 
Chamber in P&WA's Willgoos Turbine Laboratory permits 
study of a variety of combustion problems which 
(nay be encountered durmg later development stages. 



Microflash photo illustrates one continuing 
problem: design and development of fuel 
injection systems which properly atomize 
and distribute under all flight conditions. 



Pratt & Whitney Aircraft engineer manipulates probe in 
exit of two-dimensional research diffuser. Oitfuser 
design for advanced power plants is one of many 
air flow problems that exist in combustion work. 




World's foremost designer and builder of aircraft engines 

PRATT & WHITNEY AIRCRAFT 

Division of United Aircraft Corporation 

EAST HARTFORD 8, CONNECTICUT 



Mars Pencils 

Sponsors 

Tomorrow's Designs 

Mars Outstanding Design Series— 
featured in the current advertising of 
J. S. Stacdtler, Inc.— has attracted wide- 
spread attention among the users of fine 
drafting pencils. It has fulfilled our ex- 
pectation that the men who appreciate 
the finest working tools are those with a 
lively creative interest in new designs, 
new projects, new ideas. 

Concerned with unusual projects— 
designs of the futurc-Mi\rs Outstanding 
Design Series provides a "showcase" for 
originality, for interesting work of engi- 
neers, architects, and students which so 
often lies buried. To stimulate )ou to 
send in your designs, Mars Pencils 

will pay you ^100 

for any design accepted. Tliis $100 is 
paid you simply for the right to repro- 
duce your project in the Mars Outstand- 
ing Design Series. There are no strings 
attached. You will be given full credit. 
(See ad on tliis page— one of the ads 
in the current series.) All future rights 
to the design remain with you. You can 
reproduce it later wherever )ou Lke and 
sell or dispose of it as you wish. 

The subject can be almost an>thing 
— aviation, space travel, autos, trains, 
buildings, engineering structures, house- 
hold items, tools, machines, business 
equipment, etc. It should be a project 
that appeals to design-minded readers, 
be of broad interest, and be attractively 
presented. Do not submit a design that 
has been executed. As a matter of fact, 
the project does not need to have been 
planned for actual execution. It should, 
however, be something that is either 
feasible at present or a logical extension 
of current trends. It cannot be unrealistic 
or involve purely h)-pothetical altera- 
tions of natural laws. 

There is no deadline for entries but 
the sooner you send yours in, the greater 
the probability of its use as one of the 
subjects in the 1958 Mars Outstanding 
Design Series. 

It Is Simple To Submit a Design _ 
For Mars Outstanding Design Series 
Just mail in an inexpensive photostat or 
photocopy of the subject— one you can 
spare, since it cannot be returned. 

If your entry is accepted, we will ask 
you to send in a sharp photocrapii of 
the design, or the design itself, so that 
we can make a sharp photograph suit- 
able for reproduction — after which it 
will be returned to you promptly. 



MARS outstanding design SERIES 



Send your entry to: 

j.s.Staedtlerinc. 

DICAROIIS COURT, HACKENSACK. NEW JERSEY 
46 







man and nnotion: 



The wonders of the future arc still little whispers 
in men's minds, or ma)bc — like Detroit Designer 
Norman James' magnetically suspended inter-city train 
— a drawing on a piece of paper. Traveling in a vacuum 
in an air-tight tube, it floats in space, held by a system 
of magnets built into cars and tunnel. Propelled elec- 
trically by "rolled-out" motor, train acts as rotor, 
tunnel roof as stator. Con\crtcr aboard train changes 
light projected through windows into electrical cnerg)'. 

No one knows which ideas will flower into reality. 
But it will be important in the future, as it is now, to 
use the best of tools when pencil and paper translate 
a dream into a project. And then, as now, there will be 
no finer tool than Mars — sketch to working drawing. 

Mars has long been the standard of professionals. 
To the famous line of Mars-Technico push-button 
holders and leads, Mars-Lumograph pencils, and 
Tradition-AquarcU painting pencils, have recently been 
added these new products: the Mars Pocket-Technico 
for field use; the efficient Mars lead sharpener and 
"Draftsman's" Pencil Sharpener with the adjustable 
point-length feature; and — last but not least — the 
Mars-Lumochrom, the new colored drafting pencil 
which offers revolutionary drafting advantages. The 
fact that it blueprints perfectly is just one of its many 
important features. 



The 2886 Mors-lumograph drowlng pencil. 19 
degrees. EXEXB to 9H. The 1001 Mars-Technico 
push-button leod holder. 1904 Mars-lumogroph 
Imported leads. 18 degree-., EXB to 9H. Mars- 
lumochrom colored dro/ling pencil, 24 colors. 



J.S. 




TAEDTLERINC. 

HACKENSACK, NEW JERSEY 

at all good engineering and drawing material suppliers 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



A Campus-to-Career Case History 




The future looks unlimited 



"I wanted a career that offered variety, op- 
portunity and a chance to woric with people," 
says Lewis WiUiani Post, C.E., Michigan State, 
1950. "So I chose the telephone company. 

"My initial training— two full years of it- 
probed every phase of company operations and 
acquainted me with all of the jobs in the Plant 
Department, where I was starting. 

"Today, as Plant Engineer, I'm responsible 
for preventive maintenance of all field equip- 
ment, installation of new facilities for wire and 
cable, and I work with architects and builders 
on telephone needs in new buildings. 



"Selling's part of my job, too. I sell ideas 
— like the wisdom of planning for telephone 
service when you're building. Recently I ad- 
vised an architect and an owner on telephone 
wiring and outlets in a new $160,000 medical 
center. I enjoy getting in on the ground floor 
of such projects and making contributions 
both as a civil and a telephone engineer. 

"In my area of Chicago there are 80,000 
telephones, home and business. More are be- 
ing added every day. There's expansion every- 
where in the telephone business— all across the 
country. To me, the future looks unlimited." 



Lew Post's career is with Illinois Bell Telephone 
Company. Many interesting career opportuni- 
ties exist in other Bell Telephone Companies, 
Bell Telephone Laboratories. \^estern Electric 
and Sandia Corporation. Your ])lacement officer 
can give you more information about them. 




Bell Telephone System 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



47 



Whether this is the semester tor you 
or whether \ou are safe from the out- 
side world tor a longer time yet, you 
will do well to read this. It is a view 
over the employment interviewer's 
shoulder (and also, let us hope, inio 
his mind ) as he sits across from you, 
pencil in hand, looking like the personi- 
fication of the possibilities of all the 
things you would like to do when ><iu 
\()u are set adrift from old Alma Mater. 

Contrary to appearances, the employ- 
ment interview is one of the most com- 
plex of all assignments. The interview- 
er in 20 to 60 minutes is tr\ing tn 
obtain an accurate understanding of a 
lifetime of many years, a lifetime o} 
thousands of experiences producing at- 
titudes and motivations which inay even 
be unknown to the interviewee himself. 
Kven so, the employment interview is 
not an end in itself. It is an attempt to 
relate the applicant to a well defined 
classification of jobs or, in some cases, 
to a very specific job. 

The employment interview is also a 
\ery personal thing. It well can be 
called a test of acceptability because it is 
the onl\ direct method for measuring 
such ke\ characteristics as persuasive- 
nes-^, tact, poise, oral response, and re- 
action to unexpected and difficult ques- 
tions. Of course, in the final analysis, 
the interviewer must give his opinion of 
\ou in regard to these traits in simple 
"acceptable " or "not acceptable ' terms. 
Therefore it behooves you to realize his 
situation as w'ell as your own. Knowing 
something of how he feels and what he 
will be looking for in you, the candi- 
date, will gi\e you considerable ad- 
\ antage in making the grade. 

Understand first of all that the in- 
terviewer is only human. You may not 
he the only one in the room feeling a 
bit unnatural. He will come with his 
personal biases, try as he may to leave 
them behind. He will be trying to be 
as neutral as possible, especially at the 
start. He will make a conscious effort to 
avoid the idea of evaluating you on 
such characteristics as honesty, which 
certainly cannot be measured in an inter- 
view. He will have a good idea of what 
he wants to know about \ou, and though 
he may not be an extremely experienced 
interviewer, his format should enable 
a good exchange of information to take 
place. 

There are six categories of emplo\- 
ment interviewing. The first type asks 
specific questions about the job. Th-s 
is rarely done in the college engineer- 
ing interview because the potential em- 
ployee is being assessed mainly in terms 
of his future or long term usefulness. 
The second category is the stress inter- 
view, again rare. Here the methods may 
include interrupting the interviewee, 
critically questioning his opinions, or al- 
lowing him to sit for relatively long 



Interviewing 



by A. F. Carpenter 



periods in silence. Though it can be 
dangerous, the stress interview is often 
applied for short periods at the begin- 
ning of an interview. Third is the pre- 
liminary interview which lasts for from 
•^ to 5 minutes and serves as a rough 
two-way screening. The candidates can 
decide if the general qualities of the 
company are acceptable, and vice versa. 

The fourth type is the background 
interview. This will require a minimum 
of 30 minutes together and a thorough 
analysis afterward. Number five is the 
group oral-performance test in which 
several candidates are allowed to intei- 
act with one another instead of with 
the interviewer. 

The last and the most widely uscil 
college interview is the discussion type, 
the one you'll probably receive while in 
school. It establishes rapport very earl\-. 
It is much like the background inter- 
view except that is far less formal. The 
set pattern may be broken at any point 
to fit the applicant, and, in the hands 
of a good interviewer, the freedom of 
the discussion interview can be a very 
revealing tool. Shortage of time dictates 
the wide vise of ibis type at the college 
level. Often, too, the company repre- 
sentative must sell the applicant on his 
firm. In this case, since he is usually 
far from the supplementary aids he could 
use were he at his home office, the in- 
terviewer finds the discussion interview^ 
most successful. 



In the interview itself we find a 
critical point in the very first stage. It 
is in the first few seconds that the in- 
terviewer may make his first judgment. 
The applicant's expression, handshake, 
bearing, and voice make an impression 
that will affect the value of the remain- 
der of the interview. Common knowl- 
edge should indicate the necessity for 
the following: general neatness and 
cleanliness, suit and tie, fresh haircut 
(apparently very important), and an 
overall attitude of vitality ( full vital- 
ity aids personality growth and is need- 
e<l at a high level for the field engi- 
neer, salesman, or executive). 

But while the interviewer best serves 
his purpose by reserving the greater por- 
tion of his judgment, the candidate has 
every reason to size up his opposite and 
come quickly to feel at ease. As a rule 
the interview'er will try to give the ap- 
plicant this chance to relax by telling 
him something about the plant, but not 
about the job category' he is offering, 
lest the applicant slant his answers to 
fit. ^ 

The main body is the second critical 
part. It is here that the applicant is en- 
couraged to talk, and it is here that you 
will shine if \ou are the rarity who 
knows what kind of a position he wants 
to work in. From this point on, the in- 
terviewer will try to limit himself to 
10% of the conversation. As an over- 
all limit he has probably set for him- 



48 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Recruiting 



self a maximum of 35''f of the conver- 
sation, so be prepared to talk. Expect 
him to ask questions that cannot be 
answered "yes" and "no." He may re- 
peatedly ask questions like "How did 
you feel about that?" Don't expect him 
to be too rapid-fire. Those pauses arc 
purposeful — your chance to fill in. He 
may even repeat parts of your remarks 
if he would like you to elaborate. 

Above all, be yourself, be alert, and 
be truthful. The interviewer may phrase 
a statement so as to encourage you to 
stretch the truth. In such cases the smart 
interviewee will carefully qualify the 
statement of the interviewer. He may 
seem to suddenly decide at this point 
(or any other) to take notes. Don't get 
"shook." Remember, he's leading and 
your just trying to be fluent. 

As mobile as the average American 
college student's life and personality 
are, you ha\e no doubt left your inte;- 
viewer with a fistful of questions to ask 
himself. And now you can ask yourstlf: 
Did I speak freely and yet to the point? 
Did I listen carefully and follow his 
leads? Did I give reliable information.? 
Did I ask him questions to be sine I 
understood what he was saying? Did I 
leave a good impression of my person- 
ality? If the answer to these questions 
is "ves," then the interview was a suc- 



This article is a reprint of a booklet 
published by the J.S.E.E. Acknoiclcdye- 
ment for permission to reprint is given 
to the A.S.E.E., If. Leightoii (Jollins. 
Secretary. 

Industrial employers have actively 
competed for the services of engineer- 
ing graduates in recent years. In the 
stress of the competition, certain em- 
ployers have developed procedures in 
their dealings with students which do 
not appear proper to other employers, 
particularly to those employers who have 
been visiting colleges to interview sen- 
iors for twenty-five and even fifty 
years. 

Complaints about those recruting pro- 
cedures came to a head at the June, 
1936, meeting of ASEE. The problem 
was considered in a session of the En- 
gineering College Administrative Coun- 
cil, and was thoroughly discussed in tiie 
business meeting of the Committee on 
Ethics. The Society's "Ethics of Inter- 
viewing Procedures," published in 1949, 
had been instrumental in solving simi- 
lar problems of that time. The Com- 
mittee on Ethics was accordingly of the 
opinion that the present dfficulty might 
likewise be overcome, at least in part, 
by the formulation and publication of a 
revised code, adjusted to new condi- 
tions. 

1. The employer should contact the 
Placement Office long in advance so 



that the college can plan to accommo- 
date all employers who wish to inter- 
view. In his original request for an in- 
terview date, the employer should ex- 
plain how he wishes to organize his in- 
terviews. Employers must keep in mind 
that only a limited number of corpora- 
tions can interview on campus at a 
given time, and that the schedulmg of 
interviews is difficult. 

2. Within two weeks following the 
interview, the employer should com- 
municate with the student concerning 
the outcome of the interview. 

.■>. The employer should give the stu- 
dent ample time to consider his offer 
before requiring a final answer. 

4. The employer should provide suit- 
able literature to give students a true 
picture of the corporation. This material 
should be supplied to the Placement Of- 
fice, or to the faculty if there is no 
Placement Office, in sufficient quantity 
and well in advance of the interview 
date. The interviewer should clearly ex- 
plain to students what tests they will 
need to pass, and if there will be a 
physical examination. He should give 
students complete information concern- 
ing any special requirements such as 
the signing of patent agreements. 

5. The employer should inform the 
Placement Office concerning the broad 
categories of emplo\nient available, and 
the college degrees and other require- 
ments for each. 

6. The employer should accept respon- 
sibility for permanent relations with 
the college. Hence he should conduct in- 
terviews year after year, or otherwise 
maintain contact with the colleges. 

7. If the employer invites students to 
visit his plant or headquarters, he 
should arrange the visit to interfere as 
little as possible with class schedules. 
He should avoid elaborate entertain- 
ment and overselling. He should explain 
what expenses will be paid and how and 
when. ( Man>' students borrow money 
to make these trips. ) 

8. The employer should send copies 
of all correspondence with students and 
faculty members to the Placement Of- 
fice. 

9. The interviewer should be punc- 
tual. He should tell the Placement Of- 
fice when he will arrive, and he should 
arrive no later than the designated time. 

10. \o more than two and prefer- 
ably only one interviewer representing 
an employer should appear for each in- 
terview schedule. Arrangements for 
more than two interviewers should be 
made well in advance, and only for rea- 
sons which are considered adequate by 
the Placement Office. 

11. An employer who desires to con- 
tact a particular individual at the time 
ot his interview visit should write that 
indi\idual at least two weeks in ad- 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



49 



An FTL "First"- 

TACAN 

(Tactical Air Navigation) 




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fAST COAST ASSIGNMENTS INCLUDES 

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Traveling Wove Tubes 

Electronic Countermeasures 

Air Navigation Systems 

Antennas • Missile Guidance 

Transistors and other Semiconductor Devices 

Computers * Telephone and 

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Opportunities for relaxed living and career- 
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St.— openings in Digital Computers, Inertial 
Navigation Systems and Infra Red Systems. 
Pofo Alio, Cal., 937 Commercial St.— open- 
ings in Carrier Systems. 




East Coast Laboratory and Microwave Tower 

50 



vancf, with a copy tn the I'lait-nicrit 
Office. 

12. The employer should not offer a 
stuiieiit special payments, gifts, honuses, 
or other inducements, nor should he 
compensate or favor a third party to 
prevail upon the student to accept a 
particular emplojnient offer. 

\^. After a student has declined a 
job offer, the employer should renew 
his proposal only through the I'lace- 
nient CMce. The employer is thereby 
prevented from aiuioying students wiio 
have accepted employment elsewhere. 

14. The employer shoidd invariably 
engage every student who has accepted 
the conipaiu's offer. 

15. If tile enipliner'?, urgaiu'/ation is 
unionized, or the department for which 
the student is to be engaged, is union- 
ized, the employer should tell the stu- 
dent if he will or will not have to join 
a union. Furthermore, the employer 
should give the student complete and 
detailed information as to how the 
union will affect his status if employ- 
ment is accepted. 

16. When both a parent corporation 
and subsidiary or affiliated corporations 
conduct interviews in the same college, 
the respective interviewers should clear- 
ly explain their missions and their con- 
nections, both to the Placement Office 
and to the students. Interviewers shoiibi 
make clear where, and by which unit 
or division or subsidiary corporation, the 
students are to be engaged. 

17. Interviews should very carefully 
follow the interview schedule agreed 
upon with the Placement Office. They 
should not detain any student beyond 
the specified time. 

18. The employer should not hurry 
a student into making a decision con- 
cerning employment. 

College Responsibilities 

1. The Placement Office should in- 
form interviewers concerning the num- 
ber of students available for interview 
in the several curricula, and the dates 
of graduation. This informatioii should 
be sent as soon as it is available. 

2. Placement Offices .should not re- 
strict the number of interviews per stu- 
dent, except that they should discour- 
age indiscriminate "shopping." 

3. The Placement Ofhce should pro- 
vide adequate space and facilities for 
quiet and private interviews. 

4. The Placement Office should an- 
nounce to students at the beginning of 
the school year which employers wdl 
interview students and when. 1 he 
Placement Office should make revised 
announcements from time to rime as 
nia\ lie necessary. 

5. Tin- Placement Office shouM ar- 
range for interviewers to meet faculty 
members who know students personally 

I and can provide information about their 



work and i|u,'ditii':itiijns. Sucli contacts 
should be during school hours. (The 
New York Engineering College place- 
ment officers strongly object. They con- 
tend that faculty members are much too 
busy to talk with interviewers. This 
opinion was expressed in a meeting of 
the College Federal Agency Council at 
the I iiited States .Military .'\cadeniy in 
October, 1956.) 

6. The Placement Office should make 
available to interviewers appropriate 
records of those students who are to be 
interviewed. (A very few correspond- 
ents and contacts object on the ground 
that student records are personal and 
confidential and should not be made 
available to any persons outside the uni- 
versity without the student's consent. ) 

7. W^hen an emphner is looking for 
graduates in several fields, e.g., engi- 
neering, psychology, physics, the Place- 
ment Office should issue announcements 
to all students concerned, and schedule 
interviews for all those who express in- 
terest. 

S. Placement officers may advise stu- 
dents, but should not unduly influence 
them in the selection of jobs. 

Q. Placement Offices should control 
distribution of corporation literature. 

Student Responsibilities 

1. 'Fhe student should prepare proper- 
ly for each interview by reading avail- 
able literature, by informing himself 
about the employer in question, and by 
organizing his thoughts in order to ask 
and answer questions. 

2. The student should use care in 
filling out various forms such as the 
standard "College Interview Form," in 
preparation for interviews. 

3. The student should conduct him- 
self in a businesslike manner during in- 
terviews. 

4. The student should not "hoard" 
or "collect" job offers. As soon as he 
knows that he will not accept an offer, 
he should immediately decline it. 

5. The student should not continue 
to present himself for interviews after 
he has accepted an employment offer. 

6. The student should keep the Place- 
ment Office advised concerning his ne- 
gotiations. 

7. The student should ptoiitptly ac- 
knowledge invitation for visits to plants 
or corporation headquarters. He should 
accept invitations only when he is sin- 
cerely interested in an offer from the 
employer in question. 

8. The student who visits an employ- 
er's plant or headquarters for an inter- 
view should include on his expense sheet 
only those expeditures which actually 
pertain to the trip. If he visits several 
emplovers on the same trip, expenses 
should be pro-rated between them. 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 




A>4 MOv/ I ARE OK/e.. 



-S'liiri , I iihiniiil 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



51 



Students Behind th^ 



The American Committee for Liberation describes 
conditions of intellectual oppression 
that led to the violent action taken by 
Hungarian students in October of last year 



( (Uindcnsid jroiii A. (I. L. 
(Unniiiitltf fiiftorl) 



Throughout all of history, students 
have insisted on their right to think 
freely, to examine all of the known 
facts on any issue, to ponder them, and 
to come to the conclusions to which 
these facts bring them. This right is 
basic in the acquisition of knowledge 
and truth ; it is necessary if a youth's 
studies are to fit him for his place in 
society and his role in life. Historical- 
ly, whenever any authority, be it school, 
church, or government, has interfered 
with this right, or has tried to dictate 
to the student, what he must study, what 
he must think, what he must say, or 
who shall be authorized to speak for 
him, the students have revolted. 

Budapest Students Demands 

In H\mgary, in October 1Q56, stu- 
dents, apparently feeling that the Hun- 
garian Communist Party student and 
worker organizations were not truly rep- 
resenting their point of view on student 



affairs, and on the affairs of the work- 
ers of Hungary, formed their own or- 
ganization and issued a declaration. 

In the United Stations Report of the 
Special Committee on the Problem of 
Hungary, (Page 73, Annex D) we 
find the first draft of these student de- 
mands: 

The first draft of the Demands of 
the Students of the Building Industry, 
Technological University of Budapest, 
22 October 1956. (U.'N. Report on 
Hungary, p. 75. Annex D. ) 

Introduction: MEFESZ (League of 
Hungarian University and College Stu- 
dent Associations) established. This or- 
ganization is competent to solve the 
problems of the students. 

1. New Central Committee for the 
Party. 

2. Government under the leadership 
of Imre Nagy. 

.■i. Hungarian-So\iet and Hungarian- 
Yiigoslav friendship. 

4. New elections. 

5. New economic policy. Uranium, 
foreign trade, etc. 

6. Readjustment of the norms of 
workers and workers' autonomy in the 
factories. 

7. The situation of agricultural workers 
and of peasants farming individualh'. 

S. Revision of political and economic 
trials and granting of an amnesty. 

9. 15 .March, 6 October. The old 
coat-of-arms. 

10. Freedom of the Press and an offi- 
cial newspaper for MKFESZ. Destruc- 
tion nf "screening" material. 



Declaration: Full solidarity with 
Warsaw and with the Polish independ- 
ence movement. 

These demands were followed up on 
October 28, 1956 by "The Appeal of 
the Revolutionary Committee of the 
Hungarian Intellectuals" which was 
signed by the representatives of the Stu- 
dents' Revolutionary Council and ME- 
FESZ (League of Hungarian L'niver- 
sity and College Student Associations) 
along with the organizations of Hun- 
garian writers, journalists, artists, mu- 
sicians, university professors, etc., it con- 
such as the withdrawal of Soviet troops 
(point 1), and regulation of Soviet ex- 
ploitation of Hungarian uranium and 
bauxite (point 2). 

Its other points, however, fall within 
the scope of universally valid rights of 
man, such a.> free and secreth conduct- 
ed elections (point 3), economic free- 
dom for small-scale industry and indus- 
trial management by the workers' coun- 
cil (point 4), economic and social jus- 
tice for all (point 5, 6, 7, 8), "complete 
freedom of speech, of the press, and of 
the right of assembly." (point 9). 

It W.1S these basic demands, first for- 
mulated by the students and young in- 
tellectuals of Hungary, and then taken 
up by the workers, which led to a pub- 
lic protest in Budapest. When this peace- 
ful demonstration was fired on by the 
AVH (the Hungarian Communist Se- 
cret Police organization) there followed 
a raging battle which spread throughout 
Hungary, between the Hungarian stu- 
dents, youth and workers on the one 



52 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



ron Curtain 



side, aii'.l the AVH and armed troops 
and tanks from the USSR on the other. 
This event, now known to the world as 
"The Hungarian Revolution" is docu- 
mented and detailed in the United Na- 
tions Report, which was published by 
the L'nited Nations in June, 1957. 

Demands of Students 

The demands of the Hungarian stu- 
dents express also the desires of students 
and youth in the USSR, although the 
latter are not in a position to follow 
the Hungarian example in proclaiming 
them. This ferment and dissatisfaction 
with the Soviet regime has not been of 
the Hungarian or Polish magnitude, but 
the significance is just as great. 
' It must be borne in mind that the 

! Soviet youth is, so to speak, "Soviet 
born;" it has had few foreign contacts; 
its indoctrination has been much more 
thorough and consistent. And yet there 
\ are indications that the Communist sys- 
I tem of education has failed in the USSR 
j just as badly. 

; In the three months following the 

Hungarian revolt, the Soviet press con- 
tained numerous hints of wide-spread 
political dissension among Soviet youth : 
From Soviet Lithuania, December 12, 
1956: "A wave of the most varied and 
provocational rumors has gained partic'i- 
lar strength in recent months as a result 
of the activities of imperialist agents and 
counter-revolutionary forces in Hun- 
gary . . . These rumors sometimes have 
an influence on some representatives of 
the intelligentsia and the students who 
lack the ability to think critically. These 
people start to exaggerate the deficiencies 
and errors to be found in our work . . . 
for they do not wish to see the broad 
vistas of the future." 

From Young Communist, Moscow, 
No. 1, January, 1957: "We still have 
young people, including even Komsomol 
members, who are susceptible to the 
demagogy of bourgeois propaganda and 
believe various tales about individual lib- 
erty under the bourgeois system, about 
"people's capitalism," about "democratic 
socialism," etc., and who sometimes e\en 
themselves become bearers of various 
rumors, gossip, and fairy tales." 

From Soviet Russia, Moscow, Decem- 
ber 22, 1956: "How coidd alien influ- 



ences penetrate student circles? If we 
weaken some sector of educational work, 
hostile influences immediately rush there. 
That is what happened at Ural Univer- 
sity. Not receiving Marxist-Leninist 
clarification of perplexing questions, cer- 
tain students tried to resolve their doubts 
on their own." 

From Pravda, Moscow, February 4, 
1957: "Survivals of capitalism in peo- 
ple's consciousness and echoes of foreign 
bourgeois propaganda exert an influenre 
on some young people, inspire questions 
in them which require detailed explana- 
tions and sometimes even (inspire) incor- 
rect attitudes . . . Some teachers take 
no interest in young people's discussions 
of questions that trouble them and do 
not combat the unhealthy attitudes that 
sometimes arise." — A. Petrov, Secretary 
of the Leningrad City Committee of the 
CPSU. 

From Trud, Moscow, January 8, 
1957: "University social organizations 
have relaxed the struggle against mani- 
festations of bouregois ideology and sur- 
\ ivals of capitalism, have not combated 
the attitudes of some unstable students 
who have fallen under the influence of 
bourgeois propaganda, who have know- 
ingly expressed false, politically unsound 
views. 

"At a Komsomol meeting at the Len- 
ingrad Institute of Exact Mechanics and 
Optics, a student. Comrade (]orelik, 
having incorrectly grasped the criticis:n 
of the activity of social youth organiza- 
tions, referred to suppression of students' 
creative initiative. At Moscow State 
University, in the wall newspaper Tri- 
huni- . crude, slanderous attacks, bor- 
rowed from the bourgeois press, were 
made on the Soviet press. At the Ural 
Polytechnic Institute, certain students, 
imder the guise of criticism and of de- 
veloping democracy, made demagogic 
statements counterposing the Komsomol 
to the Party. 

"Lately, we have increasingly wit- 
nessed a certain enthusiasm among part 
of the student youth for boulevard, 
bourgeois literature, formalistic paint- 
ing, and savage jazz music." — M. Tsur- 
ikov. Chairman of the Central Com- 
mittee of the Union Workers in Uni- 
versities and Scientific Institutions. 

From Young Communist, Moscow, 
No. 1, January 1957: "It is quite lui- 



derstandable that, if a student does not 
get an answer to a question that inter- 
ests him at a lecture, at a seminar, at 
a Komsomol meeting, he will take it 
to those who will give an e.xplanation. 
A situation is thus created which makes 
possible the appearance of all sorts of 
rumors and, putting it bluntly, petty 
bourgeois views. 

"At the Mining Institute, the stu- 
dents Grokhovtov, Svirski, Ftkin and 
Lisitski indulged in demagogic and, to be 
blunt about it, untrue utterances. When 
the attempt was made to clarify the 
error of their views, they stubbornly 
held their ground." 

The mounting disatisfaction among 
Soviet students was again recognized in 
a decree of the Plenum of the Central 
Committee of the All-Union Komsomol 
in February 1957. The following perti- 
nent quotations are taken from the text 
of the decree, published in the newspaper 
of the Young Communist League: 

Komsomolskaya Pravda, Moscow, 
February 28, 1957: "The Plenum of 
the Central Committee of the all-Uiuon 
Leninist Komsomol considers it the duty 
of all leading Komsomol organs, of 
every Komsomol organization, to take 
measures to assure a drastic improve- 
ment of ideological-educational work 
among Komsomol members and youth, 
to raise its quality, to overcome skill- 
fully and rapiiUy the deficiencies in this 
area. 

"Komsomol organizations must dem- 
onstrate greater devotion to principle, 
must wage a sharp struggle against the 
unhealthy attitudes and views found 
among some young creative workers, 
against the desire to depart from the 
positions of socialist realism ; they must 
decisively condemn works of literatipe 
and art which give a distorted picture of 
Soviet reality and thus damage the cause 
of educating youth. 

"The Plenum directs Komsomol or- 
ganizations to carry on a ceaseless strug- 
gle against the attempts of bourgeois 
propaganda to impose vile tastes and 
views on Soviet youth. It is necessar\ to 
devote considerably more attention to 
raising the general cultural level of 
youth, to endowing them with correct 
esthetic views and tastes. We must help 
youth to know how to recognize what is 
artistic and beautiful, to know how 'o 
correctly evaluate works of literature, 
painting, sculpture, architecture, music, 
the dance, and \ocal art.' 

Conclusion 

That the Communist Government 
and Party, in the USSR, in Hungary, 
and in other countries w-here it rules, 
does not grant nor guarantee to students 
the basic rights to think, to study, and 
to speak freely. 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



53 



How to Conduct 
a Lab Test 




Each student has a definite task and 
is equipped to perform it. 




Get those serial numbers, tool 




I 



— (,'oui/csy iij lilt Missniiii Shtiiiirrjck 




Before proceeding with the test, determine all constants. 



4 




Take all measurements as accurately as 
possible. 



Simulate actual operating conditions. 



54 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Know your job 




Destroy all bad data 




Be sure everyone gets a copy of the data. 




Plot graphs accurately 




Make the report presentable 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



55 




edited by Mike Coleman 



Modern Mathematics for the 
Engineer 

l''.(llti\l b\ Kdwin F. Hc-L-ki-nbacli, I'lo- 
tcssor of Mathematics, University of 
California. Published by McGraw-Hill 

Hook Compatiy, Inc.. 1'>S7. 514 pages, 
$7.M). 

Regarded by many as a must for 
every modern engineer, this book is com- 
piled from the works of nearh tweiitv 
prominent men from both education and 
industr\-. It has been divided into thrt-e 
parts, "Mathematical Models," "Prob- 
abilistic Problems," and "Computational 
Considerations." The first dwells suc- 
cessively on physical problems expressed 
in terms of ordinary differential equa- 
tions, integral equations, and p.artial dif- 
ferential equations. 

In the next part are chapters bearing 
on the programming and operational 
aspects of engineering and on the use 
of probabilistic methods in solving prob- 
lems. In the final section emphasis is 
placed on numerical solutions, and the 
concluding chapter deals with the aspects 
of high-speed computing devices. 



Advanced Calculus 

h\ R. Creighton Buck, Professor of 
Matliematics, I'niversity of Wisconsin. 
Published bv the McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, Inc., 1957, 423 pages, $8.50. 

The purpose of this text is to review 
elementary calculus with rigor, but with- 
out retracing already familiar ground ; 
to give a systematic and modern ap- 
proach to the differential and integral 
calculus of functions and transforma- 
tions; to develop analytical techniques 
for attacking some of the typical prob- 
lems which arise in applications of math- 
ematics; and to introduce the student 
to modern points of view in mathematics. 

The author empha.sizes theory, but an 
effective balance is maintained between 



theory and applications. A umque fea- 
ture in a work of this kind is the ele- 
mentary theory of Cartan's differential 
forms, introduced to simplify and unify 
vector calculus. Throughout, the reader 
is familiarized with various approxima- 
tion techniques, useful in applied mathe- 
matics and numerical analysis. 

Almost 450 exercises of varying diffi- 
culty are included with either answers 

or hints given. 

Applied Metallurgy for 
Engineers 

by Malcolm S. Burton, School of Chem- 
ical and Metallurgical Engineering, Cor- 
nell L'niversitv. Published h\ McCiraw- 
Hill Rook Company, Inc., 105?, 4(t7 
pages, $7.50. 

The metallurgical principles involved 
in casting, metal working, welding, heat 
treatment, and powder metallurgy and 
the study of these manufactiuing proc- 
esses from an engineering viewpoint are 
discussed in this book. 

Emphasis is placed on the background 
of metallurgical science essential for 
proper utilization of metallurgical manu- 
facturing methods. A good balance be- 
tween theory and engineering practice :s 
achieved ; diagrams and photographs of 
equipment implement the theory and re- 
late it to specific manufacturing methods. 

Physical metallurgy- and industrial 
metallurgical processes presently avad- 
able are combined in this volume. Re- 
cent advances in metal science within 
the scope of the book have been cited, 
including such lateh -developed processes 
as shell molding, inert-gas-shielded metal 
arc welding, and vibrationless mid-air 
forging. 

Prior knowledge of metallurgy and 
an advanced mathematical background 
are not essential to comprehension of 
this \olume. 



Why Vought Projects 

Bring Out The Best 

In An Engineer 

At Vought, the engineer doesn't often 
forget past assignments. Like all big 
events, they leave vivid memories. 
And it's no wonder 

For here the engineer contributes to 
history-making projects — among 
them the record-breaking Crusader 
fighter; the Regulus II missile, chosen 
to arm our newest nuclear subs; and 
the new fast-developing 1,500-plus- 
mph fighter, details of which are still 
classified. 

The Vought engineer watches such 
weapons take shape. He supervises 
critical tests, and he introduces the 
weapons to the men with whom they 
will serve. 

Engineers with many specialties share 
these experiences. Today, for exam- 
ple, Vought is at work on important 
projects involving: 

electronics design and numiifactiire 

inertial navigation 

investigation of advanced proptdsion 

metltods 

Macli 5 configurations 

Vought's excellent R&D facilities 
help the engineer through unexplored 
areas. And by teaming up with other 
specialists against mutual challenges, 
the Vought engineer learns new fields 
while advancing in his own. 

*** 
Would you like to know what men 
with your training are doing at 
Vought . . . what you can expect of a 
Vought career? 

For full information, see our repre- 
sentative during his next campus visit. 
*** 
Or write directly to: 

C. A. Besio 

Supervisor, Engineering Personnel 

Dept. CM-2 



'OMMOffT AMMtCMtAFT 



56 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Vought 
Vignette 

ONE OF A SERIES 




Why the Missile Engineer Never 
Missed Mail Call 



Vought's Regulus II missile took shape just a 
short walk from the desks of its developers. Engi- 
neers handled the new hardware and monitored 
tests in person — literally flying the big missile on 
the ground at Dallas. It was a convenient arrange- 
ment while it lasted. 

Then a big USAF Globemaster landed and 
taxied to Vought's Experimental Hangar. The mis- 
sile was winched aboard and airlifted to a desert 
site for flight tests. By nightfall there was a 1,000- 
mile rift between Regulus II and home base. 

Joe Boston was ready to step into this gap. As 
Project Assistant for Field Liaison, he'd already 
equipped Vought's desert crew for extensive flight 
tests. Now he'd make sure that test data and hard- 
ware flowed uninterrupted from the desert to 
Vought. High-speed feedback of facts on one flight 
could influence the success of the next. 

Mail from the desert poured in to Joe at Vought. 
From project men at the flight test site came parts 
for immediate rework and return. From the flight 
test crew's mobile ground station came rolls of tele- 
metered brush records. From the recoverable 
Regulus itself, came packets of oscillograph data. 
And from Field Service — for repair or replacement 
— an occasional wrench or relay. 



Joe served as clearing house and consultant. 
Flight data was reduced and released to design and 
support groups. It revealed not only missile per- 
formance, but the temperatures and pressures of a 
strange new environment. When data pointed 
toward design changes, Joe's time and cost esti- 
mates helped specialists reach decisions. 

Thanks to Vought's fast overland relay of hard- 
ware and data, the records of one flight were 
decoded and digested in time to improve the next 
hop. Dividends in performance and reliability were 
obvious after six flights had been logged by 
Regulus II. 

All six had been flown by one vehicle. 



Chance Vought uses comprehensive 
testing and data analysis to assist 
the engineer through unexplored 
problem areas. Test facilities 
strengthen every phase of the 
development cycle, and procedures 
are aimed at feeding data quickly 
into the engineering process. 



. OFMII.ITA^,. 

f40-] 

■^ ANNIVERSARY ^ 
* Ifitl TO WSl * 



^X^EMGJffT' JlTn.€yRJM.JFT 



• C O f> ^ O f> A 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



57 



Skimming 

Industrial 

Headlines 




edited by Dennis Laniz 



Stretching for Strength 

Transparent acrylic plastic sheeting, 
widely used for canopies in military air- 
craft because of its light weight and the 
ease with which it can be formed into 
streamlined shapes, has shown a ten- 
dency to craze, that is, to form tiny 
cracks or fissures, and to shatter when 
subjected to gunfire while pressurized. 
To iiuprove the shattering resistance, 
this material is often used in laminated 
form with a soft vinyl plastic interlayer, 
similar to safety glass. However, th;' 
laminate is heavier than the unlaminated 
form and has a greater tendency to 
craze. 

Recent tests by the National Bureau 
of Standards have shown that stretch- 
orienting the plastic sheet before form- 
ing the enclosure will eliminate this 
problem. The 50 to 150 per cent stretch- 
ing, combined with an annealing process, 
seems to re-orient the chain molecules of 
the plastic producing not only craze- 
resistance, but also higher tensile 
strength, strain at failine, dimensional 
stability, and resistance to solvents. 

High Hi-Fi 

General Electric announced today 
that it is in production here on a new 
hi-fi cartridge (phonograph record pick- 
up) which can reproduce sounds far 
beyond the normal human hearing 
range of 30 to 15,000 cycles per second. 

The new VR-II cartridge's range is 
between 20 and 20,000 cycles. Engi- 
neers explain that building it with such 
capability improves its performance m 
the audible high treble ranges, between 
10,000 and 15,000 cycles. 

Some people with highly sensitive 
ears, they report, probably will be able 
to hear most of the cartridge's range. 



Clips 'n' Quips 

A fuel made from fertilizer and old 
crankcase oil is being used to propel 
rockets, reports American Machinist. 
The low-cost oil and fertilizer-grade 
ammonium nitrate can be made into 
any desired shape and costs only six 
cents a pound. 

Last year, L. S. exports and imports 
— $19 billion and $12.6 billion respec- 
tively — were the highest ever recorded, 
reports Chemical Week. Substantial in- 
creases were reported in U. S. exports 
of heav\ chemicals, industrial equip- 
ment, iron and steel scrap, and syn- 
thetic rubber. The Suez crisis also hiked 
oil, fuel exports. 

A Long Way Around 

A (.■.itskili, N. >'., farmer with a 
legitimate gripe has been quietly granted 
permission by the red-faced State Assem- 
bly to sue the state, reports Fleet Own- 
er. The farmer's problem: in building 
the state thruway, engineers overlooked 
one small matter. The new road sep- 
arated him from his outhouse and he 
had to dri\e four luiles and pay a toll 
to reach it. 

Atom-Plant Construction 

Rapid de\eio|imenr>. in tlie field of 
miclear research are having a big im- 
pact on the construction market, re- 
ports Engineering News-Record, Mc- 
Graw-Hill publication. Within the past 
31 months, from January 1955 to July 
1957, atomic construction contracts 
given out fire-balled from a solitary 
award of $59.9 million in 1955's initial 
month to a cumulative total of $3<S8.4 
million, as of last month. 

The contract awards have had their 
ups and downs. During the first five 
months of this \ear, atoinic construction 



C(intr:ict .'iwards ol $.U.\ million were 
1() per cent higher than the award total 
of $26.9 million during the first five 
months of 1956, but the current year's 
seven-month figure shows that total 
awards of $46.6 million for atomic con- 
struction are now 36.9 per cent behind 
the $73.6 million tot.ii in the same pe- 
riod of 1956. 

There also was a shift in the import- 
ance of public and private awards, the 
magazine points out. During last year's 
first se\en months, private awards took 
the spotlight with a total of $50.6 mil- 
lion, contrasted with public contract 
awards of $23.3 million. 

But now at the end of seven months, 
a change is noted. This year, private 
contracts tallied in at $13.3 million, 
while public awards amounted to $33.3 
million. This represents a drop of 74.8 
per cent from last year's private total, 
while public contracts scored a 43 per 
cent increase over the corresponding pe- 
riod of 1956. 

Federal Pay Boost 

.A separate clarification and pa\' 
schedule for engineers employeil by the 
Federal (Government has been recom- 
mended to a Senate subcommittee in tes- 
timony b>' the National Society of Pro- 
fessional Engineers. 

The NSPE testimony emphasized 
that "an adjustment of the salaries of 
engineers and scientists in the Federal 
ser\ice is in order and is required if 
the government is not to fall further be- 
hind in its effort to obtain and retain 
competent engineering staffs." 

Testifying before the Subcommittee 
on Federal Employees Compensation, 
Paul H. Robbins, executive director of 
the National Society, urged the passage 
of a bill which would assign engineers 
and other professionals to separate 
schedules and classifications systems. 

Mr. Robbins cited the difficulties ex- 
perienced by Federal agencies in secur- 
ing and retaining the services of sc'- 
entists and engineers, and pointed out 
that an NSPE salary survey for 195'J 
indicated that engineers in the Federal 
service were paid at a rate twenty-one 
per cent lower than in private indus- 
try. 

The NSPE testimony challenged one 
of the conclusions made by the recent 
Cordiner Committee study which found 
that a separate pay schedule for profes- 
sionals would violate sound principles 
of salary administration. 

"We suggest that the (lovernment 
cannot have it both ways," Mr. Robbins 
said, "that professional skills are an in- 
dispensable element, the lack of which 
imperils our nation's .security and prog- 
ress, and at the same time insist that 
this same grotip be treated in the same 
manner and under the same conditions 
as general employees in other cate- 
trories." 



58 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



How Dry Am I? 

Eas\' and safe sliipnients can now be 
made of viruses, vaccines, tissue, bone 
and host of other delicate matter be- 
cause of a new instrument that looks 
like a mechanical cow turned upside 
down. The new instrument, called the 
Freeze-Dry, is made by the American 
Instrument Companj' of Silver Sprinj;. 
Maryland, and is used to preserve liv- 
ing cells indefinitely without a need for 
refrigeration. 

Samples of the material one wishes 
to preserve or ship are quickly frozen 
in the integral freezing compartment of 
the instrument. They are then attached 
to the fixtures on the stainless steel 
drum and dried by sublimation, (the 
boiling ofif and withdrawal of water 
from the material without the material 
first having been turned into liquid). 
The containers are flame-sealed to im- 
prison the sample in a vacuum. They 
are withdrawn without disturbing the 
drying of other samples. Normally the 
material is restored to its original state 
merely by adding water. 

Samples can be observed while dry- 
ing ; stored for extended periods of time ; 
or shipped in the same vacuum-tight con- 
tainers in which they were processed, 
all without fear of spoilage or contam- 
ination. A big advantage in today's sci- 
entific world is that samples can be 
shipped at room temperature without 
harm. 

Out of This World 

The latest news about other planets 
in our solar system was reported by 
Gerard P. Kuiper of the University of 
Chicago's Yerkes and McDonald Ob- 
servatories at the final session of the 
98th meeting of the American Astro- 
nomical Society. 

He reported that the clouds over 
Venus are not composed of water drop- 
lets, as are earth clouds, but of a gas 
called carbon-suboxide. Though com- 
posed, like dry ice, of carbon and oxy- 
gen, its formula instead of the fa- 
miliar CO, is CX),. 

Concerning the moons of Jupiter, he 
said that two of these are revealed by 
the spectograph to be covered with 
snow, but on one of these the snow may 
be contaminated with silicate dust. 

As for Mars, research confirms the 
presence of carbon-dioxide, which on 
earth is produced largely by the breath- 
ing processes of animals and is essential 
to the breathing of plants. 

Coolers to Aid Oil Sales 

Oil sales that usually slump in sum- 
mer, may soon get a boost from air- 
conditioning, reports Petroleum Week. 
McGraw-Hill publication. A residential 
unit, which burns heating oil for fuel, 
provides both heating and cooling. It 
will go on the market this spring. 




Analyzing Elements 

A new, simplified technique for over- 
coming one of the laboratory chemist's 
chief time-consuming problems, that of 
spectrochemical determination of the 
elements in samples of unknown origin 
and basic composition, has been devel- 
oped by U. S. Steel. Known as the "car- 
bon-matrix technique," the new method 
utilizes a graphite electrode to create 
the necessary dilution and a known, 
small amount of germanium to produce 
a reference intensity in the spectrum. 

In making any spectrochemical analy- 
sis, it is necessary that the instruments 
be calibrated with materials of the same 
basic composition, or matrix, as the 
samples to be anahzed. 

When these samples are of an un- 
known basic composition, it is difficult 
to determine the concentration of the 
various elements present. This is be- 
cause there is a characteristic wave- 
length for each element and its concen- 
tration is measiued by the intensity of 
light of that wavelength emitted when 
the sample is excited in an electrical 
discharge. The light intensity, however, 
changes with the matrix of the sample, 
and calibrations prepared for one ma- 
terial may not be applicable to another. 
Thus, when the matrix is unknown, the 
spectrochemical method cannot he ap- 
plied, since the calibration which should 
be used for the analysis cannot be de- 
termined. 

The usual way to overcome this dif- 
ficulty is to mix the sample with some 
standard substance for which calibra- 
tions can be prepared. A procedure in- 
volving dilution of up to 800 times the 
unknown sample with varying amounts 
of germanium dioxide and then by a 
mixture of equal amounts of graphite 
and copper oxide in the ratio of 1 to 
40 has gi\en satisfactory results. By 
using copper as the internal standard 



and analyzing in triplicate with a series 
of standards, an over-all accuracy of 
plus or minus ten per cent is achieved. 

This procedure, while giving satis- 
factory results, is complicated and some- 
times quite lengthy. In addition, when 
the sample is very small, it is difficult 
to prepare a homogeneous mixture with 
the dilutent. Many of the samples sub- 
mitted to the Applied Research Labora- 
tory weigh less than a few tenths of 
a milligram. 

The carbon-matrix technique devel- 
oped by the scientists is, in effect, a 
simplified method of diluting the sam- 
ple with a standard substance. A tiny 
amount of the sample is placed in a 
small crater drilled into the end of a 
graphite electrode. When the electrode 
plus the sample is placed in the electrical 
discharge, the necessary dilution with a 
standard substance is performed b\ the 
carbon of the electrode. 

Bus to Get Plane Ramp 

A bus with a built-in, ailjustable 
ramp that will deliver 56 people from 
downtown areas directh' onto planes 
parked at the end of runways is in the 
drawing-board stage, reports Aviation 
11 eek. The bus has an hydraulically- 
lifted passenger-loading ramp. It can be 
adjusted to match the height of the 
plane's entrance door, and thus avoid 
need for planes, especially jets, to taxi 
long distances, eliminating clutter of air- 
craft around the immediate vicinity of 
terminals. 

Glass-Coated Smokestacks 

A new type smokestack — glass pro- 
tected inside as well as out — has been 
developed, reports Factory ]\Ianagement 
and Maintenance. This discovery writes 
finis to corrosion cares, and also gives 
three-to-fi\e times longer service than 
a regular smokestack. 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



59 




Yes, YOUR help is needed. Engineering Open 
House and St. Pat's Ball are coming up soon, and 
they need your help to make them a big success. 
Whatever your schedule, whether you can spare 
one hour or a dozen, do your share. The men to 
call are: 



Open House; 

John Brennan— 604 E. Armory, C— 6-7266 

St. Pat's Ball: 

Ray Borelli-iniS. First, C-6-3314 



DO IT TODAY! 



60 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



chemical Boost For India 

India, in the last ten years, has ex- 
perienced a strong, steady build-up in 
many industries, including chemicals, 
reports Chemical Week. By 1961, cer- 
tain chemicals should record tremendous 
gains, and an Indian chemical industry' 
spokesman says that in most cases, they 
will only be minuiuini goals. 

Russian Ice Dusters 

Russians are claiming another first, 
using planes to defrost frozen water- 
ways, artificially extending the naviga- 
tion season, reports Aviation Jf'eek. Ice- 
covered waterways are dusted with pow- 
dered coal to absorb the sun's heat. The 
Russians claim that the blackened areas 
thaw 10 to 18 times faster than un- 
treated ice. 

OFfshore Filling Stations 

Within one year, some 40 ofifshore 
gas stations will dot the Atlantic sea- 
board, from Panama to Canada, reports 
Piatt's Oilgrain. Backers of the offshore 
bunkering stations feel that ship opera- 
tors will save the tug, pilot and dock 
fees of ports. The "floating-turret" type 
terminals will cost about $1 million 
apiece, and will provide one-stop fuel 
and fresh water services for vessels up 
to three miles from shore. 



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NOVEMBER, 1957 



61 



The 



by Ken Cohen 



Through the ages, man has neeiled 
light to carrv on his activities. In the 
heginning the sun was his only source. 
Then he discovered fire and the control 
of it, which led to the oil lamps. These 
lamps were used for many centuries 
until 187') when Thomas A. Edison 
invented the electric lamp. Just having 
a light source has never satisfied man. 
He is always striving tor new sources 
as well as improving our old ones. Con- 
trolling the light produced, and im- 
proving the application of these sources, 
must also he included in his desires. 1 o 
ohtain these objectives are men called 
"Illuminating Engineers." 

The illuminating engineer is in many 
different phases of lighting. He can be 
associated with residential, commer- 
cial, farm, industrial, highway, or 
municipal lighting, just to name a few. 
Many times he will specialize in one or 
two of these branches. Utilities, lamp 
and fixture manufacturers, distributors, 
architects and consulting engineering 
firms require his services. 

Apart from research, most illuminat- 
ing engineers are also concerned with 
application. Having a job assigned to 
them, they have to coordinate it with 
the architect and builder to arrive at 
a good lighting layout. Man>' illumi- 
nating engineers lay out all the elec- 
trical circuits as well as the lighting. 
Often their job must be a compromise 
due to a budget. 

Not all lighting jobs warrant his help. 
Many of his previous jobs become 
standards which others, not necessarily 
engineers, can follow. One can see that 
his job is very challenging, as each job 
he takes on is different. 

The illuminating engineer has a hard- 
er job than most engineers. Because his 
lighting systems are jvidged by laymen, 
and not technically trained men, the 
psychological factor has to be consid- 
ered. His designs must do more than 
merely supply light for visual tasks. 
Lighting to attract customers to a cer- 
tain part of a department store and 
lighting to give a relaxing atmosphere 
to a waiting room are two examples 
of additional factors that might be con- 
sidered when desigiung a layout. 

In 1*^4^ the L niversit\' of Illinois, 



llluminafion 

Engineer is often 

called upon to estimate 

human emotions as well as 

engineering. Sometimes 

taken for granted, 

his important 

work is 

available 

at the 

flick 

of a 

switch 



The Unsung 
Engineer 



through its Electrical Engineering De- 
partment, inaugurated a special curricu- 
lum to train men to the field of illumi- 
nation. Since then approximately 160 
men have obtained degrees, including 
1^ Masters and one Doctorate. B\ in- 
troducing this curriculum, the L niver- 
sity of Illinois became the only school 
in the country to offer a thorough edu- 
cation in illuminating engineering. In 
the last eleven years these men have be- 
come very prominent in this field. 



To aid in the training of illuminat- 
ing engineers, the school has an illumi- 
nation laboratory that would stand up 
favorably against any of the commercial 
photometry laboratories in the coinury. 

Progress has not stopped in the field 
of illumination. When new and better 
light sources come out, there will be 
the illuminating engineer to use them 
in the right place and at the right time, 
giving the public better and more in- 
teresting lighting. 



62 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



You want a job 




. . . plus the chance to get ahead 

. . . plus the chance for recognition 

. . . plus the chance to keep learning 

As a leader in many fields, Union Carbide offers a handsome assortment of 
plus factors with its jobs. It's a top producer of petrochemicals — and U. S. 
output of petrochemicals has roughly doubled every five years since World 
War II. It's a leading producer of oxygen — and new steelmaking methods 
use such vast quantities of oxygen that consumption in '57 is expected to be 
double that of '55. And these are only two of the expanding fields in which 
Union Carbide is a leader. 

In terms of jobs with plus, this growth means Advancement with a capital 
"A." As our markets expand, we need more people to handle the development, 
production, and sale of our products. 

Representatives of Divisions of Union Carbide Corporation, listed below, will 
be interviewing on many campuses. Check your placement director, or write 
to the Division representative. For general information, write to V. O. Davis, 
30 East 42nd Street, New York 17, New York. 



BAKELITE COMPANY Plastics, including 
polyethylene, epoxy, tluorothene, vinyl, phenolic, 
and polystyrene. J. C. Older, River Road, Bound 
Brook, N. J. 



SILICONES DIVISION Silicones for elec- 
trical insulation, release agents, viiater repellents, 
etc.; silicone rubber. P. I. Emch, 30 East 42nd 
Street, New York 17. N. Y. 



GENERAL OFFICES-NEW YORK 

Accounting, Electronic Data Processing, Operations 
Research, Industrial Engineering, Purchasing. E. R. 
Brown, 30 East 42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



ELECTRO METALLURGICAL COMPANY 

Over 100 ferro-alloys and alloying metals; titanium, 
calcium carbide, acetylene. C. R. Keeney, 137— 
47th St., Niagara Ealls, N. Y. 



HAYNES STELIITE COMPANY Special 

alloys to resist heat, abrasion, and corrosion; cast 
and wrought. L. E. Denny, 725 South Lindsay Street, 
Kokomo, Ind. 



LINDE COMPANY Industrial gases, metal- 
working and treating equipment, synthetic gems, 
molecular sieve adsorbents. P. I. Emch, 30 East 
42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



UNION CARBIDE CHEMICALS COMPANY 

Synthetic organic chemicals, resins, and fibers 
from natural gas, petroleum, and coal. W. C. 
Heidenreich, 30 East 42nd St., New York 17, N. Y. 



UNION CARBIDE INTERNATIONAL COM- 
PANY Markets Union Carbide products and 
operates plants overseas. C. C. Scharf, 30 East 42nd 
Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



UNION CARBIDE NUCLEAR COMPANY 

Operates Atomic Energy Commission facilities at 
Oak Ridge, Tenn., and Paducah, Ky. W. V. Hamilton, 
P. 0. Box "P", Oak Ridge, Tenn. 




NATIONAL CARBON COMPANY Indus 

trial carbon and graphite products. Prestone 
anti-freeze, Eveready flashlights and batteries. 
S. W. Orne, P. 0. Box 6087, Cleveland, Ohio. 



VISKING COMPANY A pioneer in packaging 
—producer of synthetic food casings and poly- 
ethylene nim. Dr. A. L Strand, 6733 West 65th 
Street, Chicago, III. 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



63 





To engineering 

undergraduates in a whirl 
about the future... 



AT DOUGLAS, YOUR 
ASSIGNIVIENTS HAVE 
THE SCOPE THAT LETS 
YOU PROGRESS AT 
YOUR OWN PACE! 



Going around in circles? Chances are you're 
wondering what your future holds. At Douglas, long- 
range projects of tremendous scope assure 
a constant variety of assignments . . . and the opportunity 
to expand your responsibilities. Douglas is headed 
by engineers who believe that promotion must come 
from within. They'll stimulate you to build a 
rewarding future in your field. 

For important career opportunities, write : 

C. C. UaVENE 

DOUGLAS AIRCRAFT COMPANY. BOX 6101-Q 

SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA 



V>^^ 



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FIRST IN AVIATION 




64 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




The Electronic Classroom-RCA adds a nevi 
world of sight and sound to the "3 R's" 



Today's classroom is no longer 
bounded by books and blackboards. 
For our children, school is big as the 
world of sight and sound itself. 

RCA has sent the electron to school 
—in TV sets, radios, "\ictrolas, "* rec- 
ords, tape recorders, film projectors. 
And with all this, valued help for 
teachers who must make fullest use of 
our overcrowded classrooms. 

Picture a civics class listening to a 
vital debate in the UN ... a young- 
ster improving his diction witli the 
help of a tape recorder . . . kindergart- 
ners dancing to folk music of a faraway 



country . . . internes watching an opera- 
tion close-up on closed-circuit TV. . . . 
The applications are endless. 

Through its leadership in electronics, 
RCA contributes a great deal to the 
success of this new and broader kind of 
education. In fact, helping our on- 
coming generation to see, to hear ... to 
understand ... is one of the most im- 
portant jobs we do. tmk(S) b 



>VHERE TO, MR. ENGINEER? 

RC.\ offors careers in rcsearcli, de- 
velopment, design and manufac- 
turing for engineers with Bachelor 
or advanced degrees in E. E., M. E. 
or Physics. For full information, 
write: Mr. R. Haklisch, Manager, 
College Relations, Radio Corpora- 
tion of America, Camden 2, N. J. 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

Electronics for Living 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



65 



The Society Column — 



It's time for you to 



Know Your Societies 



Compiled by Don Snedeker 



^ 



It is a well established fact that extra- 
curricular activities play a very import- 
ant part in a student's life. The student 
enjoys many benefits from these acti\ i- 
ties both during his school life and upon 
graduation when he is seeking a job. 
The majority of employers today weigh 
a student's activities on a near equal 
par with his scholastic achievement. 
They consider attainments in both fields 
as characteristic of a well-rounded po- 
tential employee. 

Our purpose will be to keep the engi- 
neering student informed of the activi- 
ties in the many engineering organiza- 
tions, and the requirements that the stu- 
dent himself must meet to become a part 
of these activities. 

Let us begin this month by defining 
the various organizations and exploring 
some of tile reiiuncments for member- 
.hip. 

American Ceramic Society (ACS) 

The student branch of the American 
Ceramic Society was established at the 
I'niversity of Illinois in 1916. Since that 



time this society has become an active, 
effective organization open to all stu- 
dents enrolled in the ceramic engineer- 
ing curriculum. The big event for ACS 
members is the annual banquet known 
as the Pig Roast. Regular monthly meet- 
ings are held at which lectures are pre- 
sented on both technical and non-techni- 
cal subjects. 

American Foundryman's Society (AFS) 

An\()ne interested in the toundrv in- 
dustry is welcome to join AFS and at- 
tend the lectures and participate in field 
trips to nearby foundries. Members re- 
ceive a subscription to the monthly AFS 
magazine. The American Foundry man. 
and may attend the annual banquet. The 
AFS also operates a placement bureau 
which helps undergraduate students to 
obtain summer employment in the foun- 
dr\ industr\. 



American Institute of Chemical 
Engineers (AlChE) 

The student branch of AIChE is open 
to students of chemical engineering who 
desire to learn more about their chosen 
field and stay abreast of current events 
in it. At the meetings, which are held 
e\ery three weeks, the members hear 
speakers talk on the technical aspects of 
chemical engineering and the career 
problems of the engineering field. The 
society also conducts several field trips. 



American Institute of Electrical 

Engineers-Institute of Radio Engineers 

(AIEE-IRE) 

This organization was founded as 
the AIEE in 1891. At present there are 
approximately 100 branches, including 
the UI student branch, open to students 
enrolled in the electrical engineering 
curriculum. Lectures, field trips, and so- 
cial events are all included in the so- 
ciety's program of activities. 



American Society of Agricultural 
Engineers (ASAE) 

Only those students enrolled in the 
agricultural engineering curriculum may 
become regular members of ASAE, but 
any student taking two three-hour 
courses in agricultural engineering may 
become an associate member. He may 
then attend the lectures and various so- 
cial events held throughout the year. 
The UI chapter also helps in the super- 
\ision of the State Mechanical Corn 
Picking Contest. 

American Society of Civil Engineers 
(ASCE) 

The UI student chapter of ASCE is 
one of 133 student chapters throughout 
the country, with a total membership of 
7,500. Each spring, representatives at- 
tend the Midwest Conference of Stu- 
dent Chapters and participate in discus- 



66 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



sioiis and field trips. Regular nioiitlil.\ 
meetings are held and the year's activi- 
ties include a student-faculty mixer and 
a [licnic. Students are eligible for mem- 
bership if they are enrolled in ci\il en- 
gineering or architectural engineering. 

American Society of Mechanical 
Engineering (ASME) 

The ASME student branch was or- 
ganized for all students studying me- 
chanical engineering, but is open to all 
interested students. Members receive the 
official magazine of the ASME, partici- 
pate in field trips and attend lectures 
at the monthly meetings. The ASME 
also holds joint meetings with the Amer- 
ican Foundryman's Society, and the So- 
ciet\' of Automoti\e Engineering. 

Eta Kappa Nu, iMinois Alpha Chapter 
(HKN) 

Illinois Alpha is one of 36 school 
chapters of Eta Kappa Nu, organized as 
an honorary fraternity of electrical en- 
gineering students. Its membership is se- 
lected from those EE students who have 
maintained high scholarship. HKN ac- 
tivities are varied, including lectures, 
luncheons and smokers. 

Illuminating Engineering Society 

(lES) 

The only requirement for member- 
ship in the student branch of lES is an 
active interest in illuminating engineer- 
ing. However students enrolled in the 
illuminating engineering option of the 
electrical engineering curriculum will be 
especially interested in the organization. 
Chapter meetings are held bi-monthly at 
which lectures on topics of interest to 
the members are presented. 

Institute of Aeronautical Sciences 
(IAS) 

The LI student branch of IAS is a 
relatively new organization, having been 
organized in 1947 for students enrolled 
in aeronautical courses. The chapter 
sponsors field trips to aircraft plants, 
and at their monthly meetings holds lec- 
tures by speakers from aircraft plants 
and industries. An annual student-facul- 
ty dinner is held at which the mem- 
bers have a chance to become better ac- 
quainted with the instructors in their 
field. 



Institute of Traffic Engineers (ITE) Pi Tau Sigma, Illinois Alpha Chapter 



Membership in ITE is open to all 
students \\ho are interested in obtaining 
a better understanding of traffic prob- 
lems. Lectures on related topics are pre- 
sented at monthly meetings and each 
year a field trip is taken to Chicago. 
.Members also receive the ITE maga- 
zine as a further insight into the prob- 
lems of traffic enguieenng. 

Illinois Technograph 

Each month, the magazine which you 
are now reading is published by engi- 
neering students. These students gain 
valuable experience in the various as- 
pects of magazine publication by writing 
the articles, doing illustrations and pho- 
tographic work and by handling the 
advertising and business affairs of the 
magazine. 

Mineral Industries Society (MIS) 

The MIS is the student branch of 
the American Institute of Mining Engi- 
neers. It is open to all interested stu- 
dents, especially those in mining and 
metallurgy. Informative lectures are 
presented at the monthly meetings. Each 
year the chapter sponsors a softball 
game with mining students competing 
against the metallurgical students. Each 
spring a gold watch is presented to the 
outstanding senior in mining bv "The 
Old Timers Club" of ASMR. 

Sanitary Engineering Society 
(MuSan) 

Mu San was founded at LI in 1911 
for students of sanitary engineering and 
others interested in the field. Every two 
weeks meetings are held at which lec- 
tures of sanitary engineering topics are 
presented. Field trips are taken to water 
and sewage works throughout the state. 
The society also sponsors several social 
events, including a picnic and a banquet 
each year. 

The Physics Society 

This society was founded in 1951 
for all iMidergrad physics students and 
is the yoimgest of the engineering so- 
cieties on campus. Lectures presented at 
monthly meetings are varied .so as to be 
of interest to freshmen through seniors. 
Short field trips are taken to the cyclo- 
tron and electronic computer. 



The Illinois Alpha Chapter was 
founded in 1915 as the original chapter 
of the fraternity. Junior and senior me- 
chanical engineering students who are 
of sound character and outstanding scho- 
lastic achievement are invited to become 
members of Pi Tau Sigiua. Meetings 
are held twice a month at which lec- 
tures of interest to members are pre- 
sented. 

Sigma Gamma Tau 

Sigma (lamma Tau resulted from the 
union of two honorary fraternities: 
Gamma Alpha Rho and Tau Omega. 
This is a national organization which 
honors upper classmen and graduate 
students in aeronautical engineering who 
have outstanding scholastic records. The 
fraternity maintains a counseling service 
for freshmen and sophomore aeronauti- 
cal engineering students. 

Sigma Tau, Theto Chapter 

Theta chapter is one of 29 chapters 
of Sigma Tau, an honorary fraternity 
for students in all of the various 
branches of engineering. Engineering 
students who maintain a grade point 
average of at least 4.0 are eligible to 
become members after their freshman 
and .sophomore years. Each semester a 
smoker and an initiation banquet are 
held in addition to the regular business 
meetings. 

Society of Automotive Engineers 
(SAE) 

Founded in 1949, the LI chapter of 
SAE is for mechanical engineers and 
others interested in the automotive in- 
dustries. Members may attend the lec- 
tures and field trips presented by the 
chapter and they receive a subscription 
to the official magazine of the society. 
The SAE Journal. 

Tau Beta Pi, Illinois Alpha Chapter 

Tau Heta Pi is a national honorary 
engineering fraternity founded in 1885. 
Since then it has grown steadily until 
today there are 90 active chapters. Jun- 
ior and senior engineering students who 
meet the rigid scholastic requirements 
are invited to become members. Chap- 
ter representatives attend the national 
convention each year. 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



67 



1958-19'S9 

The Ramo->A/oold ridge Fellowships 

for Graduate Study at the 

California Institute of Technology 

or the 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

Leading toward the Ph. D. or Sc. D. degree as offered by each institution 

Emphasis in the st/tdy program at the California Institute oj 
Technology will be on Systems Engineering, and at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology on Systems Engineering or Operations Research. 



The Ramo-Wooldridge Fellowships have been estab- 
lished in recognition of the great scarcity of scientists 
and engineers who have the very special qualifications 
required for work in Systems Engineering and Opera- 
tions Research, and of the rapidly increasing national 
need for such individuals. Recipients of these Fellow- 
ships will have an opportunity to pursue a broad 
course of graduate study in the fundamental mathe- 
matics, physics, and engineering required for careers 
in these fields, and will also have an opportunity to 
associate and work with, experienced engineers 
and scientists. 

Systems Engineering encompasses difficult advanced 
design problems of the type which involve inter- 
actions, compromises, and a high degree of optimiza- 
tion between portions of complex complete systems. 
This includes taking into account the characteristics 
of human beings who must operate and otherwise 
interact with the systems. 

Operations Research involves the application of the 
scientific method of approach to complex manage- 
ment and operational problems. Important in such ap- 
plication is the ability to develop mathematical models 
of operational situations and to apply mathematical 
tools to the solution of the problems that emerge. 

The program for each Fellow covers approximately 
a twelve- month period, part of which is spent at The 
Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation, and the remainder at 
the California Institute of Technology or the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology working toward the 
Doctor's degree, or in post-doctoral study. Fellows in 
good standing may apply for renewal of the Fellow- 
ship for a second year. 



ELIGIBILITY The general requirements for eligibil- 
ity are that the candidate be an American citizen who 
has completed one or more years of graduate study in 
mathematics, engineering or science before July 1958. 
The Fellowships will also be open to persons who have 
already received a Doctor's degree and who wish to 
undertake an additional year of study focused specifi- 
cally on Systems Engineering or Operations Research. 
A^VARDS The awards for each Fellowship granted 
will consist of three portions. The first will be an 
educational grant disbursed through the Institute 
attended of not less than $2,000, with possible upward 
adjustment for candidates with family responsibilities. 
The second portion will be the salary paid to the 
Fellow for summer and part-time work at The Ramo- 
Wooldridge Corporation. The salary will depend upon 
his age and experience and amount of time worked, 
but will normally be approximately S2,000. The third 
portion will be a grant of S2,100 to the school to cover 
tuition and research expenses. 



APPLICATION PROCEDURE 

For a descriptive booklet and application forms, 
write to The Ramo-Wooldridge Fellowship 
Committee. The Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation, 
5730 Arbor Vitae Street. Los Angeles 45. Com- 
pleted applications together with reference forms 
and a transcript of undergraduate and graduate 
courses and grades must be transmitted to the 
Committee not later than January 20, 1958. 



The Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation 



S730 ARBOn VITAE BTREEI 



_ES AS. CALI FOF 



-ES TEl-EPHONE; ORESOtM 0-03II 



68 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




mmm 



BETTER THINGS FOR BETTER LIVING 



. THROUGH CHfMISTRy 



OPPORTUNITIES AT DU PONT CONTINUE TO GROW 
FOR ALL KINDS OF ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS 




WHERE DO YOU 
WANT TO WORK? 



by 

E. H. Cox 

DuPont 
Representative 



/ uouldnt he entirely realis- 
tic if I said that you can 
choose your job location 
from Du Pout's 75 plants and 
98 laboratories scattered 
over 26 states. But Du Pont 
does have jobs open in many 
of these locations, so there is 
a good chance that ue may 
he able to match your pref- 
erences and qualifications 
with available openings. 

Right now, most of the 
Du Pont units are east of the 
Mississippi, but tve have 
plants in Texas and on the 
Pacific Coast, too. In the past 
year plants were completed 
in Michigan, California, 
Ohio and Georgia. New 
plants are also under con- 
struction in Kansas. Tennes- 
see. Virginia and North 
Carolina. Perhaps one nj 
these locations has just what 
you're looking for in a job. 

For a cotnplete list of our 
plant locations, please write 
to me at E. I. du Pont dr 
Nemours & Co. (Inc.), 
2494-B Nemours Building, 
fVilmington 98, Del. 



Career opportunities at Du Pont are 
greater today than ever before be- 
cause of the Company's continued 
growth. In 1957. Du Font's sales 
were at the $2 billion level. Four new- 
plants were being built. New research 
programs were being launched, and 
new products were moving into the 
production and marketing stages. All 
of these developments tend to broaden 
opportunities at Du Font for the 
young scientist and engineer. 

ALL KINDS OF ENGINEERS 

Students with chemical engineering 
and chemistry degrees are needed, of 
course. But the opportunities are 
equally great for students majoring 
in many other fields. And the type of 
work for these men varies greatly. 
Among other things: 

Mechanical engineers work in re- 



search and development as well as in 
plant engineering and production 
supervision. 

Metallurgical engineers conduct 
studies in metal fatigue and corrosion 
and engage in fundamental research 
into the nature and properties of 
elements. 

Civil engineers have many assign- 
ments, including design and super- 
vision of the construction of Du Font 
plants and laboratories. 

Men studying for degrees in electri- 
cal, mining, petroleum, industrial and 
many other specialized fields of engi- 
neering will find equally challenging 
outlets for their talents at Du Font. 

If you're interested in finding full 
scope for your ability, Du Font offers 
you plenty of opportunity. 



Du Pont Training Tailored to Individual 



I 

NOVEMBER, 1957 



.J 



Each (if Du Font's operating depart- 
ments has its own training program 
because each has special require- 
ments. But both formal and informal 
programs are tailored to the interests 
and needs of the individual. 

Generally, you go to work on an 
assignment at once and start learning 
right awav. This headstart on respon- 
sihilitv is an important factor in vour 
progress. Based on your qualifica- 
tions, you re given one segment of a 
project to tackle almost immediatei\. 
You learn quickly and informally in 
consultation with your supervisor and 
other engineers on the same project. 
This training is supplemented by fre- 
quent meetings, seminars, studies of 
plant operations and procedures. 

And since Du Font is interested in 
the proirress of the individual. \our 



performance is evaluated at regular 
intervals by your supervisor. These 
discussions bring out your strong and 
weak points and together you work 
out a program for improvement. This 
training and evaluation continues 
year after year as you advance in 
the Company. 

SEND FOR INFORMATION BOOKLET 

Booklets on jobs at Du Pont are 
yours for the asking. Subjects 
include: niecbanical, civil, metal- 
lurgical, cbeniical, electrical, in- 
strumentation and industrial 
engineers at DuPont: atomic 
energy, tecbnical sales, research 
and development. Name the sub- 
ject that interests you in a letter 
to DuPont. 2494-B Nemours 
Buildin". \^ ilmington 98, Del. 



69 



'l^S-* 





howard hughes 
fellowships 

Ten awards are open to candidates inter- 
ested in studies leading to a Doctor of 
Philosophy or Doctor of Engineering 
degree or in conducting post-doctoral 
research. 

Each Fellowship provides a cash award 
of not less than S2000 ... a minimum 
salary of $2500 for summer or part-time 
work ... up to $1500 for tuition, books, 
and research expenses . . . and moving 
and transportation costs. Ehgibility is 
based on the completion of one year of 
graduate work in physics or engineering, 
and qualification for graduate standing at 
California Institute of Technology, Uni- 
versity of Cahfornia (Berkeley), or Stan- 
ford University. Application closing date: 
January 15, 1958. 

master of science 
feiiowships 

One hundred awards are open to partici- 
pants who will complete courses leadmg 
to the Master of Science degree within 2 
academic years. Tuition, admission fee, 
and books will be provided. During the 
summer and part-time during the aca- 
demic year they will have the oppor- 
tunity to work with experienced Hughes 
scientists and engineers, while receiving 
salaries based upon their ability and 
technical experience. 
Applicant must receive his B.S. degree 
during the coming year in Aeronautical 
Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Me- 
chanical Engineering, or Physics. Partici- 
pant may request his graduate school 
from the following six institutions: Uni- 
versity of Southern Cahfornia, UCLA, 
Stanford University, University of Ari- 
zona, Purdue University, or West Vir- 
ginia University. 

Write, specifying appropriate fellowship, to: 
Office of Advanced Studies 



■tliiaiM.iai»<iHfciirilii'i< I 



-''mmimmmmimtii 




I iiiiwaiwiawfcw- 




RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 
LABORATORIES 

Hughes Aircraft Co., Culver City, Calif 





TRANSISTOR *STOP-WATCHES' FOR INDUSTRY 

accuracies fo a 50 millionth / intervals from microseconds to months 



Texas Instruments engineers are building 
portable electronic timing devices to uncanny 
accuracies with interval variations to infinity. 
They allow applications never before practi- 
cal because of previous size, weight, power 
drain, and maintenance limitations . . . par- 
ticularly in airborne installations. Essentially 
binary counting and storage devices, these TI 
timers present an entirely new concept in time 
measurement ... a result of the new design 
freedom allowed by transistors ... of which 
TI is also the world's largest commercial 
manufacturer. 

At engineer-managed Texas Instruments, 
recognition of individual achievement has 
contributed to TI's twentyfold growth in the 
last ten years — to a current $70 million vol- 
ume. Advanced personnel policies include 
company-sponsored educational assistance, 
profit sharing, insurance, and retirement 
programs. 



Texas Instruments plants are within 
Dallas, yet away from downtown traffic . . . 
within 5 minutes of fine residential areas, 
churches, and public and private schools. 
Your home will be within 15 minutes of year- 
around recreational, amusement and cultural 
activities. 

Here are the major products and 
programs you can work with at TI: 

SEMICONDUCTORS & OTHER COMPONENTS-Transistors, 
diodes, rectifiers, resistors, and panel meters. ELECTRONIC & 
ELECTROMECHANICAL APPARATUS-Radar, sonar, infrared, 
navigation, magnetics, telemetering, communications, com- 
puters, transformers, and instruments. RESEARCH— Semi- 
conductor materials and devices, ferromagnetics, infrared, 
optics, high speed data reduction, etc. ADMINISTRATION — 
Production, planning, purchasing, cost analysis, etc. 



j;-,Texas Instruments 

^ .... 



CORPORATEO 



72 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




How to J engineer a career 



"3M Company has traditionally 
reinvested approximately fifty 
percent of earnings in research 
and the capital investment re- 
quired to produce and market 
the products of research."— 3M 
Annual Report. 



Best career advice we know is to "make 
no little plans". If you're the kind who 
measures the outer dimensions of the 
future with the divider's legs standing 
in a giant stride, we think you'll be 
interested in the 3M Company. 

This unusually fast-growing company 
encompasses a wide world of products 
and fields of interest that leave plenty 
of room for growth — yours and ours. 

Take our measure ... in terms that are 
vital to your career. 3M sales have more 
than doubled in the last five years. Fact 
is, more than 22 ''I of the products now 



being sold by 3M were developed in the 
last five years . . . exciting products like 
"SCOTCH" Brand Magnetic Tapes to 
guide rockets and "thermo-fax" Brand 
Heat-activated Copying Machines. 

Of course, 3M people are responsible for 
this growth . . . through new ideas and 
creative engineering. And it means that 
they are growing, too ... in responsi- 
bUities, earnings, opportunities. 

If we sound like your kind of company, 
write us now for full information. 
Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing 
Company, St. Paul 6, Minnesota. 



,A^^^i 



IVIlNNESOTA INfllNING AND ]VI AN U FACTU Rl N G COMPANY 

. . . where Research is the key to tomorrow 

NOVEMBER, 1957 




73 



The world is coming to Milwaukee .. . 



/.ii^KV'',' 




The new St. Lawrence Seaway means more business and 
more job opportunities at Wisconsin Electric Power Company 



With Milwaukee's outstanding harbor as a gate- 
way to an operating territory which extends from 
the Wisconsin state line on the south into upper 
Michigan on the north, the business-booming effect 
of the new St. Lawrence Seaway is bound to result 
in a great number of fine career opportunities at 
Wisconsin Electric Power Company. 

Job opportunities are available, not only in our 
Milwaukee metropohtan area, but also in a number 
of the smaller towns and communities throughout 
the system. Our companies serve better than half 
a million electric customers and provide natural gas 
service for approximately 75,000 gas customers. 
We employ more than 5,000 men and women. 

Here you will be able to begin your career in 
one of a wide and interesting variety of engineering 
fields — electrical, mechanical, civil, chemical, sta- 
tistical, research, administrative, sales, etc. You 



will find an immediate opportunity for using your 
engineering skills and for satisfying progress in 
your chosen field. 

Take a step right now into a successful future. 
Investigate both the immediate and long range ad- 
vantages of associating with one of the companies 
of the Wisconsin Electric Power Company System. 

When "the world comes to Milwaukee" — via 
the new St. Lawrence Seaway — be on hand to 
help us meet the challenges that increased demands 
for our services will present. Lend a helping hand 
with our $300,000,000 expansion program which is 
now in progress. Make a date to see our represen- 
tative when he visits your campus. 

SEE OUR REPRESENTATIVE 
WHEN HE VISITS THE CAMPUS. 

CHECK YOUR PLACEMENT 
OFFICE FOR DATES. 



WISCONSIN ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY SYSTEM 



Wisconsin Electric Power Co. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 



Wisconsin Michigan Power Co. 
Appleton, Wis. 



Wisconsin Natural Gas Co. 
Racine, Wis. 



74 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



'Tor today's 



')') 



engineer, yes... 



"You are prohahly the most sought after young men 
in America today. Industries of all kinds want you. 
You've got a wide choice, so which field do you choose? 

"The way 1 look at it, the aircraft industry has the 
most opportunity for you. It combines more advanced 
engineering sciences than any other field ... elec- 
tronics, communications, propzilsion systems, hydrau- 
lics and pneumatics, thermodynamics ... all these and 
many others. With this variety, interesting careers can 
be had either by specializing in one area or by moving-^ 
from one to another. 

"Obviously, you are going to want recognition for 
your work. You know that the aircraft industry pays 
well... but think ahotit this: aviation is relatively 
young and its life-blood is young men with new ideas. 
Numerous important advances have been made just in 
the last few years. Who knows what 7iew fields— and 
new opportunities — today's research will uncover? 

"So, for today's engineer, yes, I would say that your ■'/ >^v^i^l__ 
best bet is the aircraft industry. Nowhere else can you 'P\ • ^( { / 
find such opportunity, such challenge . . . and such ■ ^^'J^^ 
compensation and added benefits. In my estimation, ' 
there is no place where you can put your college 
training to better use'.' 

In the aircraft industry there is such a variety of engi- 
neering fields that a desire for virtually any one can 
be satisfied. As research continues more areas will 
be embraced and, as aircraft engineers pierce these bar- 
riers and solve today's problems, new challenges and 
opportunities arise. Northrop engineers have been 
meeting these challenges successfully for years. Air- 
planes such as the F-89 Scorpion, the new supersonic 
twin-jet Northrop T-38 trainer, and missiles such as 
the Snark SM-62 are examples of Northrop's engineer- 
ing theory and capabilities. 

In Northrop's new Engineering and Science Center, 
your training can be applied to top priority projects 
and your future will be made more secure by intensive 
on-the-job training. Regular reviews reward you for 
your capabilities and accomplishments, adding further 
financial security. The extra benefits at Northrop, such, 
as company-paid insurance and over three weeks vaca- 
tion with pay, are among the most generous in the 
entire industry. 

Write now and ask us how your qualifications can 
be applied to a career at Northrop. Regardless of 
whether you are an upper-classman or not, we believe 
we can show you that Northrop offers you a great 
future. Address Manager of Engineering Industrial 
Relations, Northrop Division, Northrop Aircraft, Inc., 
1032 East Broadway, Hawthorne, Cahfomia. 



^ 



NORTHROP 

Northrop Division of Northrop Aircraft, Inc. 

BUILDERS OF THE FIRST INTERCONTINENTAL GUIDED MISSILE 




NOVEMBER, 1957 



75 




IF" yoo W/vrvTn 
On/e: J5_S ET'^ 3 ... 



\^CD 



GRADUaTe:3 im El El 

WiTm good I CEI- 

KNOWLEDGE OF / PeTRPLELOM ENGlMEERr NG 

EZ-EcTRiciTy / GE0PMysi05 
/ V PMys.c5 



SO^ 2.<^3 — /-AOO 5T0 N -' 



76 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



of St. Louis 

. . .where the Hustler demands action 






^m 



^I'^Z 






JTXere's an incredible aircraft that flies 
fiir faster than sound, can reach any 
(arget on the face of the globe . . . and the 
B-58 Hustler's fire control system is 
typical of the many projects in our 
Electronics and Avionics Division. 

For 68 years, Emerson has been a first- 
ranking name in the electrical field. We 
manufacture fractional h.p. motors, fans, 
welders, power tools, air conditioners, and 
other electrical products. For the past 17 
years, Emerson has pioneered in important 
avionics activities. This background of 
balanced achievement endows us with 
confidence, not just in the future, but in 
our future ... as an industrial leader. 

Emerson Electric, in the midst of its 
greatest expansion program, offers 
outstanding opportunities for graduating 
AEs, EEs, and MEs. For full details, 
write to Mr. A. L. Depke, Office and 
Technical Employment Supervisor. 
Or arrange an interview when we visit 
your campus. 



8100 W. FLORISSANT 




ST. LOUIS 21, MO. 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



77 



CAN YOU FIGURE IT OUT? 



Re-arrange the numbers 
1 to 49 so that all rows, 
horizontal and vertical, 
and the two major 
diagonals, add up to 
175 each. It can be done! 



12 3 4 5 6 7 



8 9 10 n 12 13 14 



15 16 



19 20 21 



22 23 24 25 26 27 28 



29 30 31 32 33 34 35 



36 37 38 39 



41 42 



43 44 45 46 47 48 49 



^Solution at bottom of page 



FIGURING OUT A CAREER? 



Lee Baker tells what it's 
like to be . . . and why he 
likes being... a Manufac- 
turing Engineer with IBM. 





* 


SOLUTION 






30 


39 


43 


1 


10 


19 


28 


38 


47 


1 


9 


18 


27 


29 


4S 


e 


8 


17 


K 


35 


37 


5 


14 


1$ 


25 


34 


36 


45 


13 


15 


24 


33 


42 


44 


4 


21 


23 


32 


41 


43 


3 


12 


22 


31 


40 


49 


2 


11 


20 



Selecting a career can be puzzling, too. 
Here's how Lee Baker found the solution 
to his career problem— with IBM: 

Despite his impending Service hitch, Lee 
was hired by IBM in 1953. As a Technical 
Engineer, he entered the General Manu- 
facturing Education Program, a lO-month 
course with rotating assignments in all 
phases of the work: manufacturing, pur- 
chasing, production. Then came two years 
in Korea. Now back at IBM, Lee has been 
promoted to Production Control Engineer, 
responsible for designing systems to insure 
a smooth flow of work through the IBM 



electronic computer plant. "It takes creative 
engineering ability to design these systems," 
says Lee, "and administrative ability to 'sell' 
a system to higher management." 



There are many excellent opportunities for 
well-qualified engineers, physicists and 
mathematicians in IBM Research, Develop- 
ment and Manufacturing Engineering. Why 
not ask your College Placement Director 
when IBM will next interview on your 
campus? Or, for information about how 
your degree will fit you for an IBM career. 



JUST WRITE TO: 



IBM 



Mr. R. A. Whitehorne 
IBM Corp., Dept. 850 
590 Madison Avenue 
New York 22, N. Y. 



INTERNATIONAL 
BUSINESS MACHINES 
CORPORATION 



DATA PROCESSING 

tLECTRIC TYPEWRITERS 

MIIITARY PRODUCTS 

SPECIAL ENGINEERING PRODUCTS 

SUPPLIES 

TIME EQUIPMENT 



78 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Electronics Research Engineer Irving AIne records radiation 
antenna pattern on Lockheed's Radar Range. 
Twenty-two foot plastic tower in background 
minimizes ground reflections, approximates free space. 
Pattern integrator, high gain ampliher, square root 
amplifier and logarithmic amplifier shown in picture 
are of Lockheed design. 





Mechanical Research Engineer W. M. Watkins (left) directs 
Research Mechanic Earl Rollo in operating Lockheed's new 
Hailstone Gun during a lest on the effect of hailstones 
on new types of plastic radome "skin." The gun, which was 
designed by Watkins and Mechanisms Group Engineer 
G. W. Loulhan, hres up to five hailstones spaced 25 feet 
apart at speeds ranging from 270 to 500 mph. The hailstones* 
which are made in the gun, can be varied in size 
from )b" in diameter. 



Research Engineer Russell Lowe measures dynan 
strain applied by Lockheed's 500,000 1b. 
Force Fatigue Machine on test specimen of 
integrally-stiffened Super Constellation skin. 
The Fatigue Machine gives Structures 
Department engineers a significant advantage 
in simulating effect of flight loads on a 
structure. Among other Lockheed structures 
facilities are the only shimmy tower in 
private industry and largest drop lest 
tower in the nation. 




C. H. Fish, design engineer assigned 
to Lockheed's king Research 
Tunnel, measures impingement 
limits of ice on C-130 wing section. 
The tunnel has a temperature 
range of -40°F. to +150°F. and 
maximum speed of more than 
270 mph. It is the only icing 
research tunnel in private industry. 



Advanced facilities speed 
Lockheed engineering progress 



Master's Degree Work-Study Program 

The program enables graduates in Engineering, 

Malhenialics and Physics lo attain a Muster's Degree 

at the University of California at Los Angeles or 

University of Southern California while gaining 

important practical experience on the engineering 

staff of Lockheed A ircrafl Corporation 

in Burbank, California. 

Additional information may be obtained from your 

Placement Officer or Dean of the Engineering School or 

by writing E. W . Des Lauriers. Employment Manager 

and Chairman of the Master's Degree 

Work-Study Program. 



Lockheed's unmatched research and production facilities help make 
possible diversified activities in virtually all phases of aviation, 
military and commercial. 

They enable engineers to test advanced ideas which would remain 
only a conversation topic in firms lacking Lockheed's facilities. 
They help give designers full rein to their imagination. They make 
better planes — and better careers. 

California Divisioii 

LuCKriCUU AIRCRAFT CORPORATION 

BURBANK California 




10 years from now 

will you be proud 
of your decision? 




The right decision now, at the launch- 
ing of your career, can do much to 
influence your success. 

Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company has 
a host of fine young men who are hold- 
ing responsible positions in the PPG 
organization. Ten years ago, many of 
them were faced with the same decision 
that now faces you: "Which company 
shall I select.-*" 

They chose PPG because it offers 
unlimited opportunity. PPG has never 
stopped expanding or growing in its 
73 years of existence. Its markets are 
constantly increasing. PPG's manage- 
ment is progressive. It seeks men who 
can grow with the company . . . men 
who can take over responsibilities. In 



PPG, it isn't necessary to wait for a 
man's retirement or death before you 
move up in the ranks. Opportunities 
are opening up all the time in all of its 
important divisions: Paint, Glass, 
Chemicals, Brushes, Fiber Glass. 

This is your year of decision. We 
invite you to look into Pittsburgh Plate 
Glass Company. To help you become 
better acquainted with PPG, we sug- 
gest you get a copy right away of the 
booklet entitled, "Toward New Hori- 
zons with Pittsburgh Plate." Ask your 
placement officer for a copy or write 
directly to the Pittsburgh Plate Glass 
Company, General Personnel Director, 
One Gateway Center, Pittsburgh 22, 
Pennsylvania. 



PAINTS • GLASS • CHEMICALS • BRUSHES • PLASTICS • FIBER GLASS 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPA H^ Y 



345 PLANTS, MERCHANDISING BRANCHES, AND SALES OFFICES LOCATED IN 250 CITIES 



80 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Tear out this page foryOUR STEEL NOTEBOOK 



0.0000019 



.23664 i -POS 



1.00000111 



« ^ L v 



;80262X4.00271 



4.1062001 2.00 



ioo.4r 



*^«^^ 3989:8.85 




iiooaoooi? t 

in 
lOOOOO.OlOll 






f-:^Q 



Small steel tube with a giant memory 



IBM engineers needed a small 
steel tube — a memory unit for a 
computer — whose whirling sur- 
face would pick up thousands of 
complicated figures as magnetic 
impulses, retain and, years later, 
read them back instantly. This 
called for the cleanest, most uni- 
form quality steel that could be 
produced. IBM consulted Tim- 
ken Company metallurgists, 
who recommended a certain 



analysis of Timken® fine alloy 
seamless steel tubing. IBM 
found the steel so clean that 
when properly plated it accu- 
rately recorded up to 100,000 
electro-magnetic impulses. So 
strong it withstood the centrif- 
ugal forces of 1 2,000 rpm with- 
out distortion or damage. It's 
another example of how Timken 
Company metallurgists solved 
tough steel problems. 



WANT TO LEARN MORE ABOUT 
STEEL OR JOB OPPORTUNITIES? 

To learn more about electric fur- 
nace fine alloy steel, send for "The 
Story of Timken Steel Quality". 
And for help in planning your 
future, write for "Career Oppor- 
tunities at the Timken 
Company". We will 
reply promptly. The 
Timken Roller 
Bearing Company, 
Canton 6, Ohio. 




o 



See the next Timken Televent hour, "The Innocent Years" over NBC-TV, Thursday night, November 21st. 

TIMKEN^STEEL 



IBADE MARK REO. US PAT. OFF. 



SPECIALISTS IN FINE ALLOY STEELS, GRAPHITIC TOOL STEELS AND SEAMLESS STEEL TUBING 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



81 



I 



r 




Highlights of 

YOUR FUTURE 

WITH 
HONEYWELL 



Glenn Seidel, Vice President in Charge 
of Engineering, B.M.E. Minnesota '36 



"Here are some of the facts about Honeyivell 
that have most interested the young engineering 
graduates we talk to.^^ 



m 


Tfrrm 


= 


z^ 


— 


1 


J ■ 


' 
















_m 


^^^^1 


= 


= 



HONEYWELL IS A GROWTH COMPANY! 

A growth company is one in which men 
move ahead because of opportunity and 
challenge ... in which problems are 
turned into progress . . . and employ- 
ment, sales and income increase steadily. 

Honeywell, world leader in automatic controls, is 
such a company. For the past 30 years, sales have 
doubled or tripled every five years ($1.1 million in 
1926; $287.9 million in 1956.) Employment has in- 
creased from 720 to over 30,000 in the same period 
and net earnings have climbed from $.4 million to 
$22.5 million. 

The future is even more challenging. Planned diver- 
sification puts Honeywell in such new fields as office 
and factory automation, process control, plastics, atom- 
ic energy, electronics, missiles and satellites. 

Honeywell has the proven skills to design, engineer 
and build the equipment required by an increasingly 
automatic world and to sell its products proKtably. 



Year 


Sales 
($000,000) 


Net 

Earnings 

($000,000) 


Plant Space 

(Square Ft.) 

(000) 


1926 


1.1 


.4 


158 


1931 


5.4 


.6 


200 


1936 


13.5 


3.0 


432 


1941 


24.3 


2.6 


603 


1946 


45.9 


5.7 


1.284 


1951 


135.2 


8.9 


2.296 


1955 


244.5 


19.3 


3.460 


1956 


287.9 


22.5 


5.365 



Honeywell's growth In sales! 





Employees 1 


Year 


Total 


Hourly 


% 


Salaried 


% 


1926 


720* 


540* 


75* 


180' 


25 


1931 


1,150 


839* 


73* 


311' 


27' 


1936 


3,139 


2,200 


70 


933 


30 


1941 


4,240 


2,859 


67 


1.381 


33 


1946 


9,474 


6,490 


68 


2,984 


32 


1951 


17,182 


10,796 


63 


6,386 


37 


1955 


25,608 


14,853 


58 


10,755 


42 


1956 


30,353 


17,301 


57 


13,052 


43 



Honeywell's growth in people! 



82 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING ARE 
IMPORTANT AT HONEYWELL! 

One indicatidii of how impor- 
tant research, design-develop- 
ment and product engineering 
are to HoneywelTs continued 
growth is the fact that over 
half of Honeywell's more than 
12,000 products were not made 
by the company 5 years ago. 

Some of the problems which Honeywell research 
and engineering have solved recently are: the de- 
velopment of variable inlet-air diffuser systems 
for jet engines, which adjust to the speed of the 
aircraft, allow such advanced planes as Convair's 
B-58 to reach design speed; the production of the 
space reference system for the Earth Satellite 
Rocket; and the production of the Supervisory 
DataCenter* central control panel which enables 
one man in one location to read and control tem- 
peratures for even the largest building. 

Major research programs now underway at 
Honeywell include: the development of new tech- 
niques and the discovery of new materials to 
overcome the problems of extremely high tem- 
peratures created by high-speed aircraft and guided 
missiles; the development of automatic control 
systems for industrial automation; the develop- 
ment of even more accurate navigation systems 
for aircraft and rockets which may be called upon 
for intercontinental and interplanetary travel. 

HONEYWELL MEN ADVANCE RAPIDLY! 

Naturally, in a company committed 
to growth, opportunities are numer- 
ous for the engineers and scientists 
who can contribute to that growth. 
And at Honeywell, other factors 
accelerate advancement. 

Engineers predominate among our 
vice presidents, divisional executives 
and department managers. Attitudes and opinions 
of our scientists and engineers are understood 
and supported by management. 

Honeywell is composed of small units working 
as a team. These units multiply opportunities for 
early managerial experience and lay the founda- 
tion for more important managerial assignments 
in future years. 

HONEYWELL OFFERS MANY 
EXTRA BENEFITS! 

Honeywell's extra benefit program is one of the 
most liberal in industry. There's free group life 
insurance . . . free accident and sickness insur- 
ance . . . free hospital insurance. You'll find a 
generous policy on paid vacations and holidays 
and a modern retirement program paying life- 
time benefits. 

Whichever Honeywell division or location you 
choose, you'll be assured of special training to 
help you advance in your career. This training 
includes regular on-the-job instruction, formal 
classes at the company and tuition-aid courses at 
nearby institutions. *rrailciiiark 




HONEYWELL'S MAIN FIELDS AND LOCATIONS 

ARE: 
Minneapolis — Aeronautical, Ordnance and Heat- 
ing and Air (Conditioning Controls. 
Philadelphia — Industrial Instruments, Comput- 
ers, (Controls and Valves. 

Wabash, Indiana — Heating and Air Conditioning 
Control Dampers and Electronic Air Cleaners. 
Denver — Oscillographic and Photographic Equip- 
ment and Research. 

St. Petersburg, Florida — Inertial Guidance Sys- 
tems. 

Seattle, Washington — Ordnance Controls, 
Missiles and marine research laboratory. 
Monrovia, California — Ordnance Controls and 
Missiles. 

Los Angeles — Aeronautical and Heating and Air 
Conditioning Controls. 

Boston — Industrial Instruments, Servo Compon- 
ents and Controls; Data Processing Systems. 
Freeport, Illinois — Precision Switches. 
Chicago — Heating and Air Conditioning Controls. 
Hopkins,Minnesota— Corporate Research Center. 
Beltsville, Maryland — Data Recording Systems. 
Toronto, Canada — Manufacture of complete line 
of company products. 

International — Manufacturing Plants in New- 
house, Scotland; Amiens, France; Frankfurt. Ger- 
many; Amsterdam, The Netherlands; and Tt)kyo, 
Japan. Plus 166 Sales and Service offices through- 
out the world. 

HOW TO LEARN MORE ABOUT HONEYWELL! 

A Honeywell representative can answer your 
questions and give you additional information 
about opportunities at Honeywell. Please con- 
sult your college placement office for the date of 
his next visit to your campus. 

Meanwhile, you will want to read "Your Curve 
of Opportunity in Automatic Controls." Write 
R. L. Michelson, Personnel Administrator, Dept. 
TC29D, Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Com- 
pany, 2753 Fourth Avenue, South, Minneapolis 
8, Minnesota. 

* Engineering and Research Facilities 
• Sales and Service 




Honeyw^ell 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



83 





CONVAIR 

DIVISION OF GENERAL DYNAMICS CORPORATION 

FORT WO^H 




U-U to right: Lou Btrnurdi, Notre Dame. 'S-/, Norman Lorinson, Mich. St.. '55; Ernest Schiirmanr,. M I.T.. SS^ nick Sue 



nson. Purdue, '50. 



<S^cr-wlUc -i/A... OMxh 

■iAOU^Il (SrJtmy ^(iiu ijiA \ CONVAIR 

^ - ' ' • FORT WORTH 



rON OF GENERAL DYNAMICS CORPOR 



84 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




aximum results 

from a college education... 




In the field oj cryogenics, where temperatures approach absolute zero, 
design problems multiply. Garrett mechanical, chemical and metal- 
lurgical engineers tvorked together to produce this fan which rotates 
at 10,000 rpm at —420°F . . . without lubrication! 



Education is the springboard for 
your future. Couple it with the 
proper engineering experience, such 
as you receive at Garrett, and you 
have the ingredients for a successful 
career in engineering fields which 
will be expanding for years. 

At Garrett, specific opportunities 
in aircraft, missile and technological 
fields include: system electronics; 
computers and flight instruments; 
gas turbine engines and turbine 



motors; prime engine development; 
cryogenic and nuclear systems; 
pneumatic valves; servo control units 
and air motors; industrial turbo- 
chargers; air conditioning and pres- 
surization and heat transfer. 

In addition to direct assignments, 
a 9-nionth orientation program is 
available to aid you in selecting your 
field of interest. This permits you to 
survey project, laboratory and 
administrative aspects of engineer- 



ing at Garrett. With company finan- 
cial assistance you can continue your 
education at outstanding universities 
located nearby. 

Project work is conducted by 
small groups where the eflfort of each 
individual is more quickly recog- 
nized and where opportunities for 
learning and advancement are 
greatly enhanced. For complete 
information, write to Mr. G. D. 
Bradley. 



¥HE 




985» S. SEPULVEDA BLVD.. LOS AI^GELES 45. CALIFORNIA 

DIVISIONS: AIRESEARCH MANUFACTURING. LOS ANGELES • AIRESEARCH MANUFACTURING. PHOENIX • AIRSUPPLY 
AIRESEARCH INDUSTRIAL • REX • AERO ENGINEERING » AIR CRUISERS » AIRESEARCH AVIATION SERVICE 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



85 




► facts on food colors 

► new aerosol mold release 

► chromium chemical data books 



Facts on food colors 

What about those headlines on 
food colors? And the stories that 
some certified food colors are 
toxic? Is there anything to the 
Food and Drug Administration's 
recent delisting of three previous- 
ly acceptable colors? 

Here are a few facts behind the 
headlines. 

The practice of coloring food is 
centuries old. Though the early 
colors were of natural origin, they 
have been replaced in the coloring 
of many foods by superior syn- 
thetic colors — the certified "coal- 
tar" colors. The Food and Drug 
Administration has been certify- 
ing a number of these colors for 
use in food since the early 1900's. 

You're probably aware of some 
of the foods commonly colored to- 
day : ice cream, soft drinks, baked 
goods, candies, processed cheese, 
gelatin desserts, orange skins, 
margarine, butter. 

Why then have some food 
colors been "delisted" and why 
are others being considered for 
delisting? 

The controversy centers on the 
meaning of a single word in the 
Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic 
Act : "harmless." 

The Food and Drug Adminis- 
tration's definition: incapable of 
producing harm in any quantity 
or under any circumstances. 

The food color industry's : in- 
capable of producing harm under 
normal conditions of use. 

It is the industry's view that 
FDA animal tests of certified 
colors have made use of quantities 
of color unrelated to — and far in 
excess of — quantities normally 
ingested by humans. A newspaper 
interview quoted the Commission- 
er of Food and Drugs as saying 
that he "conceded that three coal- 
tar dyes recently banned were 
harmless as used, but explained 
that their use was [a] technical 
violation of the law as now 
worded." 



The absolute FDA standard 
seems to find support in the popu- 
lar tendency to regard synthetics 
as inherently inferior to natural 
[iroducts. Yet, many fresh vege- 
tables we eat every day contain 
small but tolerable quantities of 
naturally occurring poisons which, 
if judged as food colors are now 
being judged, would lead to the 
elimination of a large part of our 
vegetable diet. 

What the food color industry 
asks is an amendment to the 
present law which would clearly 
grant power to the FDA to set 
(juantitative limits on the use of 
colors in food. Such limits would 
safeguard public health, permit 
maintenance of our food color 
supply, and encourage research in 
the field. 

Two articles — one supporting 
the industry's position, the other 
detailing manufacture and quality 
control of food colors — have 
been prepared by Allied's National 
Aniline Division, the leading food 
color producer. You can get them 
by checking the coupon at right. 




Aerosol mold release 

Remember the line that went, we 
could have some ham and eggs if 
we had some ham . . . and some 
eggs. Stretch your imagination a 
good deal, and it has some rele- 
vance in the business of molding. 

Low-molecular weight polyethy- 
lene is a superior mold release. 

There's hardly a more conven- 
ient way to dispense liquids than 
with an aerosol spray. 



86 



DIVISIONS 

Barrett 

General Chemical _^ 

National Aniline 

Nitrogen 

Semet-Solvay 

Solvay Process 

International 



Ham and eggs: Poly-Lease 77, 
a low-molecular weight polyethy- 
lene in a mixed solvent system, 
supplied in aerosol form. The 
spray's push, by the way, is from 
Allied's Genetron propellants. 

Here's how it works. When hot 
or cold mold cavities or other ob- 
jects are sprayed, a smooth, rela- 
tively hard film forms quickly on 
the surface. This film provides 
efficient release with a minimum 
number of spray applications, re- 
sulting in faster cycle time, reduc- 
tion of rejects and consequent 
lowering of production costs. 

Poly-Lease 77 will be of interest 
to molders of rubber, plastics (ep- 
oxies, polyesters, phenolics, alkyd, 
urea, melamine), powdered metal. 

Chromium chemicals 

The authoritative collection of 
chromium chemical technical bul- 
letins has been published, appro- 
priately enough, by the leading 
producer of chromium chemicals. 

The books describe Allied's 
Mutual chromium chemicals and 
their applications in leather tan- 
ning, corrosion control, and ano- 
dizing of aluminum. 

We'd be pleased to send either 
a brochure describing 49 bulletins 
available, or the bulletins in your 
field of interest. 

Polv-Lease 77, Genetron and Mutual are Allied 
Chemical trademarks 

Creative Research 

These examples of product de- 
velopment work are illustrative 
of some of Allied Chemical's 
research activities and oppor- 
tunities. Allied divisions offer 
rewarding careers in many dif- 
ferent areas of chemical research 
and development. 

ALLIED CHEMICAL 

61 Broadway, New York 6, N.Y. 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



ProblGITI: How to have fun while 

doing something constructive 
in your limited spare time 

Solution: 

Join Technograph! 



whatever your interests, there's a place for you 
with The Tech, including: 



Writing 
Taking photos 
Drawing cartoons 
Designing the layout 
Handling correspondence 



Working with ad agencies 

Copy-rewriting 

Preparing covers 

Proofreading 

Skimming industrial releases 



Stop by our office .... 215 Civil Eng. Hall 



NOVEMBER, 1957 



$ $ $ 

2-=^25 Awards 



Two cash awards of $25 each will be awarded to 
the author of the best TECHNOGRAPH staff arti- 
cle and the best non-staff article submitted to the 
ILLINOIS TECHNOGRAPH. 

Rules: 

1. Articles must be submitted by the author not later than April 1, 1958. 

2. It must not have been previously published. 

3. It must pertain to engineering in some way. 

4. All articles must be doublespoced typewritten. 

5. Technograph staff members are eligible for only one of the prizes. 

6. Some articles will be printed in the TECHNOGRAPH. 

7. None will be returned, but they will be kept on file and may be printed 
later. 

8. Please include pictures, if possible, and permission for us to use them. 

9. Any number of articles may be submitted by the same author. 

10. The Technograph editorial staff will be judges for the non-staff articles. 

Notes: 

1. Ten typewritten pages with pictures makes three pages in the magazine. 

2. Use rhetoric department punctuation and capitalization. 

3. Many national companies will be glad to send you photographs and in- 
formation. 

4. Get started now and get several articles written and submitted by 
April 1, 1958. 



$ $ $ 



88 THE TECHNOGRAPH 



PHOTOGRAPHY AT WORK 
No. 30 in a Kodak Series 




Pepsi-Cola International Panorama, 
a magazine of places and people, 
reaches people around the world, 
builds recognition for Pepsi-Cola as a 
product associated with the better, 
happier side of life. 



Photography 
speaks 
in every 
language 




are neighborly. 



,1,1 dial N.ilHil.iiulers 




What better wav to sa\ people taki' naturally to 
"Pepsi" whether in Leopoldville or Lichtenstcin? 



To tell its story in 75 coun- 
tries, Pepsi-Cola puts pictures 
to work to add meaning to the 
product's global billing as "the 
refreshment of friendship." 

To build up an atmosphere of 
friendliness and understanding 
in markets around the world, 
Pepsi-Cola International pub- 
lishes "Panorama" — and gives the 
brunt of the job to photography. 

Photography knows no lan- 
guage barrier. It is clear to young 
and old alike — appeals to every- 



one. With photography, people 
are real; situations authentic, 
convincing. This is what makes 
photography such a powerful 
salesman. 

Large businesses and small can 
use this powerful salesmanship — 
can also use photography to cut 
costs and save time in many other 
ways. It can help with problems 
of product design — can watch 
quality in production. It trains. 
It cuts office routine. You'll find 
that it can work for you, too. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, Rochester 4, N. Y. 




With photography and photographic processes 
becoming increasingly important in the business 
and industry of tomorrow, there are new- and 
challenging opportunities at Kodak in research, 
engineering, electtonics, design and production. 



CAREERS WITH KODAK 

It >ou .iM looking for such an interesting oppor- 
tunit\ , write for information about careers with 
Kodak. Address: Business and Technical 
Personnel Dept., Eastman Kodak Company, 
Rochester 4, N. Y. 



One of a 




Interview with General Electric's 
Hubert W. Gouldthorpe 
Manager — Engineering Personnel 

Your Salary 



Although many surveys show that salary 
Is not the prime factor contributing to job 
satisfaction, it is of great Importance to 
students weighing career opportunities. 
Here, Mr. Gouldthorpe answers some 
questions frequently asked by college 
engineering students. 

Q. Mr. Gouldthorpe, how do you deter- 
mine the starting salaries you offer 
graduating engineers? 

A. Well, we try to evaluate the 
man's potential worth to General 
Electric. This depends on his quali- 
fications and our need for those 
qualifications. 

Q. How do you evaluate this potential? 

A. We do it on the basis of demon- 
strated scholarship and extra-curric- 
ular performance, work e.xperience, 
and personal qualities as appraised 
by interviewers, faculty, and other 
references. 

Of course, we're not the only com- 
pany looking for highly qualified 
men. We're alert to competition and 
pay competitive salaries to get the 
promising engineers we need. 

Q. When could I expect my first raise 
at General Electric? 

A. Our primary training programs 
for engineers, the Engineering Pro- 
gram, Manufacturing Program, and 
Technical Marketing Program, gen- 
erally grant raises after you've been 
with the Company about a year. 

Q. Is it on automatic raise? 

A. It's automatic only in the sense 
that your salary is reviewed at that 
time. Its amount, however, is not 
the same for everyone. This depends 
first and foremost on how well you 
have performed your assignments, 
but pay changes do reflect trends in 
over-all salary structure brought on 
by changes in the cost of living or 
other factors. 



Q. How much is your benefit program 
worth, as an addition to salary? 

A. A great deal. Company benefits 
can be a surprisingly large part of 
employee compensation. We figure 
our total benefit program can be 
worth as much as 1 6 of your 
salary, depending on the extent to 
which you participate in the many 
programs available at G.E. 

Q. Participation In the programs, then, 
Is voluntary? 

A. Oh, yes. The medical and life 
insurance plan, pension plan, and 
savings and stock bonus plan are all 
operated on a mutual contribution 
basis, and you're not obligated to 
join any of them. But they are such 
good values that most of our people 
do participate. They're an excellent 
way to save and provide personal 
and family protection. 

Q. After you've been with a company 
like G.E. for a few years, who decides 
when a raise Is given and how much It 
will be? How high up does this decision 
have to go? 

A. We review professional salaries 
at least once a year. Under our 
philosophy of delegating such re- 
sponsibilities, the decision regarding 
your raise will be made by one man 

the man you report to; subject to 
the approval of only one other man 

his manager. 

Q. At present, what salaries do engi- 
neers with ten years' experience make? 

A. According to a 1956 Survey of 
the Engineers Joint Council*, engi- 
neers with 10 years in the electrical 
machinery manufacturing industry 
were earning a median salary of 
$8100, with salaries ranging up to 
and beyond $15,000. At General 
Electric more than two thirds of our 
10-year, technical college graduates 
are earning above this industry 



median. This is because we provide 
opportunity for the competent man 
to develop rapidly toward the bigger 
job that fits his interests and makes 
full use of his capabilities. As a 
natural consequence, more men have 
reached the higher salaried positions 
faster, and they are there because of 
the high value of their contribution. 
I hope this answers the question 
you asked, but I want to emphasize 
again that the salary you will be 
earning depends on the value of 
your contribution. The effect of such 
considerations as years of service, 
industry median salaries, etc., will be 
insignificant by comparison. It is 
most important for you to pick a job 
that will let you make the most of 
your capabilities. 

Q. Do you have one salary plan for 
professional people in engineering and 
a different one for those in managerial 
work? 

A. No, we don't make such a 
distinction between these two im- 
portant kinds of work. We have an 
integrated salary structure which 
covers both kinds of jobs, all the way 
up to the President's. It assures pay 
in accordance with actual individual 
contribution, whichever avenue a 
man may choose to follow. 

* We have a limited number of copies of 
the Engineers Joint Council report en- 
titled "Professional Income of Engi- 
neers — 1956." If you would like a 
copy, write to Engineering Personnel, 
BIdg. 36, 5th Floor, General Electric 
Company, Schenectady 5, N. Y. 5,59- 



LOOK FOR other interviews dis- 
cussing: • Advancement In Large 
Companies • Qualities We Look For 
in Young Engineers • Personal De- 
velopment. 



generalSelectric 



k3Jl 



• 







Molten iron runs while hot from a huge 

ladle into an open hearth furnace for con- 

nto steel. The quality of this steel 

. the responsibility of this engineer. He 

iso assists in coordinating open hearth 

Iterations and incoming raw materials 

i ' i'"i improvements in methods. This 

I il example o) one of the many 

' iiiities for engineering graduates 

t United States SteeL 




In choosing your career... consider United States Steel 
...the leader in the one industry that's truly basic! 



IT has been said: "United States Steel is 
the industrial family that serves the nation 
and the world." For in our homes and fac- 
tories ... in communications ... in transpor- 
tation — steel is basic. 

This means that in the complex and rami- 
fied organization which constitutes United 
States Steel, unlimited opportunities are pre- 
sented to the college graduate — whether his 
preference is engineering, administrative 
work, or any of a score or more of other 
activities in this highly diversified industry. 

In the final analysis. United States Steel is 
men . . . men of high caliber, exceptional 
ability, broad vision and complete dedication. 
Traditionally, United States Steel looks to 
its young men of today to become its leaders 
of tomorrow. 



For complete information on the oppor- 
tunities available at United States Steel for 
young men of ambition and foresight, send 
for a copy of our free book — Paths of Oppor- 
tunity. Doing so may very well be the begin- 
ning of a successful and rewarding career for 
you at United States Steel. 



m 



United States Steel Corporation, Personnel Division 
525 William Penn Place, Pittsburgh 30, Pa. 

Please send me a free copy of your book, "Paths of Opportunity." 
Name 



(College) 
Address 

City 



(Course) 



(Date of graduation) 



State. 



UNITED STATES STEEL 



Editor 

James Kries 

Business Manager 
Roger Harrison 

Pat Gaganidze, Ass't. 

Circulation Director 
Arlene Hornick 

Kay Goldsmith, Ass't. 

Photo Coordinator 

Dave Yates 

Lab Technician 

Han-y Levin 

Mal<eup Editor 
Arlene Hornick 

Editorial Staff 

Dennis Brennan 

Lowell Burgin 

Mike Coleman 

Kay Hirt 

Dennis Lantz 

Dave Penniman 

John Tascher 

Circulation Staff 

Sue Barnett 

Jack Ehrmantraut 

Jim Gerstle 

Judy Yagalski 

Donna Zverow 

Art and Makeup Staff 

Dennis Brennan 

Candy Clifford 

Mary Ellen Roe 

Donna Toika 

Faculty Advisers 

R. W. Bohl 
P. K. Hudson 
O. Livermore 



MKMl'.KKS (II I,X(:L\KERIN'G 
COLLKi.K M\i..\/IM> ASSOCIATED 
Cli.mma.i. V,^l. K. W. Bohl, 
L"ni%ei»ity of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 
Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, City College Vector, Colorado 
Engineer, Cornell Engineer, Denver Engi- 
neer, Urexel Technical Journal, Georgia Tech 
Engineer, Illinois Technograph, Iowa En- 
gineer, Iowa Transit, Kansas Engineer, 
Kansas State Engineer, Kentucky Engineer, 
Louisiana State University Engineer, Louisi- 
ana Tech Engineer, Manhattan Engineer, 
Marquette Engineer, Michigan Technic, -Min- 
nesota Technolog, Missouri Shamrock, Ne- 
braska Blueprint, New York University 
Quadrangle. .North Dakota Engineer, North- 
western Engineer. Notre Dame Technical 
Review. Oh„, St,,l> Engineer, Oklahoma 
State Eiiyninr. D.m.in State Technical Tri- 
nngle, l'itt..l.n, i:li Sk^^craper, Purdue Engi- 
neer. Kl'l KiiKiiHii, Rcichester Indicator, 
SC Kugin.-ev. U..sc Ti->lnii,'. SmiiiIrih F-iik,- 
neer. Spartan Engineer. I, \,.~ A \ M Imui 
iieer, Washington Kiit;iiHr,. W M T,vh 
iiometer, Wavne EnKinm, .ithI \\i-,-,iii-iii 



THE ILLINOIS 

TECHNOGRAPH 



Volume 73 



Number 3 



ARTICLES: 

River of Kings Don Rayburn 17 

Reality Dennis Brennan 24 

The Magic Hardener lerry Cook 30 

FEATURES: 

Frontispiece Donna Toil<a 14 

Editorial lim Kries 15 

The Flight Before Christmas__Ruth Kahn and Arlene Hornick 22 

Help! 29 

Technograph Goes to a Convention 

Dave Yates and Dave Moore 34 

Skimming Dennis Lantz 36 

Technocutie Dave Moore 45 

Know Any Cute Girls? 48 

New Books Mike Coleman 50 

That's a Joke, Son! Humor Staff 75 

Special Award 80 



Cover 

To add just a bit to the season, Mary Ellen Roe and Vincent 
Spies designed this cover for December. As you soy, they think 
of slide rules and things even over the Christmas vacation. 

Copyright, 1957, by lUini Publishing Co. Published eight times during the year (Octo; 
her, November, December, January, February, March, April and May) by the XUini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second class matter, (Jctober 30, 1920, at the post 
office at Urbana. Illinois, under the Act of March 3, 1S79. Office 215 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscriptions $1.50 per year. Single copy 25 cents. All rights 
reserved by The Illinois Tcchnoiiraph. Publisher's Representative— Littell-Murray-Barn- 
hill, 605 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago 11, 111. MS Lexington Ave., New York 17, 
New York. 




Marquardt Means Opportunity 



The Marquardt Aircraft Company was founded in November, 1944 to conduct research, 
development, and manufacturing operations in ramjet propulsion. From the beginning, 
the principle company objective was to establish and maintain a high level of com- 
petence in engineering. 

Both because of the national need and the inclination and experience of the key 
people, Marquardt has continued to pioneer the development of products containing 
a high content of scientific and engineering newness. Prominent examples are the 
supersonic ramjet, providing cruise power for the Boeing Bomarc interceptor missile 
and the Lockheed X-7 Test Vehicle; ram air auxiliary power packages, on the Chance 
Vought f^-8U and the Lockheed F-104A; thrust reversers; afterburners; and a wide 
range of ramjet and turbojet controls and accessories. 

Since the technical areas available to a company specializing in advanced controls 
and propulsion work are numerous, you will find a broad range of engineering oppor- 
tunities at Marquardt. Check your Placement Office for dates when Marquardt rep- 
resentatives will visit your school, or write Dock Black, Professional Personnel, Mar- 
quardt Aircraft Company, Van Nuys, California. 



Roy E. Marquardt, at 39, is the ijoungest 
chief executive officer in the aircraft 
engine husinens. A graduate of tlie Cali- 
fornia Institute of Technology, he was 
Director of Aeronautical Research at the 
Unieersiti/ of Southern California prior 
to founding Marquardt Aircraft Co. 



marquardt 



Van Nuys, California 
Ogden, Utah 



F/RST IN RAMJETS 




AIRCRAFT CO. 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




This particular calender consists, basically, 
of huge steel rolls between which continu- 
ous lengths of fabric are impregnated and 
coated with rubber to very close tolerances. 

It used to be that calendering was pretty 
much a matter of the operator's experience. 
But then came bigger, faster machines. 
Tension and thickness on hundreds of yards 
of materials per minute had to be controlled 
to within a gnat's eyelash. Something far 
more accurate than human hand or eye was 
needed. So Goodyear engineers stepped into 
the picture. 

Their answer was a long "train" of feed, 
tensioning and control equipment that's 
literally loaded with electronic instruments 
such as the Beta ray gauge pictured above. 
And it's this type of instrumentation and 
control engineering that should interest you. 

For it adds another to the long list of oppor- 
tunities available at Goodyear in electrical 
engineering. Your knowledge of your own 



field is tested and challenged by the fasci- 
nating i-ange of problems— from the design 
and installation of the simplest motor drive 
to the most intricate electronic control 
equipment. And you enjoy a stimulating 
interchange of ideas with hundreds of other 
engineers in Production and Research and 
Development. 

And what an array of products on which 
to try your skills! Tires, chemicals, plas- 
tics, aviation products, atomic energy — a 
diversity scarcely matched in all U. S. 
industry. 

In short, wherever the gold and blue flag of 
Goodyear flies— from Akron to Zamboanga 
—there's need for the talent, training and 
imagination of bright, young engineers. If 
you're interested in a career at Goodyear, 
we'd like to have you on the team. May we 
hear from you soon ? Contact your campus 
placement office, or write: The Goodyear 
Tire & Rubber Company, Technical Per- 
sonnel, Dept. 806-W, Akron 16, Ohio. 



There's a world of opportunity at 

GOOD#YEAR 



THE GREATEST NAME IN RUBBER 



DECEMBER, 1957 




OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUNG MEN ON THE 
FRONTIERS OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 




In McGregor, Texas, Phillips Rocket Fuels Division 
operates Air Force Plant 66 — an important in- 
stallation with up-to-date facilities for develop- 
ment, test-firing and manufacture of solid 
propellants for missiles and rockets. 



Careers in research are being ofTered to many techni- 
cal firaduates at Philhps Petroleum Company. For 
example, at the National Reactor Testing Station 
Phillips has over 1500 employees who operate the new 
Engineering Test Reactor, which develops the highest 
known radiatit)n intensity . . . the Chemical Processing 
Plant (where spent fuel elements from nuclear re- 
actors are processed for recovery of unconsumed 
uranium) . . . the Materials Testing Reactor . . . and 
other important facilities of the Atomic Energy 
Conunission. 

Other fine opportunities for technical graduates are 
available in the various Phillips plants manufacturing 
such di\crsiticii products as gasoline, motor oil. rub- 
ber, polyethylene plastics, carbon black, and fertilizer. 
Whether you are looking for a career in research, 
design, construction, operation, or any of a dozen 
other specialties, you have a wide selection of pos- 
sibilities with Phillips. 

If vou want a career with a future, we invite you to 
write to our Technical Manpower Division for further 
information. And when the Phillips representative 
visits your campus, be sure to arrange for an interview. 



D. R. McKeithan, Director 

Technical Manpower Division 

PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY 

Bartlesville, Oklahoma 




THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Lu:^^ i"^^^. 



THE LOCKHEED MISSILE SYSTEMS 

Advaitdd Study Program for 

M.S. and Ph.D. DEGREES 

in science and eiio:nieenn(i 



Urii\crsitv of l^'.aliforiiia at Los Angeles • University of Soiitlierii California 
Uni\ersity of California at Berkeley • Stanford University 

Tlie Graduate Study Council offers an Advanced Study Program to enable 
(jualificd individuals to obtain M.S. or Ph.D. degrees. Under this program the 
participants are employed in their chosen fields of research and development 
at Lockheed Missile Systems while concurrently pursuing graduate study. 

Eligible students must be U.S. citizens holding M.S. or B.S. degrees 

in fields of Engineering, Mathematics and Science applicable to missile 

systems research and development. 

Students are invited to contact their Placement Officer for additional information 

or WTite: 



COLLEGE RE 



COLLEGE RELATIONS DIRECTOR 



A DIVISION OF LOCKHEED AIBCRAJT CORPORATION 
PALO ALTO . SUNNYVALE • VAN NUYS • CALIFORNIA 




ENGINEERS 

AND 

SCIENTISTS 



choose from 21 laboratories 



and jlf6 plants 




CALIFORNIA 

Electronic Countermeasures; 
Microwave Physics; Microwave 
Tubes; Reconnaissance Systems; 
Television Picture Tubes 

CONNECTICUT 

Electronic Parts 

IOWA 

Receiving Tubes 

KENTUCKY 

Photographic Lighting 

MAINE 

Lighting Coils & Starters 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Avionics; Electronic Systems 
Applied Research; Fluorescent 
Lamps; Incandescent Lamps; 
Lighting Engineering; Missile 
Systems; Semiconductors; Spe- 
cial Lighting Products; Special 
Tubes; Specialized Transformers 

MICHIGAN 

Argus Cameras; 
Photographic Equipment 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

Transistors & Other 
Semiconductor Devices 

NEW YORK 

Basic Research in Chemistry, 
Metallurgy, Physics; Electronic 
Systems; Radio, Television; Spe- 
cial Tubes; Television Picture 
Tubes 

OHIO 

Electronic Parts; Television 
Picture Tubes 

OKLAHOMA 

Receiving Tubes 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Chemicals; Electronic Equip- 
ment & Parts; Incandescent 
Lamps; Metals, including Ger- 
manium, Silicon; Photographic 
Lighting; Plastics & Mica; Re- 
ceiving Tubes; Special Tubes; 
Wire & Plating 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Lighting Fixtures 



At Sylvania a man may choose from 67 plants and laboratories doing 
research, development and production throughout the broad spectrum 
of activities in the electrical-electronics industry. 

Graduates will find tough, but challenging, problems waiting for 
them in these laboratories and plants. (We make no bones about the 
difficulty of the work — it will tax your every skill.) But hard work has 
many compensations at Sylvania — where 75',; of the facilities have 
been completed in the last 6 years — where equipment is the latest — 
where your associates are men of stature and reputation — and above 
all, where the atmosphere is one of freedom and accomplishment. 

And, at Sylvania, personal recognition and reward are realities. In 
simple words, a Sylvania man goes as far as his own abilities take him 
in: Electrical Engineering (Radio-Electronics-Communications-lllum- 
ination) — Mechanical Engineering — Chemical Engineering — Chem- 
istry (Physical-Analytical-Inorganic) — Metallurgy — Metallurgical 
Engineering — Physics — Industrial Engineering — Mathematics — Cer- 
amics — Ceramic Engineering — Glass Technology. 

Salaries are excellent, and comprehensive benefits include educational 
assistance plans. To learn more about these nationwide opportunities, 
see your college placement officer, or write us for a copy of "Today & 
Tomorrow with Sylvania." 



^ SYLVANIA^ 

SYLVANIA ELECTRIC PRODUCTS INC. 



LIGHTING 
PHOTOGRAPHY 



TE L E V ISI O N - R A Dl O . ELECTRONICS 

ATOMIC ENERGY . C H E M O - M ETA L L U RG Y 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Build Your Future With Norton 





Preparing the Ground for a New Norton Grinding Whee! Plant, No. 8 



Going Up — the Steel Structure tor the New Engineering and 
Service Building 







Building More Space for Abrasive Storage 




Almost Completed — a Modern Norton Refractories Plant 



Norton is a successful, long-estab- 
lished company with a history of 
steady growth — a forward-looking 
company planning continued growth. 

Since Norton is the kind of com- 
pany where people count most, this 
spells job opportunities for those who 
can and want to grow. In such a 
healthy, thriving organization no- 
body wants to keep a good man 
down — he's needed! 

Three Major Job Factors 

Job Security with opportunities for 
advancement in manufacturing, re- 
search, sales, finance, administration. 
Present and Planned Expansion in 
every branch of company activity. 



A Progressive Financial Program 

has always been characteristic of 
Norton policy. Right now the com- 
pany is spending .^12 million for new 
plants and additional improvements. 

Let's Get Acquainted 

What is most important, you will 
like "Norton people." The brochure, 
"Your Future with Norton" tells you 
a good deal more 
of the things you'll ■ . ^ 

want to know. It 
describes Norton 
products and their 
uses. It charts the 
Norton organiza- 
tion on a world 




map. It tells you about this com- 
pany's employment benefits, includ- 
ing paid vacations, military leave, re- 
tirement, family health service and 
recreational facilities. Write Director 
of Personnel, Norton Company, 
Worcester 6, Massachusetts. 

'NORTON 



ABRASIVES 

iSjkin^ better products ... fo make your products bitter 

NORTON PRODUCTS 

Abrasivei • Grinding Wheels • Grinding Mochines 

High-Temperature Refractories • Electrochemicals 

Atomic Products 

BEHR-MANNING DIVISION 

Coated Abrasives • Sharpening Stones 

Pressure-Sensitive Tapes 



DECEMBER, 1957 







Pictured above is our new Research and Development Center now 
under construction in Wilmington, Massachusetts. Scheduled for 
completion in early 1958, this ultramodern laboratory will house 
the scientitic and technical staff of the Avco Research and Advanced 
Development Division. 



A SCIENTIST-ENGINEER 
SPEAKS ABOUT AVCO 



MORE AND MORE it IS being appreciated that no sharp border- 
line between science and engineering should exist. These 
two fields must strongly overlap to bring into being the fullest 
creativity of both. 

To span the gap between science and engineering is one of the 
big problems— it is one which no laboratory can ignore. In this 
no-man's-land there are engineers who are physicists and physi- 
cists who are engineers. Avco is encouraging a staff of such men, 
men who are highly trained in the sciences but who realize that 
the ultimate goal is to apply this knowledge in ways that will 
enable mankind to live better in a better world of tomorrow. 

Industrial research must rest on the foundation provided by the 
creative basic scientist. Yet its end product— new commercial 
items, new defense systems and new techniques — comes into 
being only through the insight and skill of the creative engineer. 

Avco's newest division has a climate of creativity, coupled with 
long-range corporate goals. In this atmosphere creative and far- 
sighted professional men, whether scientist, engineer or any one 
of the infinite number of combinations thereof, will find rewarding 
work at the Research and Advanced Development Division 
of Avco. 



Avco's new research division now offers unusual and excit- 
ing career opportunities for exceptionally qualified and 
forward-looking scientists and engineers in such fields as: 






Dr. Arne Wik.strom 
Special Technical Assistant to the President 



rodyn. 
Phys 



I Che 



Electronics • Mathematics • Metallurgy 
mistry • Physics • Thermodynamics 



Engineering: 

Aeronautical . Applied Mechanics • Chemical • Electrical 

Heat Transfer • Mechanical • Reliability • Flight Tost 

Write t„ Dr. R. W. Jnhndm, Srienlific timl Technical Relations, 
Avco Research and Advanced Development Division, 
20 South Union Street, Lawrence, Massachusetts. 



Hesearch i Admced Bevelopmnt 



ASPHALT ENGINEERING BULLETIN #4 



APPLIED PRESSURE 



ASPHALTIC SURFACE I V ^ ^ 'V V J 




////A\\H///A\\\///A\\V//A\\\///A\\\/y/A\\'<////' 




SUB-GRADE 



/j\ A ^ ^ ^ ^ 



Assume a loaded wheel on a typical Asphalt pavement consisting of 
Asphalt surface, base course and natural sub-grade. The entire load 
is transmitted to the pavement by the tire. The load, applied at the 
surface, is distributed downward and outward through the Asphalt- 
pavement and base into the native soil or sub-grade. The load spreads 
out at an angle of approximately 45° in the manner indicated above. 



Look at the curved line. It shows the approximate manner in which 
intensity of stresses in flexible type pavements decreases in 
depth. The total load affects the shape of the curve: the greater 
the unit load, the greater the stress at the given depth . . . except 
that it cannot exceed 100% of the contact pressure at the surface. 



STRESS INTENSITY 







STRESS >- 






DEPTH 








X 








/ 










r 








N 


/■ 


































^ 







Design of flexible ASPHALT pavement 



The flexibility of moileni Asphalt 
pavement is one of the great 
achievements of scientific road- 
building. 

It is the planned result of layer- 
upon-layer construction that 
"locks" surface to foundation to 
help spread the weight load, 
absorb shock and pounding 
without cracking. 

Modern Asphalt pa\ing is 



designed to make maximum use 
of native soil and other native 
materials such as sand, stone, 
slag and gravel. This is one im- 
portant reason for the economy 
of modern Asphalt roads. 

Study the diagrams on this page. 
They show how the load is dis- 
tributed on modern Asphalt con- 
struction and how the maximum 
stress varies witii depth of 
pa\einent. 




ij THE ASPHALT INSTITUTE, Aspliall Iii^liliiic liiiiUliiig, College Park, Marylaml 
DECEMBER, 1957 



Ribbons of velvet smoothness . . 
MODERN ASPHALT HIGHWAYS 



Look 
around you . . 



^ 





makes big things happen 
in glass 







10 



To meet the challenge for a wide-range material — glass in many 
forms finds new and exciting applications in modern living. 

Look around you. In buildings, aircraft, automobiles, fac- 
tories, homes, research laboratories and in college basketball 
arenas — versatile glass performs diverse roles extremely well. It 
can be made to remain rigid at blast furnace temperatures, shield 
from atomic radiation, resist corrosive chemicals, have the tensile 
strength of bronze. Glass can be made to resist terrific impact, 
withstand supersonic speeds and be bent into the delicate arc of 
a shatter-proof windshield. No wonder gla.ss is used in thousands 
of ways to make things more appealing — lighter, brighter, better. 

^'cs, look around. Everywhere, the potentialities of glass are 
being looked at, looked into and developed. 

Have you thought about looking into a career in glass? If you 
have an aptitude for creative thinking, enjoy challenging assign- 
ments, like the excitement of looking beyond tomorrow, then by 
all means, look into your career possibilities with Pittsburgh 
Plate Glass Company. Contact your Placement Officer now or 
write to the Manager College Relations, Pittsburgh Plate Glass 
Company, One Gateway Center, Pittsburgh 22, Pennsylvania. 



PAINTS • GLASS • CHEMICALS • BRUSHES • PLASTICS • FIBER GLASS 



PLTTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



34S PLANTS, MERCHANDISING BRANCHES, AND SALES OFFICES LOCATED IN 250 CITIES 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 




A good 

combination 
is hard to beat 




So is the future of the man who charts his 
course wisely. Choose a company that offers 
you the combination of opportunities so 
necessary to your professional growth. At 
Bendix you will find such a combination — a 
tradition of achievement and continued 
growth spanning more than three decades, a 
forward-thinking management team that is 
truly '"engineering minded", unexcelled facil- 
ities, a di\'ersity of products serving every 
basic industry. Engineering is a key factor in 
the company's operations. Bendix has a con- 
tinuous need for the best engineering talent 
available. 

Bendix has long adhered to a policy of 
advancement from within. Of the nine new 
divisions added during the past seven years, 
all have been staffed from within. With a 
diversity of products and engineering oppor- 
tunities at hand, you may assure your future 
at one of twenty-four Bendix divisions located 
throughout the country, working in the field 
of your choice. 

Bendix has need of men of talent in such 
fields as Electronics, Electromechanics, Ultra- 
sonics, Systems, Computers, Automation and 
Controls, Radar, Nucleonics, Combustion, 
Air Navigation, Hydraulics, Instrumentation, 
Propulsion, Metallurgy, Communications, 
Carburetion, Solid State Physics, Aerophysics 
and Structures. 

Check with the placement director for 
information regarding Bendix opportunities 
and interview dates. Or write to Dr. Gerald 
A. Rosselot, Director of University and 
Scientific Relations, Bendix Aviation Corpo- 
ration, 1107 Fisher Building, Detroit 2, 
Michigan. 



A thousand products 




a million ideas 



DECEMBER, 1957 



11 




Prohlrni : To find a job that will utilize your engineer- 
ing training to the fullest possible extent. A position 
that will reward you for a job well done. 
Solution: Find a rompany that has a reputation for be- 
ing tli<- leader in its field. A eonipaiiv wliose future will 
depend on new products, new processes. A company 
with this Itackgrouiiil will rely on its engineers for J)rog- 
rcss and will reward lliein accordingly. 

LlM)i:, as you probably know, is a major supplier 
of atmospheric gases to industry . . . youVe probably 
familiar with them in welding; steel companies use 
them in refining metals; and they're essential to thou- 
sands of chemical jtrocesses. LiNDE is also famous for its 



welding equipment, for synthetic sapphires, and other 
new and interesting products. 

A LiNDE engineer, as a result of this progressive at- 
mosphere, enjoys several unique advantages. For one, 
liigblv specialized technicians do bench uork. drafting, 
relieving the engineer of detail work. Engineers enjoy 
privacy that is so greatly desired in engineering today. 

But all these things are discussed in a booklet that 
sliould be in vour possession before you decide. Why 
not write for a copy today ... no obligation. Ask for 
"Look to LiNDE for your future." Address Dept. XX-00, 
Linde Conipanv, Division of Union Carbide Corpora- 
tion, 30 East 42nd Street, New lork 17, N. Y. 



A LEADER FOR 50 YEARS 

Tlie lerms "I.inde," and "Union Carbide" are regislered Irademarlis of UCC. 




UNION 
CARBIDE 



12 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 







,0^< 



wJ>^ 



0-- 



e^^^;::^^' 



We'd like to send you this record ! 



No matter what branch of engineering 
you're following — no matter which phase of 
engineering interests you most — we want 
you to know Square D and what we have to 
offer. Of special interest to you, we believe, 
is the "human touch" side of our Company. 
There are some things you simply can't 



evaluate in terms of cold facts and figures. 
A company's basic philosophy, for example 
... its attitude and approach to its customers 
and to its working team. 

The "Human Touch'' record we want to 
send you deals with some of those intangi- 
bles — musically. We think you'll enjoy it. 



mail this coupon for your 
"Human Touch " record 



Square D Company, Dept. EM 

6060 Rivard Street, Detroit 11, Miciiigan 

I'd like a "Human Touch" record and a copy of Square D's brochure, 
"your engineering career" 

I am primarily interested in D Research, Design & Development 
Engineering D Manufacturing Engineering □ Sales Application and 
Field Engineering 




DECEMBER, 1957 



13 




CHRISTMAS 




TECH NOGR APR 




From the Editor's Desk 



Yon re Getting a Raw Deal! 



Most of you are victims of the times. Rising living costs, costs of tuition and books, low sal- 
aries for part-time work; all contribute toward preventing many from attending or completing their 
studies at college. 

During World War II and again during the Korean conflict, the federal government instituted 
legislation to compensate servicemen for the loss of educational opportunities necessitated by their 
service with the military at home and abroad. One important part was the educational provision 
whereby veterans could complete their education and receive a small sum of money for subsistence, 
tuition, books, supplies, etc. Many engineers ore here at Illinois because of the $110 a month. 

Most of you will be called on to serve in the military services in the near future. You will 
lose a couple of years of potential college in your teens. You will receive the same training as the 
men did during World War II and the Korean conflict. You will keep the same long hours, do the same 
work, receive the same small pay. But you are less fortunate. There is no great "G. I. Bill" waiting 
for you to cover your many requirements. The benefits you receive upon separation are insignifi- 
cant. 

But why you may ask. If you're doing the same work, keeping the same hours, getting the 
same pay. why should you not get the same benefits? The answer is tragically simple: you are a 
victim of the times. While granted that many people endured armed conflict with the enemy, the 
greater portion did only the menial tasks now required of all servicemen. 

With the Gl educational benefits standing as the most outstanding example of successful gov- 
ernment aid of education, it would seem obvious that some one should re-establish such a program. 
If the federal government cannot or will not do so, it is up to the state to institute a similar program. 

However, this is not what concerns them. They are busy trying to give more money to veter- 
ans who served during the dates of actual hostilities. While as a group a bonus of some sort would 
have been very useful upon discharge, veterans as a group do not need such a bonus now. They 
are well integrated info civilian life and have no needs any more than every John Q. Public could 
use a few extra dollars. 

Obviously certain veterans need money, but the bonus would not go only to those people. 
The distribution criterion is no longer valid. 

Speaking as a veteran who would receive the bonus, I am against it. The money could be 
spent much more wisely by establishing another "Gl Bill" with educational benefits, enabling every- 
one who is scholastically qualified to enter college. Certainly no one should be denied a college edu- 
cation for monetary reasons. There is too great a shortage of educated people in our country today. 

Do your part; show the legislature you really core! 

-JTK 



DECEMBER, 1957 15 




on science and researcJ 



"In every field of science, advances in Inowledge are 
forcing more and more specialization. As disciplines 
become narrower and tlieir interactions harder to dis- 
cern, communication among specialists becomes more 
difficult. At the same time, the relevance of political, 
economic, and social factors in the broad application 
of physics, chemistry, and mechanics to major practical 
problems is increasingly evident. Many such problems. 



unlil<e researcb at the frontiers of the specialties, are too 
broad in their implications and too complex in detail to 
be solved by any e.xpert working alone. The research 
team, uniting the diverse skills of many specialists, and 
using the best mathematical tools — theoretical and com- 
putational — is probably the most successful means of 
discovering realistic, timely, and original solutions to 
important problems of public welfare and security. ' 

— F. R. Collbohm, President 



THE RAND CORPORATION, SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA 

A nonprofit orpanizalion pngagcd in research on prolilcnis rrl.ilptt lo national security and llic public interest 



16 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Modern Giant . . . 



River of Kings 



by Don Rayburn 



An Account of the Construction of a Large Hydroelectric 
Unit in the Pacific Northwest 



"Bring Mf .\h-n To Match My 
Mountains, " is inscribed on a State 
building at the Capitol of California. 
And the mountains toward the western 
borders of the State, the mighty Sierra 
Nevadas. demand a particularly tough 
breed of men — and equipment — to meet 
the challenge of rock, grades, altitude. 
snow, wind and cold. Among the tow- 
ering peaks, granite dome.s and cloud 
enshrouded big tree forests along the 
-North Fork of the Kings Ri\er, men 
and equipment of a joint venture of 
three noted contractors, commissioned 
by Pacific Gas and Electric Company, 
are currenth proving their mettle 

DECEMBER, 1957 



against the hardships of one of Nature's 
ruggedest wildernesses. 

The Kings River Project, as tiiis 
$80,000,000 undertaking is called, in- 
volves the construction of two dams, 
two powerhouses (one subterranean) 
and the enlargement of a third power- 
house. ConnectiTig tunnels and penstocks 
will be built to carry the water from 
the resrevoirs behind the dams through 
the powerhouses to the reservoir back 
of the existing Pine Flats Dam. con- 
structed in 1047 by the Army Corps of 
Engineeis as a Hood control and irri- 
gation project. Before this construction 
could begin, however, a complicity of 
interests had to be resolved. 



liie waters of the Kings Ri\er, as 
tiiex' roll out of the moLuitains and 
across the San Joaquin Valley near 
Fresno are drawn to irrigate the crops 
of one of the richest agricultural do- 
mains in the country. Many years of 
discussions between the irrigationists. 
Pacific (jas and Electric and, later, the 
I nited States Bureau of Reclamation 
eventually brought fruition in plans for 
the development of the river as a source 
of h\droelectric power. Agreement was 
reached and a .^0 year Federal Power 
Commission License was issued to 
P(i^-E in May, 1955. In essence, the 
agreement stipulates that PG&:E will 
puichase outright the Central Valle\ 



17 



I'lojirt's uatiT tor tU-livcry tii rlu- Kiiifis 
River irrigators as lu-cilfd to fill the 
upstream reservoirs. The Central V'alley 
Project is a Bureau ot Reclamation or- 
ganization that delivers water from 
other nearby rivers to San Joaquin Val- 
ley irrigationists ami the Kings River 
Project via the Friant-Kern Canal. In 
exchange tor this water, PCic^K obtauis 
Kings River water and stores it behind 
I'ine Flats Dam. The water will be 
released troni Pine Flats in amounts 
enualling the volume PGScF will hol.l 
hack up.stream to start the operation ot 
the Kings River Project. 

.'\ joint venture of Morrison-Knuil- 
sen Company, Inc., of Los Angeles; 
Walsh Construction Company of San 
Francisco, and B. Perini & Sons, Inc., 
ot Framingham, Mass., won the bid 
for the construction of the first phases 
of the Kings River Project— the two 
dams and the enlargement of the ex- 
isting powerhouse. Actual constructmn 
of the project began in July, 1955, after 
authorization by the California Public 
I tilities Commission. 

.\lmo>r at the treeliiie on Helms 
(.'reek, a tributarv of the North Fork 
of the Kings, Morrison-Walsh- Perini 
is constructing Courtright Dam. Three 
miles downstream, on the North I'ork 
at Coolidge Meadows, VVishon Dam is 
going up. Water from the Wishon Res- 
ervoir will How through a 6.2 mile tun- 
nel to the subterranean Haas Power- 
house (bids recently let), then through 
a 2,000 ft. tailrace tunnel and 3Vj m\\e 
pressure tunnel to Balch Powerhouse, 
which was originally built to handle 
ailded water capacity. Another tunnel 
will carry the water 18,400 ft. to the 
Kings River Powerhouse (construction 
to start in 1^)59), then through a tail- 
race to I'ine Flats Reservoir. 

The elevation of the Courtright Res- 
ervoir is 8,170 ft. It's about a 1 1 ^ 
mile fall to the 951.5 ft. elevation of 
Pine Flats. The water rushing through 
the tunnels will drop almost vertically 
thousands of feet throvigh penstocks to 
turn the turbines of the three power- 
houses. Extremely high pressures will 
he developetl as the water is vised three 
rimes to generate electric power. None 
of the water will be wasted; none will 
be consumed or lost. 

From tlie Courtright Reservoir to 
the K.ing> River Powerhouse is a dis- 
tance of 411 hard, mountainous miles 
through the Sierra and Sequoia Nation- 
al Forests. The terrain is glaciated gran- 
ite — hard, rugged and precipitous. In 
such country even a pole hole requires 
blasting. Farly survey and construction 
crews inched heavy equipment over nar- 
row, one-lane roads where traveling a 
halt a mile often meant negotiating 
more than 2 miles of switchbacks. 



18 



Co/irlrii/lll Ihiiii 

.Morrison- Walsh- Perini started con- 
struction on the Courtright Dam, a 
5^7,800,000 rock fill structure, in June, 
1956. The year before, an S mile ac- 
cess road was extended to this remote 
site; then the heavy 10 ft. snows of the 
High Sierra winter closed the project. 
The early snows and late thawing at 
the over 8,000 ft. altitude permit only a 
f) mo. work year on this dam. 

The dam will occiipv a narrow gorge 
on the almost inaccessible upper reaches 
of Helms Creek. Stretching 906 ft. 
across the gorge, it will be 310 ft. high 
— one of the highest rock fill dams in 
the world. When completed, it will 
form a reservoir storing 102,500 acre- 
ft. of water on about 1,5011 acres of 
Federal land. 

Courtright Dam v\ill contain l,4~iO,- 
000 cu. yds. of loose rock fill. Rock fill 
is the most economical type of construc- 
tion for this area, and also the safest be- 
cause of the danger of earthquakes. 
Only materials native to the area are 
being used. The rock comes from quar- 
ries on the job site; concrete sand and 
aggregates from Coolidge Meadow near 
Wishon. 

The downstream side of the dam will 
be faced with selected face rock and 
will have a slope of 1.4 to 1. On the 
upstream side will be concrete facing 
backed by trench rock. The slope will 
be 1.1 to 1 at the top to 1.3 to 1 at 
the base. Concrete coring will form a 
base seal iinder the trench rock and fac- 
ing. To prevent the concrete face and 
coring from cracking due to settling, 
sheet copper cutoffs and hinge joints 
will intersect horizontally and vertical- 
ly at regular intervals across the face. 
A total of 30,000 cu. yds. of concrete 
will be used. A single spillway will be 
located on the left, looking downstream. 

One of the first tasks in the con- 
struction of Courtright — and one that 
is still in progres.s — was the clearing of 
550 acres of timber from the dam and 
reservoir sites — most of it fir, ponderosa 
pine and cedar. R. B. Byers of Redding 
logged out all merchantable timber .ind 
has subcontracted to clear and burn the 



The Editors are deeply indebted 
to Caterpillar Tractor Co., Peoria, 

Illinois and Mr. Don Rayburn for 
this material. 'Fhis article tends to 
show some of the drama behind 
major construction utilizing heavy 
equipment. 



waste growth. .A Caterpillar 1)8 and 
D7 Tractor and .in International TD18 
Tractor knock down .ill but the larg- 
est trees and doze them into piles for 
burning. 

Target date f(u- the completion of 
Courtright Dam is November, 1958. 
Currently, M-W-P is developing the 
rock quarries and putting in the loose 
rock fill. By Oct. 1, 1956, shortly be- 
fore snows closed the jobs, 62,591) cu. 
yds. of the required 1,496,000 cu. yds. 
of loose and fill rock had been placed. 
The cutoff trench was cleaned out and 
the concrete set just before the full 
force of winter struck, and a diversion 
tunnel was completed. 

In the loose rock quarry, M-W-P 
used Gardner-Denver Airtracs to drill 
ly[: in. diameter downholes in the solid 
granite. The holes are sprung by vary- 
ing types and combinations of powder, 
averaging 1 lb. of explosives per cu. yd. 
M-W-P uses Primacord connectors 
throughout, except in the cutoff trench 
where they use blasting caps with milli- 
second delays. 

A Northwest 80 2]/^ cu. yd. drag- 
line and a Northwest 95 3 cu. yd. drag- 
line load the broken rock into Euclid 
17 cu. yd. rear dump trucks. A Cat 
D8 Tractor assists the draglines, clean- 
ing up and dozing rock to within reach. 
As the 2 to 10 ton boulders are dumped 
and pushed by a second D8 over the 
edge of the lifts, Staiig monitors, with 
nozzles set usually at 3 in., sluice fines 
oft' the rocks to prevent more settle- 
ment than anticipated. The monitors, 
developing an 80-85 lbs. pressure, shoot 
5 '4 sec. ft., 2500 gal per niin. of water 
at the ratio of 3 cu. yds. of water to 
1 cu. yd. of rock. 

Haul roads are dozed out by a third 
D8 and graded and maintained by a 
Caterpillar No. 12 Motor Grader. 
M-W-P will try to keep the roads open 
all winter if possible. 

During the work year, a tent city 
for single workers, trailers and cabins 
for families and officials, are located 
near the Courtright site. There are two 
9 hour shifts, 6 days a week. 

On the North Fork, 3 miles down- 
stream from Courtright — 8 miles by 
road — lies the construction site of Wish- 
on Dam. Here is the greatest concen- 
tration of men (527 out of a total of 
700) and equipment on the Kings River 
Project at the present time. This $16,- 
400,000 project, measuring 290 ft. high 
by 3,550 ft. long at the top and 1,420 
ft. at the base, will impound 128,500 
acre-ft. of water over 1,000 acres of 
PG&E and Federal lands. 

Except for size, Wishon Dam^ will 
be similar in construction to the Court- 
right Dam. There will be a main sec- 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



I 




?^^^;..':i^^ 



In the biting cold of the High Sierra October, workmen excavate the foundation for the Court- 
right Dam. Winter struck and the job was closed till spring a couple of days after this picture 
was taken. 



tion ami two wiiij; sections. Target date 
tor its completion is December, 19SS. 
Here, at a 6,500 ft. altitude, the work 
crews have an 8 month work year; the 
the job closing about November 15th. 
The crews, working hard and fast 6 
days a week on two hour shifts, were 
able to complete enough of the dam to 
hold back water before snowtime. 

As of Oct. 1, 1956, 719,290 cu. yds. 
of rock fill out of the required 3,687,- 
000 cu. yds. were placed. Work was 
proceeding at the rate of 12,000 cu. 
yds. a day. As of the same date, 1,540 
cu. yds. out of 82,000 cu. yds. of con- 
crete were laid. The diversion tunnel 
was complete, and work on the cutoff 
trench well along. Dreisbach Box and 
Lumber Company of Oakland had 
cleared about 31''; of the 340 acres of 
timber to be removed. 

Two quarries, a main and a spillway, 
provide the fill and face rock for the 
dam. Drilling in the main quarry is ac- 

DECEMBER, 1957 



complisiu'<l \xitli two IiigersoU-Rand 
Drillniasters drilling ()Jj in. diameter 
downholes, two Joy Challengers and a 
Ciardner-Denver 143 for 4 in. down- 
holes and several (lardner-Denver Air- 
tracs drilling 2j/. in. horizontal lifters. 
Average drilling depth is 50 ft. with 

4 or 5 rows of holes the rule. In the 
spillway quarry, several Airtracs drill 
2|,j in. ^2 ft. downholes with no lift- 
ers. 

Blasting in the main quarry is with 

5 X 25 cartridges as primer, Oeladine 
3, then the rest 40' i bag powder, alter- 
nating every month with Atlas, DuPont 
and Hercules powders. A 60', gelatin 
powder is used in the lifters. Prima- 
cord connectors with millisecond delays 
are used. In the spillway quarry, the 
procedure is similar, except that 2x 12 
cartridges are used, and the blasts are 
set off by millisecond blasting caps. The 
average in both quarries is 1 lb. of 
explosive per cu. yd. 



In the mam quarr\ . a Huc\rus-Krie 
12()H 5|_. cu. yd. electric shovel, a 
Hucyrus-Erie 150R by^ cu. yd. electric 
shovel, a Northwest 80 2 cu. yd. shovel 
and a Northwest 95 with rock tong, 
assisted by two Caterpillar D8 Trac- 
tors, load ten Euclid 17 cu. yd. and 
three 21 cu. yd. rear dump trucks. In 
tile spillway quarry, a Rucyrus-Erie 
150B 63/ cu. yd. electric sho\eI, with 
a D8 assisting, loads four 17 cu. yd. 
and a 21 cu. yd. Euclid trucks. 

0\ei a network of haul roads, main- 
tained b\ two Caterpillar No. 12 Motor 
(traders, the trucks carry the rock, un- 
loading in four lifts. Two D8s are sta- 
tioned on each lift to doze rock dumped 
b\ the trucks onto the side of the fill 
where it is sluiced by monitors. 

The dam is designed for approxi- 
mately a 2 ft. settlement the first year 
in the .somewhat loose granite forming 
its base. Thereafter, settlement should 



19 



slow to 1 Id tr. per ycai' tor a iiiaxi- 
imim of .1 \eais. The sluicing iiisuies 
against imcxpcctfil additional settling. 

Placing of the face rock is a job re- 
quiring skilled eyes and expert handling. 
l!xperienced rock men, measuring bv 
f\e boulilers weighing 13-20 tons, se- 
lect each boulder and spot the location 
and angle it shouUl be placed. Three 
Northwest 93 cranes pick up the rocks 
and gently maneuver and joggle them 
into place. Only occasionally is a jack- 
hammer neeiled to trim off an obstruct- 
ing corner. W'lu-n complete, the face 
rock will be Id ft. through ar the top, 
swelling to 1') ft. at the has-.-. 

In the cutoii trench, crews raced 
against the approach of winter to get it 
cleaned and the concrete set. Pick and 
shovel men in the trench mucked jack- 
hammer-broken rock into skips and 
danibuckcts to be hoisted out ot the 
trench and dumped b\ a Caterpillar OS 
Tractor with ll\st.i\\a\ Crane. 



Almost e\;K-tly enough good concrete 
suiid for the cutoff trenches, the faces 
and corings of both Coiirtright and 
VVishon Dams was found at the upper 
end of Coolidge Meadow. (lood aggre- 
gate is also available there. M-W-P 
set up a Convcyco 210 tons per hoi.n' 
gravel plant and a concrete dry batch- 
ing plant. The crushed aggregate is 
stockpiled at the gravel plant where a 
Cat D6 Tractor with Austin o\ershot 
loader scoops and loads it into |-,ucli<l 
trucks for transportation to the hatch 
plant as needed. 

Power for the building-, Hoodlights, 
electru' showels and monitors on the 
project is brought via highline (rom 
the Balch Powerhouse. However, <ine 
more inconvenience of the job is the 
occasional loss of power due to broken 
lines from the caprices of High Sierra 
weather and falling branches from the 
huge trees crowding together on the 
nHiunt.iiii slopes. Standb\ pouer — there 



is a e'aterpillar 1)44(1(1 Diesel Klectric 
Set standing b\ on tioodlights and a 
D88()() for the messhall — is u.sed in the 
few cases possible, but for the rest, it's 
a matter of waiting out the failure. 

Supervising both Courtright and 
VVishon Dams are George Thatcher, 
PG&K project manager; Charles Joslin, 
P(i&K resident engineer; and .Adtdph 
Haidlen, .\1-W-P project manager. Bert 
Perkins is .\I-W-P's general siipcrin- 
terulent at VVishon ; Guy Reid at Court- 
right. C. L. Dapron and Harvey Har- 
ilin ;ire master mechanics at VV'ishon 
and Courtright respectively. 



II, 



I'liii ti lidtisc mill Tiiinul 



In .November, 195b, a bid was let 
to Morri.son-Knudsen Company, Inc., 
Henr\' J. Kaiser Company, Macco Cor- 
Iioration and B. Perini & Sons, Inc., to 
construct a $24,300,000 underground 
powerhouse, tunnel and tail race on the 




-^ L 



COU^IGHl 
DM 



DAM 



r 



Pint FM Dam 



,l__j^ 






ROAD UAP 

(INOS RIVIBDEVELOPWEHT 
SAN JOAQUIN Drvl5iON 



20 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



North Fork below Sawmill Flats. This 
— the Haas Powerhouse — will be the 
first large hydroelectric plant in the 
United States to be built entirely un- 
derground. Ry locating in and beneath 
the Sierran granite, PGiS:E will trim 
$750, OOO from the original estimate, 
for the surface here is steep and jagged. 
The job will be completed in 1960. 

Water to turn the Haas water wheels 
will be drawn from Wishon Reservoir 
through a 6.2 mile, 13 ft. diameter 
horseshoe tunnel. From the tunnel por- 
tal, a 5,41(1 ft. long, 18 ft. diameter 
penstock will drop the water down the 
face of a cliff, through an 850 ft. near- 
ly \erticle shaft to the turbines of two 
generators in the powerhouse. The shaft 
will first be used as an ele\tor through 
which operating equipment will ni- 
lowered. 

A 2, (too ft. tailrace timnel will c;!rr\ 
the water to the 1,000 acre ft. Halch 
foreba\ below the Haas Powerhouse. 
No lining will be needed in any of the 
tunneling — the bore is through dense 
granite. 

The powerhouse itself will lie ^^0 
ft. below the mountainside — carved out 
of solid granite. Its dimensions will be 
65 ft. wide, 150 ft. long and 90 ft. 
high. A service building on the surface 
will connect via a stairway and eleva- 
tor to the machine hall. When com- 
pleted, the Haas Powerhouse will sup- 
ply 128,000 KW to PG&E's lines. 

An access road from a road at Black 
Rock Ranger Station to the Haas site is 
nearly complete. Then Morrison-Kaiser- 
Macco-Perini will start tunneling into 
the rock to carve out the cavern. From 
there, they will dig upward to form the 
shaft through which the penstock will 
later pass. Mucking from below is 
cheaper, letting the rock fall, then haul- 
ing it out the nearl\- horizontal access 
tunnel, rather than lifting it vertically. 

The altitude of the Haas Power- 
house is 4,106 ft. The snows at this 
elevation are not, generally, unreason- 
able. This, combined with the primar- 
ily imderground nature of the work, 
will enable the contractors to work 
through the winter. 

PCj^'E has not decided, as yet, 
whether the new plant will be con- 
trolled automatically from Balch Pow- 
erhouse or manualh'. The primary ques- 
tion is whether or not children of em- 
ployees living at the site, if the manual 
method is adopted, will be able to get 
to school in winter. 

Baldi Foiiirhoiisc and lunncl 

The Balch Powerhouse has been in 
service since 1927, with an output of 
34,500 KW. Its tunnel, also existing, 
carries water from the forebay through 
a 3j/ mile bore to the face of Patter- 
son Cliffs. From there, the water 
phniges in a 2,389 ft. drop through 




A two and one half cubic yard shovel loads blasted rock into dump trucks 
preparing the foundation for an addition of Balch Powerhouse. 



a 4,000 ft. penstock to the Balch Plant, 
then through a tailrace to the afterbay. 

Halcli Powerhouse is located at the 
1,70S ft. altitude, about 2 miles abo\e 
the juncture of Dinkey Creek with the 
North Fork. At the juncture is Balch 
Camp, headquarters of the Kings Ri\er 
Project. 

Morrison-W^alsh-Perini is now at 
work enlarging the plant's foundation 
to provide space for two generators that 
will up the capacity- to 94,000 KW. An 
addition to the present plant, a second 
penstock, an enlarged tailrace and an 
increase in the size of the existing fore- 
bay and afterbay dams are included in 
the contract. The expansion will cost 
PG5:E 12,860,000 and is scheduled for 
a 1959 completion. 

Currenth', the work nt the plant in- 
\olves excavating 5,000 cu. yds. of 
granite from the streambed for the pow- 
erhouse and turbine foundations. The 
rock is drilled by wagon drills, blasted, 
and loaded into Euclid 17 cu. yd. rear 
dump trucks by a Northwest 61 Vj cm. 
yd. shovel. The rock is dumped, then 
dozed into position h\' a Cat D8 Trac- 
t(U-, to form a solid fill for the new 
plant addition. 

To serve the new generatois, a new 
4,000 ft. penstock will descend Patter- 
son Cliffs alongside the existing one 
from the surge chamber at the portal 
of the Balch Tunnel. Water plunging 
through these tubes will hit the watei- 
wheels at a speed of 261 mph. .ind with 
a force of 72 tons per sq. ft. 

Partway down the face, .i road is 
chiseled out of the cliff. On the roatl- 



side is the tramhouse for the almost 
2,000 ft. tramway built to transport 
men and materials up and down the 
face of the cliff" to build the penstock. 
Another 2,000 ft. tramway leads from 
the road up to the head of the pen- 
stocks. A 200 HP electric motor in the 
tramhouse turns a 5^ ft. diameter 
drum through double reduction gears. 
The drum winds and unwinds a Xyi, 
in. cable to lower or raise the tram car 
on its dizzying journeys in and ovit of 
the gorge. Two hand operated individ- 
ual brakes and one automatic brake 
stop the drum if the motor mecharusm 
or electric power should fail. 

In the Spring of 1956, a lire at 
Balch Powerhou.se caused the shutdown 
of the generator. During the shutdown, 
M-W-P enlarged the tailrace tunnel 
to carry the prospective larger volumes 
of water, ;uul built a bulkhead to per- 
mit o|u-ration of the plant while the 
addition is under construction. 

Both the forebay and afterbay con- 
crete arch dams are being enlarged to 
permit do.ser regulation of river flow 
when the Kings River Project is com- 
plete. From the Balch afterbay, a tun- 
nel will lead to the Kings Ri\er Pow- 
erhouse. 

Kiii};s Ri'c\r Poivcrhoiisc (ind lunin/ 

Below the jiuicture of the North and 
the Middle and South Forks of the 
Kings River, where the stream begins 
to widen into Pine Flats Reservoir, 
8.2 miles downstream from Balch Pow- 
erhouse. P(j&E plans the Kings River 
((Uintinucd on Page 62) 



DECEMBER, 1957 



21 




The Flight 



Disjointly translated by Ruth Kahn and Arlene Hornick 
Art work by Ara Corrigan. 





Before Christmas 



'Twas the iiiijlu betore Christmas 

and all through the Kremlin 

Not a creature was stirring 

but the Russky's chief (jremlin. 

The stock market lose 

with the Sputnik in sight, 
And American industrx 

slept well that night. 

Ihe students were settled 

all snug in their sacks. 

While \isions of missiles 

chilled up their backs. 

While 1 in my nightshirt 

and Ivy-league cap, 
was settling down for 

a pre-part\' nap. 

W^hen what to my study-dazed 

eyes should appear. 
Hut a rocket-borne gremlin 

alighting quite near. 

First like a jolly good guy 

did he seem, 
Till I saw that hi> eyes 

had a wicked red gleam. 

He had pointed ears 

and hi> mouth was so huge. 
His checks the\ were ros\ , 

with the famous Red rouge. 



The (iremlin he spoke 

in poetniks iambics. 

An<l said nuich of plots 

and Red aerod\namics. 

Laughingly he dropped down 

from the missile, 
And filled all the stockings 

with Communist gristle. 

We wondered what he had 

brought for a gift, 

'Twas just more propaganda 
to widen the rift. 

Then laying a finger aside 

of his nose, 
"Bah Humbug" he said 

and up the chiiiuiey he rose. 

Astounded I watclied to see 

what he would do. 

And heaid him call out 

to his eight-rocket crew: 

On sputnik, on mutnik, 

on plotznik and l.eniii, 
( )n Commnik, on c\ipnik 

on Trotiu'k ,ind Hlit/krieg. 

Hut 1 heard him exclauu 

as he sped out of sight, 
.Merr\ Christmas to all 

anil to all a good light. 

( Cnnliniicd on Page 52) 




jmu' 25—140(1. We land in twn 

ms. The men are quiet. I'm sure the 

four of us are thinking the same 

thoughts: what will happen when we 

land? Will they helieve us? 

Through the thick, clear glass win- 
dows in the front of the ship we can 
look straight ahead and see the di.stant 
earth. We are too far away to be able 
to distinguish anything definable other 
than the difference between tlie Innd 
and the sea. 

But soon we will see that form is 
form, color is color and everything is 
real. 

Evan replaced the log and pencil in 
the small cubicle at the foot of his 
bunk. Then, on second thought, he 
picked the leather-bound book up again 
leafing through the pages. 

The first writing he encountered was 
a list he had made up of the ship's per- 
sonnel. 

Ritt, Scott M. — captain 
Fallon, Michael R. — navigator 
Gentry, Roy — radio operator 
Under each of the names was a long 
detailed list of the physical and psycho- 
logical characteristics. Evan had com- 
piled the lists dvuing the six months of 
training they had just completed. He 
recalled his own purpose in being present 
on the first expedition into space. 

He was the ship's doctor. He grin- 
ned to himself as he thought of his of- 
ficial title — Evan Hood, Medical Of- 
ficer. His duties consisted of obser\ ing 
the behavior of the crew during the 
flight and to report their actions in his 
log. 

And he had reported what had hap- 
pened. But would anybody belie\e it? 
He turned to the first page of his re- 
ports. 

June 11 — 0400. Two hours before 
take-off. We are sitting in the control 
cabin. In a few minutes the gear crew 



24 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



REALITY 



An Adventure into the Unknown 



by Dennis Brennan 



will be hen- to help secure us into oui' 
bunks. 

Ritt has given us a last minute brief- 
ing, although it was hardly necessary. 
Each of us knows e.xactly what his 
duties are after we have recovered from 
the effect of the take-off. 

All conversation ended when (lentry 
started to light a cigarette. 

"You damn fool," snapped Ritt. 
"The fuel intakes are still open. \ ou 
want to blow us to hell?" 

(IcntrN bioked surprised and did not 
answei'. 

Then the gear crew came and we 
la>' down in om' bunks. 

There is still no conversation. 

But don't the first men in space ha\e 
a right to be nervous? 

June 11— (WOO. We have been in 
space for five hours. Everything seems 
normal enough. We all suffered severe 
headaches for about fifteen minutes 
after the effect of the sudden thrust bail 
lessened. We all passed out at take-oft. 

The last sound I remember prior to 
the blast was the noise of the primed ig- 
niters firing. Then there was a muted 
screech and a loud hum. At this moment 
the hum has become a whispering sound 
that is barely audible. Everxtbing 
seems to be in good order. 

Fallon was the first to leave his bunk, 
and he has spent the past few hours 
before a mass of instruments that en- 
tirely cover one wall of the cabin. He 
has been too preoccupied to join in the 
smattering of conversation that has gone 
on between the rest of us. 

Mike Fallon is the quiet member of 
our crew. His sober air contrasts rough- 
ly with the roughness of Ritt or the 
heavy humor of Gentry. 

Mike has received more abuse from 
(lentry than any of the rest of us. The 
radioman seems to take delight in in- 
sulting Fallon, but the navigator seems 



to be abo\e (lentry's inane remaiks anil 
this onl\ ser\es to make the radioman 
gibe harder in that hard, whining \oice 
of his. 

Ritt \\ .IS the second man to leave bis 
hunk and was followed by Gentry. The 
captain and Fallon settled in the two 
seats in front of the cabin and soon 
were engrossed in checking and com- 
puting another mass of instruments. 

Fallon pressed a toggle switch on the 
side of his chair. From the floor rose 
what looked like a huge, square box 
that was smooth on top and honey- 
combed with holes on the side nearest 
the navigator's seat. Fallon withdrew 
several maps and charts from the holes 
and set to working with a compass and 
triangle. 

He jotted down several figures and 
turned to Ritt. 

"We're all set. Captain. According 
to schedule we should be doing 1S,000 
an hour and should he at 27,000 right 
now. " 

Ritt glanced at the instruments. 
"'Fhat's right. Another three thousand 
and we turn control o\er to base con- 
trnl." 

He turned in his chair. "Gentr\'." 

"\'eah, Skipper." 

"Contact the base and tell them «e 
are all set and that we'll switch to 
their control ,it the piescribed time." 

"Right." 

I hadn't heard about the switching 
control phase of the flight and asked 
Ritt what it was all about. 

He grinned. "What's the matter. 
Doc, feel left out?" 

He became serious. "We have no 
way of knowing whether our basis for 
making astronomical calculations are 
valid. L'p here we can't be sure our 
relatixe position to earth is what the 
instiiiments sa\ the\ are. But because 



we ha\e to be sure of ovn' calculations, 
we ba\e to turn control over to earth. 
Otherwise we'd have to calibrate a 
whole new system of calculation. " 

"Then actually we turn into nothing 
but a guided missile. For the next few 
«eeks we are to roam all around the 
stars by remote control. " 

He nodded and looked out the glass 
windows. "It's a strange thing when 
\()u think of it. Doc. Right now we 
are relati\e to nothing and that ni.ikes 
nothing relative to us. " 

I thnugin .about this for a second. 
"You know, Ritt, that's a paradox. 
How can \i)u be m a position relative 
to nothing?" 

But the captain bad turned back to 
his instruments and was not listening. 

1 looked past his shoulder through 
the window and found some comfort in 
the \ ast panorama of jewel-like stars 
in intermittant flashes of meteors. 

Relative to nothing. 

The next few entrys were standard. 
Hood recorded the attitudes of the 
men as the assignment progressed. There 
was no bickering or arguing except for 
a few bard words between Fallon and 
(ientr\. 

'File flight was going as planned — 
smoothly and without difficulty. Evan 
scanned the first twenty or so pages of 
the book and then stopped to read one 
long passage. 

June 15 — 1700. This day has been 
sti.inge. The men feel that because w"e 
h.ive no ultimate destination we are 
doing nothing but wander aimlessly 
around the hcaxens. The\ have not ex- 
pressed this feeling in so many words, 
but it is the way I feel right now. 

There is a certain tension in the air 
that is difficult to describe. The men 
are relaxed and go about their various 



DECEMBER, 1957 



25 



iliitic^ \>itli tlu'ir usual cfficifiic) , but 
cKr:isii)iiallv 1 will see one eatcli hini- 
selt niaklns a mistake. 

In the past four days there has Ixeii 
little time for conversation, yet we teel 
ail talked out— as though we had 
known each other all of our lives and 
had nothing unusual to discuss. 

Kven the ceaseless emptiness above 
and below the ship has somehow 
changed. I think we are all aware of 
this small difference, but no one men- 
tioned it until this morning when Fal- 
lon looked up from a chart he was 
poring o\er and cursed. 

Ritt turned in his chair. "What's 
wrong, Mike? Miscalc\i!ate some- 
thing?" 

Fallon shook bis head. "Tiiere's 
something the matter with this astro 
chart. 1 can't get our (i\ to jibe with 
our scheduled position. " 

"Let me see the cliart and your fig- 
ures." 

Fallon passed the papers and Ritt 
and the captain leaned over them for 
a moment and handed them back. 

"Probably some discrepancy in the 
chart. (lot another?" 

Fallon withdrew another map tiom 
the honeycombed stand and laid it out 
before him. A few ininutes later he 
shook his head. "Same thing. Skipper. 
.According to our schedule we should 
be right here." He indicated a spot on 
the map with his pencil. 

"Our instruments say we're right 
here." He moved the pencil down half 
an inch. "If this keeps up, we'll be in 
an iiueited relative position to earth." 
"What's that mean?" 1 asked. 
Fallon scratched his ear with the pen- 
cil. "It means we'll be going in a di- 
rection opposite to the one we should 
be going in." 

Hefore 1 could say anything. Ritt 
called Gentry. "Radio the base, and 
tell them our charts and instruments 
don't jibe. Ask for instructions and a 
radar fix." 

We could hear the clatter of the key 
as the radioman relayed the message. 
.After a few minutes of silence, the 
return answer came and (lentry hand- 
ed it to Ritt. The captain smiled. 

"It's O.K.," he said. "Farth says 
that we're right on course." 

His reassuring grin eased the air of 
expectancy that had settled over us, and 
we went back to our work. I picked 
up the log and glanced out the windows 
in the front of the ship. 

The stars still glimmered, and the 
meteors occasionally flashed by, but they 
seemed somehow different — as though a 
thin \eil of fog wa,s surrounding them. 
Kvan turned several more pages and 
stopped once again. 



26 



The changes begin 



June 17 — (l7l)l). There is something 
present that has left us all a bit on 
edge. It is not an attitude or an emo- 
tion, so I am at a loss as to how to 
explain it in writing. 

It might be called a prem(jnition of 
\agiieness. Something intangible ami 
dim and present that has an aura ot 
expectancy about it. 

We first noticed it an hour ago when 
we awoke ami started to make our 
toilets. Fallon was the first to express 
it. He had set a small table mirror on 
the edge of his bunk and was raising 
the electric shaver to his face when In- 
stopped and stared at his reflection. 

"Say, you guys think I'm losing 
weight?" 

He ran his hands over his face. "I 
seem to look thinner this morning. Face 
doesn't seem as filleil out as it was." 

He turned to us and his eyes widened. 
"Say, you guys look like you've lost a 
few pounds overnight, too." 

Gentry laughed and hopped out of 
this upper bunk. "Mike, you're going 
space happy." 

He picked up the mirror and looked 
into it. "Hey! I do look thinner." 

Ritt grabbed the mirror and looked. 
Confusion appeared on his face. 

"What in the hell's this all about. 
We couldn't lose so much weight oxer- 
night. Could we, Doc?" 

I w.as just as confused as the others. 
"I don't know, Ritt. Maybe we've just 
not noticed it until now." 

Fallon was looking at his reflection 
gain. "I don't know Doc, I look like I 
lost fifteen pounds." 

But my explanation seemed to sup- 
ply the answer and we settled down 
for the day. But once in a while I 
would see one or the other of the men 
feeling his face and staring at the 
others. 

Overnight disaster 

June IS — (J7(MI. In twenty-four hours 
we have changed from human beings 
into creatures we have never seen or 
believed existed before. It is even diffi- 
cult for me to write. 

The pen in my hand no longer re- 
sembles a pen. It has a shape impossible 
to describe. 

The hand holding the pen is not a 
hand. It is something huge and flat and 
triangular. 

The words I write are still words, 
but they h,ave taken different shapes 
and I cannot read what 1 have written. 

()ur speech has not been affected and 
we can still communicate verbally. 

I was awakened this morning by a 
\ell and a loud scream. It was Gentr\. 

Then I heard the others cursing and 
yelling. I opened my eyes. 



The cabin was not the I'abin. It 
was an immense hodgepodge of form 
and shape. It looked like a bomb had 
been set off in its center. Fverything 
was unfamiliar. 

'Fhen I saw shapes moving. I cringed 
as one came toward me. I put up m\ 
hand to ward it off. I knew it was m\ 
hand, but yet it was not. 

The shape leaned over me. "Doc?" 
It leaned closer. "Is that you. Doc?" 

It was Ritt! Two other shapes caine 
beside the first. 

"What . . . what's happened ? Ritt. 
is that you?" 

"\'es, it is. Keep \()ur he.id. Doc. 
Don't .scream." 

"Hut, what's happened." 

"I don't know. 1 woke up when Gen- 
trv .screamed. But when I got out of 
bed ..." 

He didn't have to say anymore. I 
was experiencing the same feeling. It 
was horrifying. 

Nothing was familiar, only the voices 
coming from the shapes. I looked to see 
what my body was and screamed. 

Something that felt like a hand struck 
me on my cheek. 

Ritt's voice was filled with urgency. 
"Doc, we've got to keep calm about this 
and think it out. What's happened to 
us? IIoiv did it happen? 

One of the other shapes moved to 
Ritt's side. "What I can't understand 
is how we can still talk and hear. If 
our sight has been changed why not the 
rest of our senses." 

I recognized Fallon's voice, and I 
realized that what he was saying made 
sense. The confusion caused by the 
shock of seeing myself was beginning to 
leave my mind. 

"You're right, Mike. Everything is 
changed e.xcept our hearing and ability 
to speak." 

A sudden thought came to my mind 
and I went to where I thought the 
front of the cabin would be in relation 
to m> bunk. Everything was out of pro- 
portion and unshapely. 

There was something projecting up 
in front of me and I brushed by it. 
The thing that was my hand touched 
it, and I recognized the resilient feel 
of smooth leather. I leaned closed and 
the familiar smell of the material came 
to my nose. 

The other three joined me. I could 
tell some difference between them now. 
Ritt was still heavy and blocky and 
wider, but his shape was abstract and 
comparable to nothing. Fallon was a 
long narrow streak of form and Gentry 
was rounded and oblong. 

"You found something. Doc?" asked 
Ritt. 

"I think so. This is one of the seats 
in front of the cabin. It still feels and 
smells like leather." 

They inspected the shape ;ind agreed. 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



"Wfll," said Rirt, "that iiH-ans wc 
possess all nf (Jiir senses except for 
sighf." 

"Yeah," remarked (lentrN, "bur 
what's doing the affecting. " 

My original purpose in coming to tin- 
front of the cabin came back to mind 
and I looked at where I knew the 
glass windows should be. The sight 
amazed me. 

"Look!" I exclaimed, "Look out the 
windows!" 

The shape that was Ritt whistled. 
"My (]od!" 

Where before there had been dark- 
ness and stars was now a vastness of 
color unlike an\' shade known to man. 
It was brilliant and it was dull. It was 
lightened and darkened by streaks and 
shades of other colors unknown to us. 
We stood silently for a long time. 

L'nder Ritts direction, we spent the 
next several hours orientating ourselves 
to surroundings we have spent over a 
week in. We found that to the touch 
of everything was still the same shape. 
Hut we had to go over the whole cabin 
in order to recognize it again. 

While I busied myself with writing 
the alphabet on a sheet of thin sub- 
stance that felt like paper, but was not, 
the others tried to search out the ma- 
terials for their respective work. 

Gentry is sitting at his radio set, feel- 
ing the switches and knobs. Fallon has 
spent the past few hours pouring over 
his maps and charts without any suc- 
cess. The lines are no longer lines, the 
iigures no longer figures. 

Kitt merely sits in his chair and looks 
out the window at the emptmess of 
color. 

The shock has worn off all of us by 
now, and once again we are working as 



a team. Hut we are fighting somethijig 
that is the hardest of all to fight. Some- 
thing we can not e\en recogni/e. 
( )ursel\ es. 

Who would believe? 

June 2(1—141111. We have at last 
established contact with earth. We told 
them what has happened and were oi- 
dered to repeat the message. Patientl\ 
Gentry transmitted on the equipment 
he has had to learn to use over again. 

The answer was long in coming and 
we sat around waiting, (^nce Fallon 
began to chuckle. 

"What's so funny?" asked Ritt. 

Fallon laughed out loud. "Can >ou 
imagine all those guys running around 
down there trying to make sense out of 
that message." 

The thought struck us as funny also 
and we all laughed. 

It was a weird feeling to hear hu- 
man laughter coming from such inhu- 
man shapes. 

Ritt was chuckling. "You know, that 
would be something to see. They must 
think we've gone space happy." 

"Too bad they can't be here with us. 
Then they'd really flip." The shape of 
Gentry approached us. "Say, Doc, you 
been quiet for a long time. What >(hi 
thinking about?" 

"How," I replied. 

"How?" his voice sounded blank. 

"Yes, how did this happen? What 
caused it?" 

"I don't know, Doc, but there's one 
thing for sure." 

"What's that?" 

"This is not onh' the first space ship 
to leave earth, it's probably the last. 
There just isn't anyplace to go." 



"Hell," said Fallon, "they can guide 
us to another planet by remote control 
if they want to." 

"I don't know about that," said Ritt. 
"What good would it do. If we found 
anything new we wouldn't recognize it. 
Just take a look out those windows. 
Nothing." 

It suddenly occurred to me that he 
was right. There was nothing out there, 
onl\' color. 

"How can nothing refract light?" I 
was asking myself the question, bvit Ritt 
cursetl. 

"Damn, Nou're right. Doc. That's 
got to be it." 

(jentry was confused. "What are you 
two talking about ?" 

.Still reasoning it out to nnself, I 
said. "We are born on earth and grow 
up seeing things around us. We become 
fanuliar with those things. When we 
see something new, we associate it with 
w hat we've already seen and it assumes 
dunensions we are familiar with." 

"You're right, Doc," said Ritt. "And 
the reason we're familiar with them is 
because our vision is used to the wa\s 
that light rays bend and reflect." 

"Yes, and on earth they alwa\s hind 
an<l reflect the same way." 

"Then that's what's happened. Here 
in s|iace, the light rays act different 
than they do on earth. Since our vision 
is used to them behaving in only one 
wa>, when we encounter another every- 
thing appears out of shape to us." 

"You mean to say," said Fallon, 
"that actualh' we haven't changed at all, 
but that the light rays hitting us have 
made us look different." 

"'Fhat's right." 

He grunted. "It's like the hall of 




DECEMBER, 1957 



27 



iniiTors ill :iii aniusciiR'iit paik. Every- 
thiiij; looks liistortcil, but Isn't." 

Ritt moM'il to tin- front of tlic lahin 
ai\il staiTil out the windows at the color. 
■'riu-n what ;.v out tht-ie. Doc?" 

Hfforc I could answer, the radio set 
started beeping and (lentry's shape 
moved toward it. \V\- waited until he 
recei\ed the message and came back to 
us. 

"They think we're nuts." 

"No wonder," said Fallon. 

(lentry continued. "Earth control is 
going to cut the flight short and guide 
us back to ba.se." 

"Anything else?" asked Ritt. 

"No, that's it, Skipper. ' 

Ritt was silent, bur we knew w h.it 
he was thinking. 

They were bringing us hack. 1 he\ 
think we are out of our heads. \Vli:ir 
kind of reception will be uaiting tor 
us? 

What's more impoitant, when we do 
get back, will ever\ thing return to noi- 
mal or must we four continue to li\e 
in what Fallon calls a "hall of mir- 



Reversal 

June 24 — l')(lt). Tomorrow we land. 
What kind of reception will we have? 
When we first started this trip we joke.l 
about the wine, women, and song that 
would be ours w^hen we returned. The 
first men in space. We'd be famous. 
But now, what will there be? 

The change occin-red this time when 
we were all awake. 

Yesterday morning we awoke still in 
shapes. We started to do what we have 
done every day since the change. I'heie 
was little conversation. 

Toward the middle of the day, ( Gen- 
try let out a loud yell. "Hey! We're 
changing again." 

We watched each other amazed. 

The change took only a few min- 
utes. Slowly the room began to take on 
familiar form. The first thing defin- 
able were the corners, then the walls 
began to appear. It was as though some 
giant hand was molding them out of 
clay. 

1 looked at Ritt. The blockincss of 
his shape began to delineate and form 
propiirtionateh'. And suddenly it was 
Ritt. 

1 looked ilown at my bod\. A wa\e ol 
great relief spread through me as I 
saw my legs and torso assume their 
usual form. The others were normal 
also. 

Ritt inuuediateh' went to the control 
seat and noted our exact altitude and 
position. He told (lentry to call the 
base and tell them everything was hack 
to normal again. The radioman obeyed. 

Then, as though a wave of gas spread 



o\er us, we became \ery tired and 
sleep\. Then I felt a sharp blow on m\ 
forehe.'ui, but no one had hit me. 

The pain .sei/.ed my whole head and 
I grabbeil at my e\es. The others were 
lining the same. 

The p;un increased and we wiirlied 
on oui' bunks. It felt like someone was 
running red hot needles up and down 
the inside of my eyes. 

Soon the pain began to lessen and 
then it was gone entirely. I sat up. W^e 
were all breathing heavily. 

I walked to the front of the ship 
and sat in Ritt's chair, (^nce again the 
panorama of stars and meteors filled 
the sky. 

Ritt slid info the (jther chair. ".All 
right. Doc?" 

1 nodded. 

He glanced at the instruments betore 
him. "We should land in eighteen 
hours." 

"What happens tiien .■'" 

He shook his head. "1 don't know. 
Doc. I don't know." 

1 felt tired and returned to my bunk. 
Hefore I dropped ofif to sleep, I glanced 
at Ritt. 

The captain w;ls sitting \er\- stdl 
staring out the glass windows watching 
the beauty of a heaven that was not a 
lu-a\ en. 

Landing 

June 2^ — DQOI). The landing is near. 
I'arth can be seen through the win- 
dows. 

The relief that followed the return 
to normalcy has changed into fear of 
what our reception will be. I do not 
doubt that it will be a form of hell. 

Every conceivable method of inter- 
rogation will be thrown at us. Prob- 
ably the\ will e\en administer sodium 
penathol. But om- answers will always 
be the same. 

The men are quiet. Cientry and Fal- 
lon are playing a game of cards. Ritt 
is once more sitting in his chair. 

Ground control is not letting us land 
the ship. When Ritt told us this he 
grimaced. "They probably think we'll 
run away with their precious ship. They 
don't want us to touch it." 

We have been in voice contact with 
the base for the past several hours, and 
a thousand questions have been asked. 
Ritt has refused to answer, replying 
that when we return they will get the 
information. 

"Tell them to wait," he told Gentry. 
"They'll hear plenty when we land." 

He turned to Fallon and me. "They 
probably have the loony wagon waiting 
for us as it is. No sense stirring 'em 
up any more than we have to. ' 

He looked at Fallon. "We lanil in 
three hours, Mike. Get exerything ready 



in case we ha\e to take o\er. They 
luight liave trouble getting \is in, and 
we'll have to take over. " 

We all got into position and waited 
foi' the landing. 

Reflections 

I he bar was noisy and ordinarily 
Evan wouldn't have gone in. But the 
patients had crowded into his office all 
day and felt a drink woidd <lo him 

He made his wa\' to the bar and or- 
dereil a drink. When it arrived, he took 
a sip. The cool biting liquid felt good 
goijig down and he relaxed slighth'. 

"He\, Doc, how are you?" 

Fhe voice was familiar and he jerked 
his head around. 

Ritt stood beside him. 

"Well, Scott, it's good to .see you." 

Ritt ordered a drink and sat beside 
him. "How'\e \ou been. Doc? Haven't 
seen you since . . ." 

E\an nodded. It had been two \ears 
since the ship had landed. And they 
hadn't seen each other since. 

"Have you heard from Gentr\ and 
Fallon?" he asked. 

Ritt nodded. "Yeah, last I heard 
Gentry's working for some electrical 
firm in the east, and Fallon's teaching 
school." 

"That's good. How've you been 
iloing?" 

He shrugged. "O. K. Piloting for 
an airline. How about you?" 

"I'm back in practice again. Making 
money hand over fist." 

Ritt laughed. "Aren't we all?" He 
picked up his drink and finished it. 

Sliding off the stool, he patted Evan 
on the arm. "See you around. Doc. 
Next time I'm in town I'll give you 
a buzz." 

When he was gone, Evan ordered 
another drink. But it tasted flat. He 
p.iid the bill and left the bar. 

-Night had fallen. The cool air felt 
good on his face and he increased his 
pace to catch more of it. 

He turned onto the street where he 
lived and his own words came back to 
him. "Making money hand over fist." 

He looked up at the sky. The night 
was clear and there were no clouds. 

He stopped and watched the stars 
glimmer. Seeing Ritt had brought back 
memories he wanted to forget. 

There had been other trips. Several 
of them. But the ships always returned 
and the men always told the same 
story. 

And finalh a decision had been 
reached. Man could ne\er reach the 
stars. 

There were no stars. 

There was no future. 

There was onlv earth. 



28 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Yes, YOUR help is needed. Engineering Open 
House and St. Pat's Ball are coming up soon, and 
they need your help to make them a big success. 
Whatever your schedule, whether you can spare 
one hour or a dozen, do your share. The men to 
call are: 



Open House: 

John Brennan— 604 E. Armory, C— 6-7266 

St. Pat's Ball: 

Roy Borelli-lin S. First, C-6-3314 



DO IT TODAY! 



DECEMBER, 1957 



29 




Boron . . . 

The 

Magic 

Hardener 



by Jerry Cook 



A look at what a little boron can do toward increasing the depth of hardness in metallic parts 



All innovation in nioilein metallurgy 
promises good news to owners of earth- 
moving equipment. Setting an industry 
precedent, the element boron is being 
used to measurably increase the lite of 
crawler tractor sprockets. Marketed 
under the trade name Boralloy. these 
sprockets are now standard equipment 
on Caterpillar DS and D9 Tractors. 

Representing the first commerciall)' 
successful attempt to produce boron- 
bearing cast carbon steel by the acid 
open hearth process, the Rorally sprocket 
was dexelopcd as a cooperati\e rese.irch 



The white areas show the depth of 
hardness possible by the addition of 
minute amounts of boron to the metal. 




30 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Steel being poured into flasks at Harrison Steel Castings Co. More than 20,000 Boralloy sprockets 
have been poured here since October, 1956. (Photos courtesy Caterpillar Tractor Co.) 



project bftwxen Caterpillar Tractor Co. 
and Harrison Steel Castings Company. 

Boron, an unglamorous element until 
recently, is now widely acclaimed as a 
worker of miracles. Horon compounds 
are finding literally hundreds of uses. 
Still in its infancy, boron chemistry is 
opening up brand new concepts in the 
fields of automotive fuels, jet and rocket 
fuels, plastics, pharmaceuticals, nuclear 
handling and control equipment, abras- 
ives and super alloys. 

The use of boron is hardly new. 1 he 
ancient Syrians used a borax flux when 
forging their renowned Damascus 
swords. Millions of tons of this abun- 
dant element have been mined in the 
United States since deposits were first 
discovered in Death Valley over a cen- 
tury ago. Carted from the arid, below- 
sea level part of Caliform'a's Moja\e 
Desert by the legendary 20 mule team, 
( 18 mides and 2 horses) the bulk of 
borax production found its wa\ into 
laundry products and glassware. 



Actuall\, the steel industry' has con- 
sumer relatively small amounts of boron 
compounds. A little bit goes a long 
way. 

In steelmaking, minute amounts of 
boron are added to improve depth of 
hardness resulting from heat treatment. 
The ability of boron to produce depth 
of hardness, or "hardenability," has 
been recognized for many years, and 
boron additi\es ha\e virtually no effect 
on the other properties of steel. Experi- 
ments with boron steels were conducted 
as far back as 1890. In 1924 the first 
patent was granted for a process to in- 
ciease hardenability through boron ad- 
dition. 

Researchers experimented with boron 
steels for many years before any seri- 
ous effort was made to produce them 
commercially. World War II forced 
an intensive search for new .substitvites 
which would supplement the dwindling 
supply of manganese, vanadium, nickel, 
chromium, and other critical alloys. 



Horon was one of the first substances 
to receive extensive examination. 

I'nder the direction of the SAE War 
Engineering Board, Caterpillar began 
its first large scale operations with 
boron steel. "Caterpillar project" was 
the brainchild of two men, G. C. Riegel, 
former Caterpillar Chief Metallurgist 
— now retired, and Norman Tisdale, 
presently Vice President of Mohbden- 
um Corporation of America. 

Altogether, 13 companies shipped 
boron steels to Caterillar and other or- 
gaiu'zations for testing. As a direct re- 
sult of these tests several types of boron 
steels pro\ed to be suitable alternates 
for man\ con\entional steels of higher 
alloy content. By 1945, a great amount 
of boron steel had been used in tlie man- 
ufacture of tractor parts and other war 
material. 

The first applications in which boron 
steels were used included large diameter 
studs and bolts and certain relatively 
new low-alloy steels of the 8600 plus 



DECEMBER, 1957 



31 




A view of the charging floor at Harrison Steel Castings Co. The men (C. E. Dickey, Harrison Works 
mgr., J. R. Sloan, Caterpillar metallurgist, G. L. Harrison, Harrison V.P., B. A. Lawson. Harrison 
Chief Metallurgist) each played an instrumental role in the development of the Boralloy sprocket. 



boron scries. This steel was used iiiaiiii\ 
in heavily loailed parts of large section. 
A later achievement, the 9400 plus bor- 
on series, was developed for shafts and 
gears. This series had an even smaller 
alloy content. In some cases, the addi- 
tion of boron permitted critical alloys 
to be reduced as much as 7^', of the 
former required amounts. 

When World War II ended many 
steel manufacturers returned to the con- 
ventional alloys. A few companies still 
continued to use considerable amounts 
of boron-containing steels. 

The Korean conflict once again 
brought tight control of critical alloys. 
Not only had World War II taken the 
best grade ores from our nannal stock- 
piles, but military uses required riclier 
allo\s than ever before. Once again the 
steel-makers took a long and critical 
look at the possibilities of boron. 

One development during this time 
was the use of boron in cast steel armor 
for tanks and tank transmission cases. 
The boron-cnntaiiu'ng armor plate could 




^li>^ 



he heat-treated to a cnnsidcrable depth 
without using large amounts of critical 
alloys. Foundries later adopted this 
process to fortify medium alloy steel 
in high wearing. hea\y section parts. 
Horon had found its first wide usage 
in hea\v steel castings. 



Karl\ in I'HS metallurgists began 
discussions with Harrison Steel Cast- 
ings Company concerning the pos ibil- 
ity of increasing the depth of hardness 
of sprocket wearing surfaces. 

As the "Harrison" talks progressed 
it was decided that boron or molybden- 
um might achieve the sought after hard- 
enability. Although Caterpillar had con- 
siderable experience with boron steels 
(consumption since lOS] in excess of 
S( 1,000 tons), \er\ little could be pre- 
dicted about its reaction in cast carbon 
steel. Molybdenum did offer somewhat 
better possibilities but the project met- 
allurgists decided to try boron first. 

A choice of furnace practice had to 
be selected. The method chosen had to 
gain the same results, heat after heat. 
Up to 1055 boron had been added to 
steel almost entirely by the basic elec- 
tric furnace process. Although Harrison 
had electric furnaces, the decision was 
made to try the experimental heats in 
the acid open hearth furnace. 

"One "ood reason f(U' gomir to acid 



32 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



open hcartli practice." explained C. E. 
DickcN. Harrison Works Manager, 
"was the need for exact control of the 
melting process and the greater pro- 
ductive capacity of our open hearths." 
The decision involved considerable risk 
of time and materials. 

"We knew the process was complete- 
ly untried," said B. A. Lawsoii, Harri- 
son's Chief Metallurgist, "but, if it 
worked, the improved castings would be 
well worth the gamble." 

The acid open hearth turnaces at 
Harrison resemble large soup bowls 
with dome-shaped roofs. Alternating oil- 
fired jets of flame are shot across the 
top of the metal to be melted. The 
furnaces are entirely lined with a re- 
fractory brick which contains the mol- 
ten metal at temperature approaching 
300(1^ F. The process gets its name from 
the special acid silica sand lining which 
helps prevent the furnace bottom from 
burning out. 

Before the method of steel making 
was agreed upon, metallurgists on the 
project had pored over every available 
scrap of information relating to boron 
steels. The success of the venture de- 
pended upon not only creating the neces- 
sary hardenability, but also keeping the 
steel's other properties intact. 

Several factors were of \itmost im- 
portance. Scrap had to be carefully se- 
lected since undesirable elements could 
upset later steps in deoxidation. Deoxi- 
dation is a process which removes car- 
bon and oxygen by introducing a chemi- 
cal reagent to the molten steel and is 
necessar\ to insure a high degree of uni- 
formit\ in the steel's composition. Rigid 
control of the furnace schedule and tim- 
ing of the deoxidation practice were criti- 
cal. The addition of the boron com- 
pounds had to be made at exactly the 
right time. Finally, the chemistry and 
amount of the boron compounds had to 
be just right, Even a slight variation in 
the control of any one of these factors 
would lead to the failure of an entire 
heat. 

The Harrison foundry was well 
equipped to handle these exacting condi- 
tions. In addition to its excellent facili- 
ties, the foundry's personnel are experi- 
enced in working as a well coordinated 
team. Credit for the success of the proj- 
ect is due ill large part to this ability. 

On December 13, 1955, the first ex- 
perimental heat was made. Preliminary 
results were very encouraging. Tests, 
made from samples of the first boron 
steel heat, indicated a hardness depth 
2j/j times greater than that of straight 
carbon steel of the same chenu'stry. Tests 
were also made at the Caterpillar metal- 
lurgical laboratory to furthei' conlirm 
the.se results. 

In all, a total of 7 heats, of 25 tons 
each, were made in order to determine 
the exact melting practice. From these 




Inspection of each Borolloy sprocket includes a careful check of tolerances 
to insure uniformity. 



heats the correct amounts of boroi\ ad- 
dition, deoxidation practice, yield, and 
the best method of working each heat 
was developed. It is interesting to note 
that the amount of boron compounds 
added to each heat is less than .005 per- 
cent of the steel's total composition. 

After some initial development it w as 
decided to stop further work with other 
elements. Ralph Sloan. Caterpillar met- 
allurgist who activeh collaborateil with 
Harrison throughout the project, com- 
mented, "During the experimentation 
period, two heats containing convention- 
al alloys weie made. We found, how- 
ever, that the boron-bearing steel was 
so pronu'sing that other approaches to 
the problem were abandoned. The con- 



\entional alloys proved unsatisfactor\ 
because the sprockets developed crack- 
ing problems during the heat-treating 
process, as well as failing to produce 
the desired increase in hardenability." 

Following confirmation of these tests, 
patterns of the sprockets were changed 
in order to provide enough metal sec- 
tion to effectively utilize the depth of 
hardness developed in the boron steel 
during conventional heat treatment. 
After design changes had been made 
and preliminary results were carefully 
checked through laboratory and field 
tests, regular production began in Octo- 
ber 1956. Since that time, all DS and 
1)9 sprocket castings ha\e been poured 
from boron steel. 



DECEMBER, 1957 



33 




ECMA . . . 



TECHNO 
TO A 



The Best Overall Magazine Award went to Georgia Tech 



(Photos by Dave Yates 
and Dave Moore) 




The speakers table contained an impressive list of dignitaries. 



34 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



GRAPH GOES 
CONVENTION 



the Recent ECMA Convention 
at Northweste7'n University 




Technograph received two second places and one honorable mention. 



DECEMBER, 1957 



35 



Skimming 

Industrial 

Headlines 




edited by Dennis Lantz 



Quick Carbon 

A multiniillliiii dollar plant tor a 
iT\olutiunat> new proiluction process 
that cuts the inanutacturing time of 
iiuUistrial carbon products from eight 
weeks to less than eight minutes now 
is in production at Lawrenceburg, 
Tenn. 

'rhi> highl> automated two-step 
metliod, on which patent applications 
are pending, forms carbon products to 
shape in giant presses while high elec- 
trical currents simultaneously heat the 
product to baking temperature. 

The heart of the new system is a 
specially designed hydraulic press that 
operates at an average pressure of sev- 
eral tons per square inch. The extreme 
flexibility of the process makes it possi- 
ble to change operating pressures, tem- 
peratures, and c\cle timing in \arying 
degrees to produce carbon products with 
a variety of properties. 

Low-voltage, high-current p o w e r 
transformers with intricate controls sup- 
ply the current for heating the carbon 
in the mold. Depending on the size of 
the product being made, currents range 
from .?,()()() to 100,1)00 amperes, which 
corresponds to the electrical require- 
ments of from 30 to l,0(tO moili-rn 
homes. 

Addenda 

For every television set the a\erage 
dealeer will sell this fall, he will sell 
one hi-fi set, Electrical Merchandising 
says. Trade sources estimate this year's 
packaged hi-fi volume at $300 million. 
Sales next year are expecteed to climb 
to somewhere between two and two- 
and-a-half million units, a gain of al- 
most a million sets over this year. 

Slow steel deliveries ha\e moved the 



Iowa State Highway Commission to 
aLithori/e a study of aluminum as a 
possible substitute for steel in bridge 
construction. One drawback was spotted 
immediateh : Switch might hike cost 
of bridge by 70 per cent. 

A new electronic crown detector in- 
spects 410 soda pop bottles a minute. 
A sensing imit rings a bell if an ini- 
capped bottle passes. Memory stops the 
filling machine if a second uncapped 
battle passes in four seconds. 

A reading machine that will scan 
any document, even microfilm, checks 
and tally rolls — at the rate of 300 or 
more characters a second — has been de- 
veloped in Britain. It can even read 
smudged and blurred characters, and 
makes it possible to feed information 
to a computer as fast as the machine 
can accept it. The reading machine also 
can be connected to card-punching, in- 
formation-storing, and pnwer-handling 
de\ices. 

Air Power 

.A new kind of "air power" — tor- 
nado-like blasts of air spurting from 
110 tiny ducts on its razor-blade wings 
— converts the ultrasonic F-104.'\ Star- 
fighter from a "speedster" to a "slow- 
ster" for landing, Lockheed Aircraft 
Corporation engineers report. 

Tra\eling eight times as fast as the 
most violent hurricane ever recorded 
by man, the tiny air blasts serve as 
"boundary layer control" on the U. S. 
Air Force F-104 for slower landing 
speeds and increased control. 

First production fighter to incorporate 
the new safet\- feature, the Starfighter 
with HLC can land in less distance than 
any present-da\- jet fighter, at touch- 
down speeds only moderately higher than 
trainer rates. 



H(iundar\ la\er control is a method 
of piping high-velocit\ compressed air 
from the engine into the wing, where 
it is squirted from a slotted tube out 
over the upper surface of the trailing 
edge wing Hap. Acting like a \ane of 
air, these streams smooth out the air 
flow over the wing and hold it to the 
wing surface. The result is greater wing 
lift. 

Coming (lirectK fiom the engine, the 
air is hot and fast-mo\ing. It flows 
through the slots and over the flap at 
a \elocity ot 2300 feet per second, equal 
to the speed of a high-powered title 
bullet. 

Fxtreme thinness of the F-104 A 
wings, which have edges sharp enough 
to cut a steak, gave engineers a major 
problem in fitting BLC mechanisms and 
other control devices into the small 
space available. Each wing measures 
only ly^ feet from fuselage to wing- 
tip. MaxinuMU thickness is less than 
4' _> inches. 

Use of boundary la\er control re- 
duces the F-104A's landing (or stall) 
speeed by about 20 m.p.h. and cuts down 
on required landing distance by almost 
one quarter, engineers disclosed. Exact 
speed and distance are classified. In ad- 
dition to the single-place F-104A, a 
two-seat fighter version called the F- 
I04B is in production at Lockheed's 
California Division. 

Point Perfect 

"Point Perfect", a new type of lead 
and compass pointer for draftsmen and 
engineers, has been announced by the 
W. H. Behrens Company, 2302 St. 
Clair Street, Racine, Wisconsin. 

Specifically designed for clutch-lead 
type pencils and compasses, a light touch 
of the lead against the cutters trips an 




electric switch which operates the unit 
as long as the lead is pressed into the 
sharpener. 

Cither featiues are carbide cutters, 
lint brush, and abrasi\-e for touch-up 
and chisel points. With a one year guar- 
antee, it is offered at $12.50, fifty per 
cent less than nn\- comparable unit. 



36 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



REPORT FROM RYAN 



Ryan's Diversification 

Creates Wide Opportunity for Engineers 




X-13 Vertijet Adds Ne>v Punch to Airpo>ver 



Washington — Unveiled in an unpre- 
cedented flight at the Pentagon, the 
Ryan X-13 Vertijet gave military 
officials a glimpse of the future of air- 
power. Like a huge bat, the Vertijet 
unhooked itself from its nose cable, 
hovered vertically, then whipped over 
into horizontal flight and roared out of 
sight. 

World's first jet VTOL aircraft, the 
Vertijet combines the flashing perform- 
ance of jet power with the mobility of 
missile launching. It frees supersonic 
airpower from runways and airports. 
Without landing gear, flaps, actuators, 
the X-13 concept means less weight- 
more performance in speed and climb. 

In the words of a top Air Force 
General, "The Vertijet has provided 
military planners with a now capability 
for manned aircraft of the future." 

Achieved in close cooperation with 
the Air Force and Navy, the Vertijet is 
based upon Ryan's unsurpassed 2'/4 

DECEMBER, 1957 



million manhours of research, develop- 
ment, and test in VTOL aircraft. 

Navy, Army 

to Use New Ryan 

Navigator 

San Diego — Navy aircraft — piston 
engine, jets and helicopters will soon be 
equipped with Ryan lightweight auto- 
matic navigators and ground velocit.\' 
indicators. Lightest, simplest, most 
reliable, most compact of their type, 
these systems are self-contained and 
based on continuous-wave radar. 

The navigators provide pilots witli 
required data such as latitude, longi- 
tude, ground speed and track, drift 
angle, wind speed and direction, ground 
miles covered and course and distance 
to destination. Ryan is also developing 
guidance systems for supersonicmissiles. 




More Orders for 
Ryan Firebees 

San Diego — Nearly $20 million worth 
of Ryan Firebee jet drone missiles have 
been ordered by the Air Force and Navy 
in 1957. In operational use, the Firebee 
is the nation's most realistic "enemy" 
target for evaluating the performance of 
air-to-air and ground-to-air missiles. It 
possesses the high speed, altitude, 
maneuverability and extended duration 
needed to simulate "enemy" intercept 
problems. 

America's number-one jet drone, the 
Firebee is another example of Ryan's 
skill in blending aerodynamic, jet pro- 
pulsion and electronics knowledge to 
meet a challenging problem . . . answer a 
vital military need. 
I 

Ryan has immediate career 

openings for engineers 

Look to the future. Look to Ryan . . . where you can 
grow with an aggressive, forward-looking company. 
You'll find a variety of stimulating projects. Ryan 
engages In all three elements of modern flight- 
airframes, engines and electronic systems. 



Mr. James Kerns, Engineering Personnel 
Ryan Aeronautical Company 
Lindbergh Field. 2735 Harbor Drive 
San Diego 12, California 



37 



■.mmSar^m^'W'maa;. 




A PROMINENT NAME IN 
THE WORLD'S BASIC INDUSTRIES 

Where Variety and Opportunity Challenge Your Abilities 

To become a leader in a specific field means that you have been spurred by enthusiasm, backed 
by logic and motivated by the desire to achieve accomplishment. 

This has been the formula which has made Fisher the number one name in the controls field 
throughout the nation's prime industries. 

The control of oil, steam, gas, chemicals in fluid and gaseous form is a thrilling challenge not 
only in one specific field, but in practically every basic industry in the world. 
If you are sincerely looking for stability, opportunity and future . . . Fisher offers you all three 
in great abundance. 

See your college placement office for interview schedules 




If It flows through pipe anywhere In the world . . . 

CHANCES ARE IT'S CONTROLLED BY. 



FISHER GOVERNOR COMPANY 

Marshal Itown, Iowa • Woodstock, Ontario 



^ ConChc€l3 ^ 



38 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



HOW WOULD A FUTURE WITH COLUMBIA-SOUTHERN FIT YOU? 



Columbia-Southern offers opportunities with tailor-made features for young 
graduates. At Columbia-Southern Chemical Corporation, a subsidiary of the 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company, discriminating graduates find a wide selec- 
tion of career models. Columbia-Southern's wide range of products in diversi- 
fied fields enables the graduate to locate in a position best suited to his abilities, 
aptitudes, and desires. Will a future with Columbia-Southern wear well, 
always be in style? Indeed it will. The fast-growing chemical industry is 
constantly opening new fields for research and development, and Columbia- 
Southern continues to be among the pace-setters in the industry. Why make 
your future a selection from the racks? Find out how a Columbia-Southern 
tailor-made career will fit you. Write today to the Personnel Manager at our 
Pittsburgh address or to the ^atf^^ Columbia-Southern plant nearest you. 



COLUMBIA-SOUTHERN 
CHEMICAL COKPOKATION 

SUBSIDIAKY OF PITTSBUdOH PLATE CLASS COMPANY 

out GAT [WAY CENTER.' PITTSBURGH 22 PENNSTLVANIA 



OFFICES IN PRINCIPAL CITIES 
PLANTS: Borberton, Ohio • Bortletl, 
California • Corpus Chrisli, Texas • 
lake Charles, Louisiana • New 
Martinsville, West Virginia • Jersey City, 

New Jersey 
IN CANADA: Slondord Chemical Limited 
and its Commercial Chemicals Division 





DECEMBER, 1957 



39 




Schlieren photographs, above and left, il 
trate different phases of airflow investigal 
Development of inlets, compressors and 
bines requires many such studies in casi 
test rigs, subsonic or supersonic wind tunr 



i 



\ 



at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft 
in the field of Aerodynamics 



Although each successive chapter in 
the history of aircraft engines has as- 
signed new and greater importance 
to the problems of aerodynamics, 
perhaps the most significant de- 
velopments came with the dawn of 
the jet age. Today, aerodynamics 
is one of the primary factors in- 
fluencing design and performance of 
an aircraft powerplant. It follows, 
then, that Pratt & Whitney Aircraft 
— world's foremost designer and 
builder of aircraft engines — is as 
active in the broad field of aero- 
dynamics as any such company 
could be. 

Although the work is demanding, 
by its very nature it offers virtually 
unlimited opportunity for the aero- 
dynamicist at P & W A. He deals 
with airflow conditions in the en- 



gine inlet, compressor, burner, tur- 
bine and afterburner. From both the 
theoretical and applied viewpoints, 
he is engrossed in the problems of 
perfect, viscous and compressible 
flow. Problems concerning boundary 
layers, diffusion, transonic flow, 
shock waves, jet and wake phenom- 
ena, airfoil theory, flutter and 
stall propagation — all must be at- 
tacked through profound theoretical 
and detailed experimental processes. 
Adding further to the challenge and 
complexity of these assignments at 
P & W A is this fact: the engines 
developed must ultimately perform 
in varieties of aircraft ranging from 
supersonic fighters to intercontinen- 
tal bombers and transports, func- 
tioning throughout a wide range of 
operational conditions for each type. 



Moreover, since every aircraft is 
literally designed around a power- 
plant, the aerodynamicist must con- 
tinually project his thinking in such 
a way as to anticipate the timely 
application of tomorrow's engines to 
tomorrow's airframes. At his service 
are one of industry's foremost com- 
puting laboratories and the finest 
experimental facilities. 

Aerodynamics, of course, is only 
one part of a broadly diversified en- 
gineering program at Pratt & Whit- 
ney Aircraft. That program — with 
other far-reaching activities in the 
fields of instrumentation, combus- 
tion, materials problems and me- 
chanical design — spells out a 
gratifying future for many of to- 
day's engineering students. 




electronic computers accelerate both the analy- 

nd the solution of aerodynamic problems. Some of 

problems include studies of airplane performance 

permit evaluation of engineto-airframe applications. 



Design of a multi-stage, axial-flow compressor 
involves some of the most complex problems in 
the entire field of aerodynamics. The work of 
aerodynamicists ultimately determines those aspects 
of blade and total rotor design that are crucial. 



Mounting a compressor in a special high-altitude test 
chamber in P & W A's Willgoos Turbine Laboratory per- 
mits study of a variety of performance problems that 
may be encountered during later development stages. 



Pratt & Whitney Aircraft operates a 
completely self-contained engineering fa- 
cility in East Hartford, Connecticut, and 
is now building a similar facility in Palm 
Beach County, Florida. For further in- 
formation about engineering careers at 
Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, write to Mr. 
F. W. Powers, Engineering Department. 




World's foremost designer and builder of aircraft engines 

PRATT & WHITNEY AIRCRAFT 

Division of United Aircraft Corporation 

EAST HARTFORD 8, CONNECTICUT 




The never-ending search for oil takes men to 

strange places — even to ocean floors. 

Here Mobil scientists, the first company team of 
research geologists trained as skin divers, probe 
the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico. 

From their lindings ha\e come clues which may 
lead to the location of new oil reserves to strength- 
en the Free World — to guarantee you a continu- 
ous and abundant flow of the thousands of 
products made from petroleum to enrich your life. 

Geology is but one of many professions repre- 
sented on the world-wide roster of Mobil per- 
sonnel. We also employ nuclear physicists, math- 
ematicians, chemists and engineers of every type, 
marketing analysts, marketers . . . people pre- 
pared to handle more than 1 00 different positions. 

If you qualify, the Mobil companies offer you an 
opportunity to build a career through training 
that will utilize your talents to the fullest . . . 
constantly challenge >our ingenuity . . . reward 
you with a lifetime of richly satisfying work. 

For more information about your opportunity 
with the world's most experienced oil company, 
see your College Placement Officer. 



Mobil 

SOCONY MOBIL OIL CO. 

NEW YORK 17, N. Y. 



INC. 



Leader In lubrication for 91 years 

AFFILIATES: 
General Petroleum Corp., Los Angeles 54, California 

Magnolio Petroleum Company, Dallas 21, Texas 

Mobil Oil of Canada Ltd., Calgary, Alberta, Canada 

Mobil Overseas Oil Company, New York 17, N. Y. 

Mobil Producing Company, Billings, Montana 

Socony Mobil Oil Company de Venezuela 

nd other foreign producing companies 



42 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Sure we want you . . . 




IF you show potential for 
success in your field 



IF you're anxious to in- 
crease your skills and 
knowledge 



IF you can co-operate 
with others to get a job 
done 



IF you want to do what's 
expected of you — and 
more 



Union Carbide's engineers and scientists are 
among the best in industry and we need top 
engineering and science graduates to move 
up with them as Union Carbide expands. 

Nuclear energy, extremes of heat, cold, pres- 
sure, and vacuum — Union Carbide people 
work with these basic tools over the entire 
scale of the physical sciences. 

Union Carbide people extend the frontiers 
of science through teamwork — yet, since 
technical teams are small, you can achieve 
individual recognition early in your career. 

Union Carbide people like their work, and 
consistently do more than is expected of them. 
They develop new products at the rate of two 
a month and the rate is accelerating. 



ENGINEERS — SCIENTISTS 

Do you fit the bill? If so, we'd like to hear from you. There's a place for 
you at Union Carbide, helping to shape the future in alloys, carbons, 
chemicals, gases, plastics, or nuclear energy. 

We have important openings for liberal arts and business school graduates 
as well. 

Representatives of Divisions of Union Carbide Corporation, listed at 
right, will be interviewing on many campu.ses. Check your placement 
director, or write to the Division representative. For general information, 
write to V. O. Davis, 30 East 42nd St., New York 17, N. Y. 



BAKELITE COMPANY Plastics and resins, includ- 
ing polyethylene, epoxy, fluorothene, vinyl, silicone, 
phenolic, and polystyrene. J. C. Older, River Road, 
Bound Brook, N. J. 



ELECTRO METALLURGICAL COMPANYOver 

100 ferro-alloys and alloying metals; titanium, calcium 
carbide, acetylene. C. R. Keeney, 137— 47fh St, 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 



HAYNES STELLITE COMPANY Special alloys 
and hard-facing materials to resist heat, abrasion, and 
corrosion; cast and wrought. L E. Denny, 725 South 
Lindsay Street, Kokomo, Ind. 



LINOE COMPANY Industrial gases, metalwork- 
ing and treating equipment, synthetic gems, molecular 
sieve adsorbents. P. I. Emch, 30 East 42nd Street, 
New York 17, N. Y. 



NATIONAL CARBON COMPANY Industrial 
carbon and graphite products. Prestone automotive 
products, EvEREADY flashlights and batteries. S. W. 
Orne, P. 0. Box 6087, Cleveland, Ohio. 



SILICONES DIVISION Silicones for electrical 
insulation, release agents, water repellents, etc.; 
silicone rubber. P. I. Emch, 30 East 42nd Street, New 
York 17, N. Y. 



UNION CARBIDE CHEMICALS COMPANY 

Synthetic organic chemicals, resins, and fibers from 
natural gas, petroleum and coal. W. C. Heidenreich, 
30 East 42nd St., New York 17, N. Y. 



UNION CARBIDE INTERNATIONAL 

COMPANY Markets Union Carbide products and 
operates plants overseas. C. C. Scharf, 30 East 42nd 
Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



UNION CARBIDE NUCLEAR COMPANY 

Operates Atomic Energy Commission facilities at Oak 
Ridge, Tenn., and Paducah, Ky. W. V. Hamilton, P. 0. 
Box "P", Oak Ridge, Tenn. 




VISKING COMPANY Pioneer in packaging— 
a leading producer of synthetic food casings and poly- 
ethylene film. Dr. A. L. Strand, 6733 West 65th Street, 
Chicago, III. 



GENERAL OFFICES — NEW YORK Account- 
ing, Electronic Data Processing, Operations Research, 
Industrial Engineering, Purchasing. E. R. Brown, 
30 East 42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



DECEMBER, 1957 



43 



CAN YOU FIGURE IT OUT? 



In the circuit shewn, determine 
the voltage appearing across 
the 3 microfarad capacitor. 
Assume that the circuit has 
been operating long enough to 
achieve an equilibrium state. 



0y 




vjCSolution at bottom of page 



FIGURING OUT A CAREER? 



Ceroid Maley tells what it's 
like to be.ond why he likes 
being . . . o Product Develop- 
ment Engineer with IBM. 



♦SOLUTION 

The voltage across Ihe 3 uf capacitor is 
47 volts Ttiis answer may be verified as 
follows. 

Smce the voltage across Ihe 91 ohm re- 
sistor is 91 volts in Ihe steady stale, then 
El + E3 - 100 or El - IOO-E3 (1) 
and E2+E3 -91 or E-. - 91 -Es (2) 
let Qi.liTi=.CiEi 
let 02 =. I2T2= C2E2 
lhenQ3-llTi+l2T2 0r C3E3- (3) 
ClEi+C;E2 

By suhslitutlng in equation (3i Ihe expres- 
sions lor El and Ez given in equations (1) 
and (2), we have: 

C3E3 - Cl (100 -E3I+C (91 -E3) 

Substituting all hnown values in this 

(3 J lOJil E.i - (1 « 10-6) (10O-E3)+ 
(2 • IK) (91 -E3) 

Dividing by 10->> 

3E3 - 100 -E:i+2 (91 -Es) 

6E3 = 282 

E3 > 47 volts Answer 



Selecting a career can be puzzling, too. 
Here's how Gerald ^Iale^■ found the solution 
to his career problem — at IBM: 

"What sold me on IBM," says Jerrv, "was 
their approach to engineering. I'd expected 
rooms full of engineers at desks. Instead, I 
found all the friendly informality of m\' col- 
lege lab." Starting as a Technical Engineer 
in Product Development, Jerrv learned a 
great deal about electronic computers in a 
ver\ short time. He was promoted to .\sso- 
ciate Engineer after 16 months. RecentK , 
he was made Project Engineer, supervising 
the development of magnetic cores. "In 



computer work," he savs, "\ ou can actually 
see electronics at work. This is not the case 
with all such equipment todav. In this new 
field, you can be an important contributor 
in a very short time." 

* » * « 
There are manv excellent opportunities for 
well-qualified engineers, physicists and 
mathematicians in IBM Research, Develop- 
ment and Manufacturing Engineering. Why 
not ask \our College Placement Director 
when IBM will next inter\iew on vour 
campus? Or, for information about how 
\our degree will fit )ou for an IBM career. 



JUST WRITE TO: 



Mr. R. A. Whitehorne 
IBM Corp., Dept. 851 
590 Madison Avenue 
New York 22, N. Y. 



IBM 



INTERNATIONAL 
BUSINESS MACHINES 
CORPORATION 



DATA PROCESSING 

ELECTRIC TYPEWRITERS 

MILITARY PRODUCTS 

SPECIAL ENGINEERING PRODUCTS 

SUPPLIES 

TIME EQUIPMENT 



44 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



DECEMBER 






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DECEMBER, 1957 



45 




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y 





Know any cute girls? 

. . . then tell us at Technograph! 



SERIOUSLY, the Illinois Technograph is interested in obtaining nominations for the Technocutie 
of the Month. For many years we have been printing photos of girls who have won various 
queen contests on campus (or were among the finalists). We shall continue to print some of 
these pictures. 

HOWEVER, and here is where you come in, we are interested in finding new talent. We are sure 
that there are many beautiful girls on campus who never appear in contests; you see them 
every day walking down the broadwalk. All we need to do is get names and phone numbers 
of these girls and we'll take care of the rest. Just fill in the blank and drop in any University 
mail box (not U. S. mail) or drop it off at 215 C. E. H. or the basement of lllini Hall (Daily 
lllini Office). 

REWARDS are in it for you. For each girl selected, you will get a personally-autographed photo. 
Sound like a good deal? Then get busy! 

Tear Here 

ILLINOIS TECHNOGRAPH 
215 Civil Engineering Hall 

My nomination for Technocutie is 

who lives at , phone 

Her description is 



I am and live at_ 



jhone. 



(Signed). 



48 THE TECHNOGRAPH 



7 ^' 



I 



NEW BOOKS 



edited by Mike Coleman 



Engineering as a Career 

In RALPH j. S.MI'IH 

I lead. Enffintiriiif/ Df/>/ir//ii(/il. San Jose S/atr (lullcr/r 

I'liblished by Mc(Tia\v-HilI liook Company, Inc., 
1057, 36S pafies, $-^.1^ 



Kicslinu'n ! Ht'ic is a book that you 
lia\c been .seaichinji for. Written to ac- 
iiuaint prospective engineers with ens^i- 
neering as a career, this book indicates 
rlie qualifications, duties, and responsi- 
bih'ties of engineers and defines the en- 
gineering profession in terms of func- 
tions as well as branches. 

In addition, motivation for the stud\- 
of pre-engineering courses, training in 
the philosophy and technique of problem 
solution and previews the basic engineer- 
ing sciences and demonstrates their ap- 
plication are provided. 

Emphasis on the functional classifi- 
cation of engineering into the categories 
of research, development, design, pro- 
duction, construction, operation and 
maintenance, application and sales, in- 
dustrial, and management make this 
book unique. The branches or fields of 
engineering — civil, electrical, mechani- 
cal, etc. — indicate what an engineer 
works tvith; the functions are related to 
\vhat he does. Therefore, from the stand- 
point of career planning, the fimctional 
approach is more meaningful. 

,'\ budding engineer's interest ma\' lie 



in a certain branch while his aptitudes 
are more closel\ related to a certain 
function. To help in pinpointing the 
exact function for which the engineer is 
suited, the author discusses in detail the 
mental and personal qualifications de- 
sired for each. 

Also important is the training in the 
engineering approach to problem solu- 
tion, the activity characteristic of all en- 
gineering. The presentation of the ma- 
terial, although very elementary, enables 
the student to view with a proper per- 
specti\e the types of college courses he 
will face. 

Sufficient technical material is includ- 
ed so that a prospective engineering stu- 
dent can test his aptitude for and in- 
terest in engineering training. There are 
many brief topics of interest to all pros- 
pective engineering students on typical 
applications he nia\- use. He must read 
technical explanations, understand prin- 
ciples, and appl\ them in simplified prob- 
lems. 

If you are not yet sure of your major, 
this book could be an important factor 
ill \our decision. 






Why Vought Projects 

Bring Out The Best 

In An Engineer 

At Vought, the engineer doesn't often 
forget past assignments. Like all big 
events, they leave vivid memories. 
And it's no wonder 

For here the engineer contributes to 
history-making projects — among 
them the record-breaking Crusader 
fighter; the Regulus II missile, chosen 
to arm our newest nuclear subs; and 
the new fast-developing 1,500-pIus- 
mph fighter, details of which are still 
classified. 

The Vought engineer watches such 
weapons take shape. He supervises 
critical tests, and he introduces the 
weapons to the men with whom they 
will serve. 

Engineers with many specialties share 
these experiences. Today, for exam- 
ple, Vought is at work on important 
projects involving: 

electronics design and nianiijacltire 

inert ial navigation 

investigation of advanced propulsion 

methods 

Mach 5 configurations 

Vought's excellent R&D facilities 
help the engineer through unexplored 
areas. And by teaming up with other 
specialists against mutual challenges, 
the Vought engineer learns new fields 
while advancing in his own. 

*** 

Would you like to know what men 
with your training are doing at 
Vought . . . what you can expect of a 
Vought career? 

For full information, see our repre- 
sentative during his next campus visit. 
• ** 
Or write directly to: 



C. A. Besio 

Supervisor, Engineering Personnel 

Dept. CM-3 



M^in 



OUGHT JlMttCMij*Fr 



50 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



A 

Vought 
Vignette 

ONE OF A SERIES 




The Aerodynamicist 

Who Test-Hopped Equations 



There'd never been a fighter that could barrel at 
more than 1,000 mph one minute and land on a carrier 
the next. And, as a result, there was unusually keen ad- 
vance interest in the flying qualities of the airplane 
proposed by Chance Vought. 

Jim Madden was more than curious. As an aero- 
dynamic design specialist, he would help develop the 
Crusader's handling qualities. His job began with wind 
tunnel tests. 

Jim converted tunnel information into a graphic 
picture of static and dynamic forces affecting Crusader 
stability. He used analog computers and equations of 
motion to predict the build-up of forces during maneu- 
vers. Hinge moments, loads, and required rates of con- 
trol motion were determined and released to Servo- 
mechanism and Product Design groups. Soon the 
Crusader's stabilization and power control packages 
began to take shape. 

Jim's part in the project could have ended right 
there. But Vought's control system simulator helped him 
proceed to some thoroughgoing conclusions. 

It duplicated the complete rod system and all servo- 
mechanisms that would control the speedy new fighter. 
In the simulator's cockpit, high above the Structures 



Lab floor, Jim previewed control responses that test 
pilots later would experience. Airplane responses to 
Jim's rudder kicks and aileron movements were re- 
corded on analog computers. Any inability of the 
control system to position the aircraft during flight was 
easier to spot . . . and, with test and design engineers 
on hand . . . easier to correct. 

"It was like a big schematic — only better." says 
Jim of the simulator. 

"It gave me a chance to work with the whole 
system. 

"And actually watching aircraft responses to the 
controls gave me a feeling for how fast they happen." 

Another thing that moved fast was Crusader devel- 
opment. Vought's simulator and other facilities detected 
problems before they compounded. The fighter reached 
operational readiness in record time. 



Research, design and test facilities 

at Chance Vought allow the 
engineer to do a thorough job in 

advanced problem areas , . . 

assure high reliability in Vought- 

developed weapon systems. 



^ OF MILITAfjj. 

■^ ANNIVERSARY ^ 
*'Sn TO 193T * 



^EMG-rfr yaiMJFi€yrtJ*.M^T 



DECEMBER, 1957 



51 




your fjr_st move 

CAN DECIDE THE GAME 

your first job 

CAN DECIDE YOUR FUTURE 



2V-That important first job can start you off in 



the wrong direction— or it can lead you straight toward your 
goal. If your ambitions are high, Motorola has a place that will 
give you the finest chance possible for the advancement you 
want. You'll get security and good salary, but, more important, 
you'll be working on projects with a future, like missile guid- 
ance, radar, and microwave. The door is wide open at Motorola, 
and the opportunity to fulfill your ambitions is yours. 

If you ore an ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, MECHANICAL ENGINEER or PHYSICIST, 
contact Motorola today. 

CHICAGO, ILL.: MR. L. B. WRENN, Dept. CO., 4501 Auguslo Blvd. 

Ch.iUencinR jiiisitions in Two-Way Communications. Microwave, Hadar and 
Military c(iinpment. Television (Color) and Hadio Encinwring. 

PHOENIX, ARIZ.: 

RESEARCH LAB., MR. R. COULTER, Dept. CO., 3102 N. 56th St. 
SEMI-CONDUCTOR DIV., V. SORENSON.Dept. CO., 5005 E. McDowell Rd. 

Outstanding opfMrtunities in tlie development anil production of Military 

equipment and Transistor products. 

RIVERSIDE, CAL.: MR. C. K02I0L, Dept. CO., Box 2072 

This ni'W nKMlern research laboratory, located 6,% miles from Los Angeles, 
needs men in Missile and Military equipment sy.slems analysis and design. 

ConlacI your Placement Officer for further information regarding interview/ 
date on yoor campus or write to one of the above addresses. 

O MOTOROLA 



The Flight Before 
Christmas 

( (y'tnliiuu /I from Pru/e 23) 



1 tli(iiii.'ht tli:ir rlic ( 'iicmliii 

h.-i(l h;i,l rlic um-Id hcxcl, 

.Ami 1 w.is (|uirc tc.-iitul 

lit \\\rM I'll sec iic\t. 

W'lu-ii til Ill\ \Minilci iiit; 

(•>('> shoiilil .■ippc.ir 
Hut :i niililK JKTdir 

■-rroii^ uiuiil; fii^mccf. 

S.iiil lie, "Tli.it iluiiih ( Irciiiliii 

has till lijzht to sriitt. 
That siinstcf tcllou- 

cldii't kiKiw what's cnniiiij; off.' 

With a ciiiil hciil, 

ami a siiillc oji his face 
T he ciiLiiiu-ci" t-iifcii'il 

the n-chiiical lacf. 

He had a miiiatiire slide nilc 

so lively and quick, 
1 knew in a nioinent, 

he'd master the trick. 



He said he could end 

all this confusion. 

By calling the rocket 

an optical illusion. 

Hut he said it was wrong 

for him to delude us, 

If scientific supremacy 

was not to elude us. 



If we realh want 

to seize the solution. 
We can begin with this 

New Year's resolution: 



Pure science is half 

of what we must master. 
We must learn twice as much. 

■,\ni\ we must dii it faster. 



And then somehow 

we must also find. 
How to end the unrest 

That triiihtens mankind. 

If we can learn more 

of science and men. 

Achieve the right balance, 

THKX! and onlv then . . 



52 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




FOR "VOXJT=l IlVF0Ft:M.A.T'I01V 



^beat barnacles 
^olefin opportunities 



DIVISIONS 

Barrett 

General Chemical 
National Aniline 
_ Nitrogen 
I Semet-Solvay 
Solvay Process 
International 



^water-resistant coatings 
^new iir ethane booklet 




Seaf barnacles 

■ liarnacle Bill" is not only the title 
of an old sea song — it's the price 
ship operators pay for inefficient 
operation due to barnacle-fouled 
hulls. 

Although 30U can combat foul- 
ing with copper pigments, conven- 
tional copper bottom paints may 
create new problems by accelerat- 
ing the corrosion of steel hulls. 

Mutual sodium copper chro- 
mate to the rescue : research shows 
that it has both anti-fouling and 
anti-corrosive properties. No sur- 
prise either, because it is a mem- 
ber of the same pigment family as 
"zinc yellow," a chromate long 
used as a corrosion inhibitor in 
metal priming paints. Anti-fouling 
of course, because it contains cop- 
per. 

This useful combination of prop- 
erties also has led us to test 
Mutual sodium copper chromate 
in preservative combinations for 
wood, cordage, fabrics and paper, 
and in agricultural fungicides. 

Olefin opportunities 

Did it ever occur to you that your 
product might be epoxidizable? 
Or even hydroxylatable? 

What, never? All we mean is 
you can upgrade it with hydrogen 
peroxide,' to put you in new mar- 
kets with greater profits. 

DECEMBER, 1957 



With H2O2, you can upgrade 
such olefins as soya bean oil, cot- 
tonseed oil, tall oil, turpentine, lin- 
seed oil or unsaturated petroleum 
derivatives. 

By upgrading, you find yourself 
making resin plasticizers, glycols, 
stabilizers, insecticides, monomers, 
lubricants, waxes, surfactants or 
brake fluids. 

In the epoxidation and hydro- 
xylation processes, hydrogen per- 
o.xide reacts with unsaturated ole- 
fins to form a completely different 
class of chemical compounds. Of 
course, hydrogen peroxide has 
been around for some time, but 
recent developments now permit 
broad commercial use of these 
processes. 

Research people working in 
chemicals, plastics and phartna- 
ceuticals will be interested in a 
new Solvay Process Division up- 
to-date review and bibliography 
on the subject. 

Water-resistant coatings 

Paper coaters know that if they 
want to keep a coating from com- 
ing off in water, they must insolu- 
bilize the binder after application. 
Starch, casein, protein and latex 
are the most widely used paper 
coating and sizing adhesives. The 
major advantage of starch is its 
ease of use, but this is offset by its 



lack of water resistance. On the 
other hand, although casein, pro- 
tein and late.x give good water re- 
sistance, they are more expensive. 

May we suggest a starch coating 
modified with U.F. Concentrate- 
85, for low-cost, water-resistant 
paper coatings. A product of our 
Nitrogen Division, U.F. Concen- 
TRATE-85 is a low-cost, non-resin- 
ous, high-concentration urea-for- 
maldehyde product. 

You can obtain different degrees 
of insolubility by adding 2 to 50%> 
to the starch, though 20% gener- 
ally makes an excellent coating. 
Other assets: a simple mixing 
operation, a useable pH range of 
4 to 8. 

We have available a new tech- 
nical paper on the subject, "A new 
product for the insolubilization of 
starch films." 

New urethane booklet 

In these columns, we've talked 
about what the industry calls "the 
ne.xt great synthetic." Allied's in- 
terest in urethane materials lies 
with our National Aniline and 
Barrett Divisions, which produce 
the kej' chemicals — diisocyanates 
and polyester resins respectively — 
used in making these versatile 
plastics. Now we have a new 
booklet available on urethane ma- 
terials, detailing their applications 
and their future. 



Mutual and U.F Concentrate-85 are Allied 
Chemical trademarks. 



Creative Research 

These examples of product de- 
velopmcnt work are illustrative 
of some of Allied Chemical's 
research activities and oppor- 
tunities. Allied divisions offer 
rewarding careers in tnany dif- 
ferent areas oj chemical research 
and development. 

ALLIED CHEMICAL 

61 Broadway, New York 6, N. Y. 



53 



THE NAME BACKED BY 



104 YEARS 

OF 

ENGINEERING 
75 YEARS 

OF 

REFRIGERATION 



FRICK REFRIGERATING r f\ XirknC 

MACHINES BUILT IN OVER *)ll YpAKj 

SO TYPES and SIZES "'*' ' ^""•' 

OF 

AIR CONDITIONING 

WRITE FOR INFORMATION ON AIR CONDITIONING- 
REFRIGERATION ENGINEER TRAINING COURSE 



Ernie Engineer . 









\ \ / 



r> 



^^ 






i 1 \ 




THE 0E.C151ON 




Bet they didn't teach you things like this at Illinois!" 



54 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




WORLD'S LARGEST ELECTRONIC BRAIN 



RCA BIZMAC reduces weeks of paper 
v^ork to seconds— cuts costs by millions! 



In almost the twinkling of an eye, electronics 
handles calculations that would take any person 
days of work. 

The newest — and largest — electronic "brain" 
(more accurately, electronic data processing sys- 
tem) is Bizmac, developed by RCA. 

Bizmac is quicklv becoming one of the most 
powerful allies of business and industry. It "reads," 
sorts, catalogs, analyzes, calculates, forecasts— re- 
duces months of paper work to seconds— cuts costs 
bv millions! 

For insurance companies, Bizmac can keep its 
finger on millions of facts daily. It can help depart- 



ment stores keep split-second in\entory control. 
And for the U. S. Army, it keeps track of literally 
billions of ordnance parts all over the world. 

The leadership in electronic research that made 
Bizmac possible is inherent in all RCA products 
and services— to help make life fuller, easier, safer 
through "Electronics for Li\ing." tmkcsi® 

WHERE TO. MR. ENGINEER? RCA offers careers in re- 
search, dcvclopiiuMit, design, and manufacturing for engi- 
neers with Bachelor or advanced degrees in E. E., M. E. or 
Phvsics, For full information, writ* to: Mr. Robert Haklisch, 
Manager, College Relations', Radio Corporation of America, 
Camden 2, N. J. 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

ELECTRONICS FOR 4_IVINQ 



DECEMBER, 1957 



55 





something off 
your future 
was on 
our minds 
yesterday 



Who can gauge the portent of 
things hke jet and rocket flight, 
gas t^arbines and guided missiles? 
Electronic computers and auto- 
mation, television and radar? Fis- 
sion products and atomic power? 

Already some of them are giant 
industries. They affect your per- 
sonal life, your entire world out- 
look. Yet each would still be an 
improbable dream except for the 
stainless and electrical alloys and 
other special-property metals 
(such as titanium and zirconium) 
that permit designers to do things 
today which formerly could not 
be done. 

It is Allegheny Ludlum's con- 
tinuing job to pioneer, research 
and develop such metals— and 
more important, make them avail- 
able to industry in every shape, 
form, size and quantity needed. 

You may decide that this field 
offers the career for you. If so, 
we'd like to talk with you— and 
if you select one of the many 
fields where special steels have 
vital uses, we'll be glad to work 
with you. Allegheny Ludlum 
Steel Cnrponitioii, Oliver Bldg., 
Pimhurgb 22, Pa. 

Pittsburgh 22, Pa. 

ALLEGHENY 



LUDLUM 



PIONEERING on the 
Horizons of Steel 






56 



Stainless and high-temperature, electrical and tool steels; magnetic materials and sintered carbides 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



DU PONT PERSONALIZED TRAINING STARTS SAME DAY 
YOU DO: PREPARES YOU FASTER FOR ADVANCEMENT 



I 1 

ALL KINDS OF 
ENGINEERS NEEDED 



Your Classroom Learning Is Applied 
Immediately to Industrial Problems 




by 

E. H. Cox 

Du Pont 
Representative 



At Du Pont, the opportunity for 
chemists and chemical engineers 

is only part of the story. Thrrc 
are equal opportunities for many 
other kinds of engineers. Oj 
course, we cant cover all of the 
types of jobs available at Du 
Pont, but I've listed here some 
of the possibilities. 

Civil engineers, for example, de- 
sign and supervise construction 
of our new plants. Mechanical 
engineers design, lay out and 
plan the purchase of production 
equipment, and they supervise 
production and work in research. 
Electrical engineers lay out and 
maintain power systems for our 
plants. They also design produc- 
tion equipment. Sales engineers 
in every field apply their skills 
to customers' problems and help 
find new applications and mar- 
kets for our products. 
Metallurgical engineers develop 
nen- metal and semi-metallic 
products and icork on corrosion 
problems and the selection of 
materials suitable for industrial 
processes. 

If'e are also interested in engi- 
neers who have specialized in 
petroleum, plastics, ceramics, 
safety, sanitation and many other 
fields of study. 

Opportunities in most branches 
of engineering continue to grow 
at Du Pont. If you have ques- 
tions on your own specialty, 
please see me when I visit your 
campus. I'll be happy to try to 
ansicer them. 

I I 



Training at Du Font is tailored to the 
individual. It begins the day you join 
the Company and continues through- 
out your career. Its purpose is to give 
you as much responsibility as you can 
handle at the outset, and to prepare 
you for future advancement. 

Personalized Development 

When you join Du Pont you are gen- 
erally given a specific assignment at 
once. You learn informally in consul- 
tation with your supervisor and others 
assigned to the same project. This 
headstart on responsibility permits a 
new man to move ahead according to 
his abilities. He gets to know Du Pont 
and his jub quickly. 

Job Evaluation 

This approach at Du Pont is supple- 
mented by frequent meetings and sem- 
inars and by formal job evaluation 



THERE'S A BIG FUTURE 
IN DUPONT RESEARCH 

In 1956, Du Pont spent $77 million 
on research. And over the past 2.5 
years. SI has been spent on research 
for every S3 invested in new produc- 
tion facilities. This activity promises 
plenty of room for the young research 
man to grow. 

Right now. Du Pont engineers and 
scientists are working on hundreds 
of new research projects. Many work 
in the Experimental Station near 
Wilmington, Del.: others are busy in 
laboratories in nine more states. 



reports. Your supervisor, for example, 
will evaluate your progress on the job 
at least once a year. The two of you 
will analyze your performance and 
outline a program for improvement. 
From these evaluations often come 
recommendations for promotion and 
salary increases. 

On occasion, a man may decide 
that he is better fitted for sales or 
research than production work, for 
example. In these cases a transfer 
to another job may be effected with- 
out any loss in Company benefits or 
without a change in employer. Re- 
directed, a man often will find him- 
self and the work for which he is 
best suited. 

If you have any questions about 
personnel development at Du Pont, 
stop in to see the Du Pont representa- 
tive when he visits your campus. 



SEND FOR INFORMATION BOOKLET 

ON JOB OPPORTUNITIES AT DU PONT 

Booklets on jolts at Du Pont arc 
yours for the asking. The suIj- 
jects of particular interest to 
young graduates incluile: me- 
chanical, civil, metallurgical, 
chemical, electrical, instrumenta- 
tion an<l industrial engineers: 
atomic energy, technical sales, 
business administration, research 
and development. Write, men- 
tioning the subject that interests 
you. The address : Du Pont, Room 
2494-C Nemours Building, Wil- 
niin£;ton 98, Delaware. 



DECEMBER, 1957 



57 




Field of todays best available magnetic alloy 



Difference between ordinary magnetic Iron (left) and Cubex (right) Is diagrammed on glass panel by 
Dr. George W. Wiener, who heads up research on soft magnetic materials at Westinghouse Research 

YOUNG WESTINGHOUSE SCIENTISTS 

open new design frontiers with 



Westinghouse scientists have climaxed an intensive 
search that promises significant improvements in 
electrical equipment performance and operating costs. 
With this new alloy, Cubex,® metal crystals are aligned 
in ice-cube fashion so that magnetism flows readily in 
four directions instead of two . . . actually turns corners 
with markedly less resistance. 

Now in the development stage, it will bring such 
important benefits as better performance, higher efB- 
ciency and smaller size to users of motors, transformers, 
and other electrical apparatus. 

Developed in Westinghouse Research Laboratories, 



Cubex is the result of continuous programs of research 
and development since the 1920's. 

This work on magnetism is only one of the many 
interesting jobs engineers and scientists at Westing- 
house are engaged in all the time. Other fields include 



ATOMIC POWER 
AUTOMATION 
JET-AGE METALS 
CHEMISTRY 
RADAR 



SEMICONDUCTORS 

ELECTRONICS 

LARGE POWER EQUIPMENT 

GUIDED MISSILE CONTROLS 

and dozens of others. 




Field of new Cubex magnetic alloy 



Laboratories. Dr. Wiener got his B.S. in 1943 from University of \A/isconsin. In 1953 he earned his Ph.D. at 
University of Pittsburgh vi^hile worthing at Westing ho use and studying on tuition-free Graduate Study Program. 

BREAK THROUGH MAGNETIC BARRIER: 

cube-or/en fee/ alloy 

For more information on Westinghouse research in 
the field of magnetism, or information on job oppor- 
tunities, write to Mr. J. H. Savage, Westinghouse 
Electric Corporation, P.O. Box 2278, Pittsburgh 30, Pa. 

^^stin0house 




FIRST WITH THE FUTURE 



Cube-orientation of crystals in Cubex is revealed by "etch 
pits" in this photomicrograph. Cubex is a silicon-steel 
alloy, easily magnetized In four directions instead of tw^o. 




;?-^ 



^^ ^i'F^'li LI 



DoNT woKKy 

G £ N £ lv>s \_ ! 1 IF 





For Jet Engines . . . 



Open Shirt Policy 

A nii\up in ministries nia\ leave 
C/ei.liosl()\ akia without cuff links, re- 
ports /I //mil til! Machinist. Responsibil- 
ity tor manufacturing cuff links was not 
specified in the present five-year plan. It 
was thought to be a job for tlie minis- 
try of domestic trade. They considered 
the responsibility should f;o to the min- 
istry of industry. Unfortunately, it was 
not stated whether for the ministry of 
heavy industix nr the nu'ru'stry of lifiht 
iridiistr>. Meanwhile, C/echs can tr\' 
keeping; their shirt cuffs together with 
red tape, the magazine suggests. 

Cunife 

Permanent magnets as small in liia- 
meter as a human hair ha\e been made 
from Cunife at the National Bureau of 
Standards. Cunife is an alloy of ap- 
proximately 60 per cent copper, 20 per 
cent nickel, and 20 per cent iron with 
an unusual combination of magnetic and 
mechanical properties. For example, 
Cunife — instead of requiring casting or 
sintering into a desired shape like most 
highly coercive magnet materials — can 
be cold drawn. This ductility suggested 
its use for very small magnets. 

Several investigators have reported 
on the magnetic properties of Cunife 
wire and on the effects of cold working 



AIRCRAFT CONTROL BEARING CATALOG . . 

Qvailoble for university libraries. This catolog coi 
loins complete dimensionol ond load roting toble 
scale drawings ond o special engineering sectic 
featuring technicol data. 



FAFNIR 

BALL BEARINGS 



MOST COMPLETE | 



LINE IN AMERICA 



a masterpiece 

of 

engineering 

I'afnir builds super-precision ball 
bearings with tolerances held to 
millionths of an inch and finishes to 
microinches. These bearings support 
jet engine rotors where they with- 
stand high loads and speeds while 
compensating for distortion and 
maintaining shaft rigidit>' under 
blast furnace conditions. 

The self-aligning jet engine ball 
bearing illustrated involves a radial 
and a thrust bearing assembled in 
one-piece self-aligning outer ring. 
All parts must fit together with ex- 
treme precision. Higher mathematics, 
metallurgy, mechanical and aeronau- 
tical engineering are required to 
design and construct such a bearing. 
The Fafnir Bearing Company, New 
Britain, Connecticut. 



and subsequent heat treatment. Their 
results have shown that even if the 
material is cold worked to the point at 
which the magnetic properties are ad- 
\ersely affected, the initial magnetic 
properties may be reco\ered or im- 
proved by a simple heat treatment or 
baking. These reports, however, per- 
tained onh to the larger wire sizes. 
No data were available on the mag- 
netic properties of Cunife drawn to 
wire a few rhciusandths of an inch in 
diameter. 



60 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Ii you're looking 

beyond tomorrovif . . . 




This 9\'t-pound AiReseaich solid propellant powiT package energizes 
the auxiliary systems of a guided missile. It includes an electrical sys- 
tem generating 650 watts and a hydraulic system which activates the 
missile's aerodynamic controls. Participating in its development were 
electronic, hydraulic, mechanical and poiver plant engineers. 



Your first position after graduation 
will determine the direction in 
which you will grow in engineering 
knowledge and ability. 

Garrett offers engineering career 
opportunities which will ex|)and for 
many years to come. 

They include the following in the 
fields of aircraft, missiles and tech- 
nological industry: system elec- 
tronics; computers and flight 
instruments; gas turbine engines 



and turbine motors; prime engine 
develo])ment ; cryogenic and nuclear 
systems; pneumatic valves; servo 
control units and air motors; indus- 
trial turbochargers; air conditioning 
and ])ressurization and heat transfer. 
In addition to direct assignments, 
a 9-month orientation program is 
available to aid you in selecting your 
field of interest. This permits you 
to survey project, laboratory and 
administrative aspects of engineering 



at Garrett. With company financial 
assistance you can continue your edu- 
cation at outstanding universities 
within easy reach of your employ- 
ment. 

Project work is conducted by 
small groups where individual effort 
is more quickly recognized and 
opportunities for learning and 
advancement are enhanced. For full 
information write to Mr. G. D. 
Bradley. 



THE 




985f S. SePUI-VEDA BLVD., LOS ANGELES AS. CALIFORNIA 

DIVISIONS: AIRESEARCH MANUFACTURING. LOS ANGELES • AIRESEARCH MANUFACTURING, PHOENIX • AIRSUPPLY 
AIRESEARCH INDUSTRIAL • REX • AERO ENGINEERING • AIR CRUISERS ' AIRESEARCH AVIATION SERVICE 



DECEMBER, 1957 



61 



MARS outstanding design SERIES 




umbrella'd stadia 



While it isn't always true, an interesting approach 
often results in a good design, as in these twin all- 
weather stadia designed by Harry Barone and Arnold 
Horn, Pratt arehitecturc students. Each bowl would 
be umbrella'd by its own tcntlikc roof of translucent 
plastic, hung from the center of soaring arches. Ac- 
cordion-pleated, these roofs are planned to fold to- 
gether out of the way in fair weather, their lower 
edges riding along the rims of the bowls. Cables that 
guy the arches form a decorative pattern tying the 
two stadia together. The big football-baseball bowl 
would hold 65,000 spectators; the smaller, 20,000. 

No matter which of today's bright ideas become 
tomorrow's reality, it will be as important then as 
it is now to use the best of tools when pencil and 
paper translate a dream into a project. And then, as 
now, there will be no finer tool than Mars — from 
sketch to working drawing. 

Mars has long been the standard of professionals. 
To the famous line of Mars-Technico push-button 
holders and leads, Mars-Lumograph pencils, and 
Tradition-Aquarell painting pencils, have recently 
been added these new products: the Mars Pocket- 
Technico for field use; the efficient Mars lead sharp- 
ener and "Draftsman's" Pencil Sharpener with the 
adjustable point-length feature; and — last but not 
least — the NIars-Lumochrom, the new colored draft- 
ing pencil which offers revolutionary drafting ad\an- 
tages. The fact that it blueprints perfectly is just one 
of its many important features. 



The 2886 Mars-lumograph drowing pencil. 19 
degrees. EXEXB lo 9H. The 1001 Mars-Technico 
push-bullon lead holder. 1904 Mars-lumograph 
imported leads, 18 degrees, EXB lo 9H. Mars- 
lumochrom colored drafting pencil. 24 colors. 



J.S. 



TAEDTLER,INC. 

HACKENSACK, NEW JERSEY 

at all good engineering and drawing material suppliers 



62 



River of Kings . . . 

( (jH/itiiiiii il fro/ii I'lii/c 21 } 

l'owcrhi)usc. Work will lomiiUMKc in 
Jul\, U'^'* or carlifr, and at its com- 
pletion in !')()! , the plant will add 
about 42,()(H) KW to P(i&K's liiu-s 
from its singlf generating unit. 1 he 
cost is estimated at $1 1,300,()(K). 

Water uill be brought to the power- 
house from the Halch afterbay via an 
18,400 ft. tunnel. As the tunnel opens 
a ravine wall 300 ft. above Dinkey 
Creek, a 2,000 ft. welded steel pipe 
iinerted siphon will carr\ the water 
down to and under the creek bed, tlien 
up the opposite bank of the ravine to 
the second section of the tunnel. ()nl\ 
natural siphon force will propel the 
water through the maximum of 114 in. 
diameter pipe. This will prove cheaper 
than building a bridge and piping the 
water straight across, high abtne Din- 
key Creek. 

From the portal of the tunnel, a fiOd 
ft. penstock will plunge the water to 
the powerhouse water wheels. This pen- 
stock will be a 108 in. diameter pipe — 
the greatest girth of any penstock on 
the Kings River Project. 

From the tailrace of the Kings River 
Powerhouse, the water will flow di- 
recth- into Pine Flats Reservoir tor u>e 
b\ irrigationists. 

When the Courtriglu and Wishon 
Dams are completeil and the Haas, 
Balch and Kings River Powerhouses in 
operation, the Kings River Project will 
produce a total of 261,500 KW. New 
220 volt transmission lines and a 110,- 
000 volt circuit installed on the spare 
position of an existing line will trans- 
mit the power to PG&F's Piedra Sub- 
station and to McCall Substation. From 
Piedra, the current will be fed through 
72 circuit miles of new lines and 22 
miles of existing lines into PCi&F's grid 
system to serve 46 counties of Central 
and Northern California. 

On the Feast of the Epiphany, .Janu- 
ai\ f), 1805. a straggling band of Span- 
ish soldiers and priests, led by Captain 
Gabriel Moraga. made camp on the 
banks of an unknown river. In honor 
of the day the\- named the stream F.I 
Rio de los Santos Reyes, "The River 
ot the Holy Kings." In the 152 years 
tli.it have followed, exploration, conflict 
and development have proved the river 
vvell named. Now, when PG&E and 
.M-W-P complete the Kings River Proj- 
ect and the river is harnessed, the riches 
of the Kings' treasure of water power 
will be unlocked to the people and in- 
dustries of California. When that day 
comes, the stream will tnilv hv " 1 lie 
River of Kings." 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



ALLIS-CHAIMERS 

. . . where you can design, build, 
reseorch or sell products like these 
• . . and grow with 3 growth industries 




Opportunities 
in these fields 



CONSTRUCTION 



Road Building Equipment 



Pumps, Blo» 



Cement-Making Equipn 




MANUFACTURING 



You can grow faster in a company that supplies the 
basic needs of growth! Power, construction and 
manufacturing 7nust grow to supply the needs of our 
population which is increasing at the rate of 50,000 
per week. AUis-Chalmers is a major supplier of 
equipment in these basic industries. 

But there's another factor of equal importance: 
AUis-Chalmers Graduate Training Course offers un- 
usual opportunities for the young engineer to: 

• Find the type of work he likes best 

• Develop engineering skill 

• Choose from a wide range of career possibilities 

Allis-Chalmers graduate training course has been 
a model for industry since 1904. You have access 




'^.-. Thermodynamics 
Acoustics 
System Analysis 

(Electrical and 
Mechanical) 

Stress Analysis 

Hydraulics 

Electronics 

Process Engineering 

Mechanical Design 

Structural Design 

Metallurgy 

Nucleonics 

High Voltage Phenomenon 

Analog and Digital Computers 
ij Fluid Dynamics 
J Basic Research 



to many fields of engineering: electric power, hy- 
draulics, atomic energy, ore processing. 

There are many kinds of work to try: design 
engineering, application, research, manufacturing, 
sales. Over 90 training stations are available, with 
expert guidance when you want it. Your future is 
as big as your ability can make it. 

Or, if you have decided your field of interest and 
are well qualified, opportunities exist for direct as- 
signments on our engineering staff. 

In any case — learn more about Allis-Chalmers. 
Ask the A-C manager in your territory, or write 
Allis-Chalmers, Graduate Training Section, Mil- 
waukee 1, Wisconsin. 



ALLIS-CHALMERS <^ 



DECEMBER, 1957 



63 




Synthane laminated plastics report for work 



r 




Printed circuit for popular television receiver 
uses a metal-clad Synthane Lomincte. Sucii a 
circuit eliminates wiring, wiring errors, saves 
space and weight. 



Since the time when the heart of radio was 
the crystal and cat's whisker, Synthane 
laminated plastics have been the recom- 
mended insulation in the vital and ever 
expanding communications industry. 

Turn on your TV or radio and Syn- 
thane goes to work as insulation in coil 
forms, transformers, tuners, plug-ins, 
switches, potentiometers, or as the 
metal-clad base for the entire printed 
circuit. Synthane also qualifies for im- 
portant work in radar, sonar and guided 
missile applications. 

Among the varieties of Synthane lam- 
inated plastics are several with insula- 



tion resistance and dissipation factor ca- 
pable of controlling TV's high frequencies 
— even under tropically humid conditions. 
But Synthane makes over 30 grades — 
each with its own proportion of useful 
mechanical, electrical and chemical vir- 
tues. You can buy Synthane laminated 
plastics in sheet, rod and tube form or 
avail yourself of our complete fabrica- 
tion service. 

We have a number of interesting and 
informative folders on Synthane proper- 
ties and applications. A post card will 
bring them to you promptly. Sjmthane 
Corporation, 13 River Road, Oaks, Pa. 






S^^i 





COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH DIELECTRIC STRENGTH LIGHT WEIGHT WEAR RESISTANCE 



[ SYNTttANE ] 



. industry's unseen essential 



SYNTHANE CORPORATION, 13 RIVER ROAD, OAKS, PA. 



64 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



GRADUATE STUDENT 



summer 
employment 



Write to: 

Personnel Director 
Division 1200 



losfelTalamos 

scientific laboratory 



Of THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIfOR^ 



LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO 



AVHO IS ELIGIBLE— Summer em- 
ployment opportunities at the Los Alamos 
Scientific Laboratory are open to graduate 
students majoring in various physical sciences, 
and undergraduates receiving their degrees 
next June, who intend to continue with ad- 
vanced studies. 

Selection is made by the Laboratory on a basis 
of your record, your experience and interests, 
and the recommendations of your professors. 
The program provides for well-paid summer 
work with renowned scientists in one of the 
nation's most important and best equipped 
laboratories. 

As a summer employee you will become fa- 
miliar with the phases of vital scientific re- 
search and development activity related as 
closely as possible to your field of interest. 
This experience will enable you to appraise 
the advantages of a future career at the 
Laboratory. 

HOW YOU MAY APPLY— Apply 
on the application form (available in your place- 
ment or department office, or by writing to Los 
Alamos immediately ) before January 15, 1958, 
to allow time for review of your qualifications 
and for necessary security clearance, which 
may take three or four months to complete. 
Employment offers are contingent on the grant- 
ing of this clearance by the Atomic Energy 
Commission. Transcripts of all graduate and 
undergraduate work should be submitted. 
Applicants will be notified of the Laboratory's 
decision by April 1, 1958. 

TRAVEL EXPENSES PAID 
TO AND FROM LOS ALAMOS 

Single dormitory quarters are available. 

OPPORTUNITIES FOR 

Experimental Physicisfs 
Nuclear Physicists 
Theoretical Physicists 
Mathematicians 
Metallurgical Engineers 
Chemical Engineers 
Analytical Chemists 
Inorganic Chemists 
Physical Chemists 
Mechanical Engineers 
Electrical Engineers (Electronics) 



DECEMBER, 1957 



65 




IMWWiihtlifciiiiriiiiiftiwiiWliiiilt^^ 



i>immmmmmimmmutm»lt 



Howard hughes 
fellowshiips 

Ten .iwards are open to candidates inter- 
ested in studies leading to a Doctor of 
Phik^sophy or Doctor ot Engineering 
degree or in conducting post-doctoral 
research. 

Each Fellowship provides a cash award 
ot not less than $2000 ... a niiniimiin 
salary of $2500 for summer or part-time 
work ... up to $1500 for tuition, books, 
and research expenses . . . and moving 
and transportation costs. Eligibility is 
based on the completion of one year ot 
graduate work in physics or engineering, 
and qualification for graduate standing at 
Calitornia Institute ot Technology, Uni- 
versity of California (Berkeley), or Stan- 
ford University. Apphcation closing date: 
January 15, ig^S. 

master of science 
fellowships 

One hundred awards are open to partici- 
pants who will complete courses leading 
to the Master of Science degree within 2 
academic years. Tuition, admission fee, 
and books will be provided. During the 
summer and part-time during the aca- 
demic year they will have the oppor- 
tunity to work with experienced Hughes 
scientists and engineers, while receiving 
salaries based upon their ability and 
technical experience. 
Applicant must receive his B.S. degree 
during the coming year in Aeronautical 
Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Me- 
chanical Engineering, or Physics. Partici- 
pant may request his graduate school 
from the following six institutions: Uni- 
versity ot Southern Calitornia, UCLA, 
Stanford University, University' ot Ari- 
zona, Purdue University, or West Vir- 
ginia University. 

Write, specifying appropriate fellowship, to: 
Office oj Advanced Studies 



HUGHES 



RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 
LABORATORIES 

Hughes Aircraft Co., Culver City, CaliJ. 






FOTOt^^ IM O ( /_ 



JNi "THE MEXriOyEA»:^5 
v^-e/LUON BARj^e:/_5 OF 
OIL \A/ILI_SE1 NEEDED • 

wouz_D yoo z_i *<^Ei-ro 

MELLP 05 F/^40T7-\EM ? 



BOX ZI73 ~/A005ToM-~rE:Xr^S- 



68 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




let's put 



"Almost 22% of the 
Company's sales in 
1956 came from 
products developed 
and marketed in the 
last five years" 
—3M Annual Report 



st> slide rule to youz* future ! 




The mind of an engineer is a wonderful 
instrument — tough, fact-oriented, al- 
lergic to illusion, practically a slide 
rule in itself. 

As an engineer-to-be, we suggest you 
use the engineer's hard-boOed "facts 
and figures" approach in measuring the 
dimensions of your opportunity witli 
the 3M Company. For example . . . 

Growth. 3M is a fantastically fast- 
growing company. Sales have nearly 
doubled in the past five years, from 
$170 miUion in 1951 to $330.8 million in 
1956. And, of course, that means that the 
people here are necessarily growing, too! 

New Ideas ! Much of 3M's phenomenal 



growth is the result of receptiveness to 
new ideas. Proof: Although 3M is half 
a century old, more than 22 % of the 
products we are selling this year were 
developed since 1952 . . . Products like 
"Scotchgard" Brand Stain Repeller, 
the ultimate in stain protection for 
furniture and apparel fabrics, and 
"Scotch" Brand Video Recording Tape 
(sound and sight on one tape) which is 
revolutionizing the television industry. 
That means there's a healthy climate at 
3M for your new ideas to get a hearing. 

Sound interesting? Drop us a line, and 
let us tell you more. Minnesota Min- 
ing and Manufacturing Company, 
St. Paul 6, Minnesota. 



IVliNNESOTA Fining and IVIanufacturing 



COMPANY 

where Research is the key to tomorrow 




^^^>S^-N<^ 



DECEMBER, 1957 



69 



(.(. 



They all agree... '^ 



"Since the day we decided to get married, I've been 
doing a lot of thinking about our future. It's time I 
made a choice on a career. I've talked to the Dean of 
Engineering, most of my professors, and to some of the 
fellows who have graduated, and you know, they all 
said the same thing. 

"They all agree that the aircraft and missile industry 
holds the best opportunities and the brightest future for 
an engineer these days. What they said makes sense, 
too, because developments in this field today really give 
a fellow an opportunity to make important contribu-^^ 
tions on vital projects. 

"Not only that, but the aircraft industry is noted for 
its good salaries. Generous benefits, too. And advance- 
ment in both salary and position is limited only by how 
far 1 want to go." 



IT nlimited opportunities, high salaries, company-paid 
' benefits unheard of until a few years ago — these 
are only a few of the reasons why so many young enoi- 
neers with a keen eye to the future are choosing the 
aircraft industry. 

It is only natural that many engineering graduates 
should consider joining Northrop Aircraft, Inc., be- 
cause the company shares its many successes with every '^' 
member of its engineering and scientific team. Ad- 
vanced projects at Northrop are now in production, and 
active top-priority projects mean rapid advancement 
and success for the individual enoincer. 

Such projects include the famous Snark SM-62, 
world's first intercontinental guided missile, now being 
activated in the first United States Air Force missile 
squadron; the USAF T-38 supersonic twin-jet ad- f 
vanced trainer; and other important missile and 
manned aircraft weapon systems and components. 

Engineers in more than thirty categories contribute 
to Northrop's success in an ideal environment with the 
latest tools of science, in its new Engineering Science 
Center. Here you will work with leading scientists and 
engineers who respect, acknowledge, and reward your 
individual ideas and abilities. 

Why not write us now . . . regardless of your class at 
college. Ask us how you might best gain a career with 
Northrop. Write to Manager of Engineering Industrial 
Relations, Northrop Division, Northrop Aircraft, Inc., 
1033 East Broadway, Hawthorne, California. 



© 



NORTHROP 

A Division of Northrop Aircraft, Inc. 

BUILDERS OFTHEFIRSTINTERCONTINENTAL GUIDED MISSILE 




70 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



NEVS^ PRODUCTS CORPORATION 




CAMERAS 



Industry finds integrity, quality and service in NPC products. Mindful of this 

deep responsibility, everyone at NPC continually strives to maintain the 
highest of standards. Tool makers and production craftsmen that take pride 

in their work, utilizing the latest in modern machinery, enable 
NPC to perform a broad service for varied industries. 



aN!lE>v Itroducts (Corporation 

P.O. BOX 666 • BENTON H AR B O R 1, M I C H I G AN 

S/nce 1922 




DECEMBER, 1957 



71 




Where young men work on big jobs 



It takes a lot more than electronic calculators 
and push buttons to run a big refinery like ours 
at Whiting. It takes scientifically trained and 
skilled men. Take, for example, Bill Nemec, who 
shares in the responsibilities of our Refinery 
Economics Division Technical Service group. 
A chemical engineer, Bill came to us from 
the University of Michigan. He and his associ- 
ates work on problems involving chemical 
engineering, economics, cost control and sound 



advance planning. Facing new situations daily, 
they work with many people in the Research 
Center and in the refinery. As a result, they 
gain an ever-widening knowledge of refinery 
operations. 

Sound interesting? Bill Nemec is one of hun- 
dreds of young men with widely varied back- 
grounds, talents and responsibilities building 
careers at Standard Oil's progressive Whiting, 
Indiana, laboratories. 



Standard Oil Company (standard 



910 South Michigan Avenue, Chicogo 80, lllinoi; 



72 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



w- 



MB 




Shown above are aircraft now in various stages of development at Locktieed facilities. Front row — F-104A fighter, T2V trainer, F-104B two seat liyhter-trainer. 

Second row — 1649 Starliner commercial transport, WV2E radar search plane, 1049 Super Constellation. 

Back row — P2V-7 patrol bomber, Electra transport, WV-2 radar search plane. (Not shown: JetStar military transport.) 



f/?^/7?eer5... Which airplane in Lockheed's fleet 
would you be working on? 



■ The wide a.s.'sortmpnt of planes lieinp; 
developed by Lockheed today oH'er.s you 
as an engineer unequaled diver.sification 
in the important field of manned aircraft. 

Included among military and com- 
mercial projects are cargo and passenger 
prop-jet transports; jet fighters, trainers; 
turbo-jet transports; bombers; radar 
search planes; a high altitude test plane. 

Yet the Lockheed plane you would 
work on may no' '^ven be among those 
named. For as this is written, exciting 



new aircraft are taking shape that will 
fly man higher, faster, and farther than 
ever before. 

At present, these undertakings call for 
engineers with superior skill and intelli- 
gence who can ciualify in... 

Aerodynamics 

Thcrinodviiamics 

Flighl Test 

Electronics (including Antenna) 

Structures 

Design 



We invite you to submit your inquiries 
or resume to Mr. E. W. Des Lauriers, 
I\Linager, Professional Employment, 
Dept. 21 12. 1708 Empire Avenue, Bur- 
bank, California. 



LOCKHEED 



THE CALIFORNIA DIVISION OF LOCKHEED AIRCRAFT CORPORATION, BURBANK, CALIFORNIA 



19S8-19'59 

The Ramo->A/ooldridge Fellowships 

for Graduate Study at the 

California institute of Technology 

or the 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

Leading toward the Ph. D. or Sc. D. degree as offered by each institution 

Emphasis in the study program at the California Institute of 
Technology will be on Systems Engineering, and at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology on Systems Engineering or Operations Research. 



The Ramo-Wooldridge Fellowships have been estab- 
lished in recognition of the great scarcity of scientists 
and engineers who have the very special qualifications 
required for work in Systems Engineering and Opera- 
tions Research, and of the rapidly increasing national 
need for such individuals. Recipients of these Fellow- 
ships will have an opportunity to pursue a broad 
course of graduate study in the fundamental mathe- 
matics, physics, and engineering required for careers 
in these fields, and will also have an opportunity to 
associate and work with experienced engineers 
and scientists. 

Systems Engineering encompasses difficult advanced 
design problems of the type which involve inter- 
actions, compromises, and a high degree of optimiza- 
tion between portions of complex complete systems. 
This includes taking into account the characteristics 
of human beings who must operate and otherwise 
interact with the systems. 

Operations Research involves the application of the 
scientific method of approach to complex manage- 
ment and operational problems. Important in such ap- 
plication is the ability to develop mathematical models 
of operational situations and to apply mathematical 
tools to the solution of the problems that emerge. 

The program for each Fellow covers approximately 
a twelve-month period, part of which is spent at The 
Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation, and the remainder at 
the California Institute of Technology or the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology working toward the 
Doctor's degree, or in post-doctoral study. Fellows in 
good standing may apply for renewal of the Fellow- 
ship for a second year. 



ELIGIBILITY The general requirements for eligibil- 
ity are that the candidate be an American citizen who 
has completed one or more years of graduate study in 
mathematics, engineering or science before July 1958. 
The Fellowships will also be open to persons who have 
already received a Doctor's degree and who wish to 
undertake an additional year of study focused specifi- 
cally on Systems Engineering or Operations Research. 
AWARDS The awards for each Fellowship granted 
will consist of three portions. The first will be an 
educational grant disbursed through the Institute 
attended of not less than $2,000, with possible upward 
adjustment for candidates with family responsibilities. 
The second portion will be the salary paid to the 
Fellow for summer and part-time work at The Ramo- 
Wooldridge Corporation. The salary will depend upon 
his age and experience and amount of time worked, 
but will normally be approximately S2,000. The third 
portion will be a grant of $2,100 to the school to cover 
tuition and research expenses. 



APPLICATION PROCEDURE 

For a descriptiie booklet and application forms, 
write to The Ramo-Wooldridge Fellowship 
Committee, The Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation, 
5730 Arhor Vitae Street, Los Angeles 45. Com- 
pleted applications together with reference forms 
and a transcript of undergraduate and graduate 
courses and grades must be transmitted to the 
Committee not later than January 20, 1958. 



The Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation 



STaO ARBOR VrXAE STREEl 



^5. CAt_l FOF 



L.OS ANGEI_E£ 



JE: OREGON e-0311 



74 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Technocracks 



that's a JOKE, Son 



. Something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue.' 



"How do you like your lU'w boss, 
Maviiie ?" 

"Oh. he ain't so bad. Lil. nrd\ he's 
kinda bigoted. " 

"Whadda y'mean, bigoted?" 

"Well, he thinks words can only be 
spelled one way. " 

"We had to shoot our do;^ yester- 
day." 

"Was he mad ? " 

"Well he wasn't exactly pleased about 



Ernie: "My uncle can phu the piano 
b>' ear. " 

Gurne\ : "That's nothing. My uncle 
fiddles with his whiskers." 



"Doesn t your wife miss \nu when 
you stay out till three in the morn- 
ing?" 

"Occasionally — but usually her ami 
is perfect. " 

A fellow was pretty sick and the doc- 
tor ordered him to take a long \ acation 
in Arizona. He went there and at the 
end of two months he died. 

They brought the corpse back home 
and his wife and her brothers were re- 
viewing the remains. 

She said : "Oh, Joe, doesn't he look 
nice. " 

And joe replied: "He sure does. 
Those two months in .Arizona certainh 
did him a lot of good." 



The girl on the bus was reading an 
article on birth and death statistics. 
Suddenly she turned to a scholarly look- 
ing gentleman sitting beside her and 
said. "Do you know that e\er\ time 1 
breathe, a man dies?" 

"Very interesting, " the gentleman re- 
turned. "By the way, have \ou tried 
sen-sen ? " 

"They say bread contains alcohol. " 
"That so? Let's drink a little toast." 

The wife had made a real effort to 
balance her budget and checkbook. 
Finalh' she handed four sheets of figures 
with items and costs neath t\ pe<i to lier 
husband. 



START TODAY TO 
PLAN TOMORROW 

By knowing about some of the projects underway at the 
Babcock & Wilcox Company, an engineer may see his 
personal avenues of growth and advancement. For today 
B&W stands poised at a new era of expansion and 
development. 

Here's an indication of what's going on at B&W, with 
the consequent opportunities that are opening up for 
engineers. The Boiler Division is building the world's 
largest steam generator. The Tubular Products Division 
recently introduced extruded seamless titanium tubing, 
one result of its metallurgical research. The Refractories 
Division developed the first refractory concrete that will 
withstand temperatures up to 3200 F. The Atomic Energy 
Division is under contract by the AEC to design and 
build the propulsion unit of the world's first nuclear- 
powered cargo vessel. 

These are but a few of the projects — not in the plan- 
ning stage, but in the actual design and manufacturing 
phases — upon which B&W engineers are now engaged. 
The continuing, integrated growth of the company offers 
engineers an assured future of leadership. 
How is the company doing right now? Let's look at one 
line from the Annual Stockholders' Report. 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF INCOME 
(Statistics Section) 

(in thousands of dollars) 

1954 1955 1956— UNFILLED ORDERS 

(backlog) 




B&W engineers diMiisi developments 
in the Universal Pressure Boiler. 

Ask your placement officer for a copy of "Opportunities 
with Babcock & Wilcox" when you arrange your inter- 
view with B&W representatives on your campus. Or 
write. The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Student Train- 
ing Department, 161 East 42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



BABCOCK 
* NTf ACOJC 




$129,464 



$213,456 



$427,288 



DECEMBER, 1957 



75 



CAREERS WITH BECHTEL 




James F. Del Curo, Mechanical Engineer. Power Division 

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 

One of a series of interviews in which 
Bechtel Corporation executives discuss 
career opportunities for college men. 



Question: As I understand it. Mr. Del 
Curo. the Power Division is concerned 
with the engineering phases of steam- 
electric generating plants? 

Del Curo: That's true. Our own de- 
partment is specifically concerned with 
the mechanical engineering phases of 
such plants. 

Question; When the engineering grad- 
uate joins your department are his 
starting duties standard? 
Del Curo: Yes. The routines are pretty 
well defined. We know a man learns 
best by actual doing, so he is put to 
work immediately on heat balances, 
line size calculations, specifications, 
miscellaneous and minor auxiliary 
equipment, instrument data sheets and 
information for plant data books. 

Question : In other words, you sort of 

throw the man in and he has to learn 

to swim by himself? 

Del Curo: No. He has plenty of help. 

He works under the direct supervision 

of a job engineer or the mechanical 

group supervisor. 

Question: How long does this training 

phase last? 

Del Curo; That will vary with the man, 

since aptitudes and desires to learn are 



different. The average is somewhere be- 
tween a year and eighteen months. 

Question: During this period he will 
gradually advance to more complicated 
equipment? 

Del Curo: Yes. For example, after a 
while he will be doing original work on 
heat balances and system studies. He 
will be able to take an entire ""piece" of 
a project and handle it on his own re- 
sponsibilitN. He will become involved 
with bigger equipment and with the 
overall aspects of the power plant. 
Somewhere along the line he will likely 
be assigned to try his hand at piping 
materials, piping specifications and 
combined control specificatio:is. 

Question: Wliat about the man who 
wants to specialize? 

Del Curo: If, for example, a man 
shows a particular interest in steam 
turbines, instrumentation or control, 
;md demonstrates a special aptitude for 
one of ihcm. he will often be called on 
to uork on that specialty, without being 
confined to It exclusively. Thus we en- 
courage specialization, even during the 
training period, biit also make sure that 
the \oung man gets overall experience 
through uork in ;dl phases of mechan- 
ical engineering. 



Question : What about field experience? 

Del Curo: That is. of course, highly 
desirable from his standpoint and ours. 
We make every etl'ort to assign the 
young engineer to field work as soon 
as possible. 

Question : What will he do in the field? 

Del Curo: When we are building a 
power plant we try to get the young en- 
gineer on the job five or six months be- 
fore the scheduled start up of the plant. 
He will actually help the chief start up 
engineer by writing up procedures, 
planning the hydraulic washing to 
steam lines, working on the start up of 
each piece of the equipment, checking 
out controls, etc. 

He will also handle paper work such as 
filling out the data sheets that are later 
turned over to the plant operators to 
aid them in running the plant. By the 
time the turbine is rolled and the job 
ends, the young engineer has been able 
to see the end result of all the engineer- 
ing v\ork he and others have done back 
in the office. 

Question: Are there any other types 
of field assignments? 

Del Curo; If the young engineer de- 
sires such experience, he is sometimes 
used in the construction department if 
that group is shorthanded. 



Bechtel Corporation (and its Bechtel for- 
eign subsidiaries) designs, engineers and 
constructs petroleum refineries, petro- 
chemical and chemical plants: thermal, 
hydro and nuclear electric generating 
plants: pipelines for oil and natural gas 
transmission. Its large and diversified en- 
gineering organization offers opportunities 
for careers in many branches and spe- 
cialties of engineering — Mechanical ... 
Electrical . . . Structured . . . Chemical . . . 
Hydraulic. 

Write for new brochures showing the wide 
variety of projects Bechtel builds through- 
out the world. 

Address: John E O'Connelt. 

Vice President. Industrial Relations 

220 Bush Street, San Franci.ico 4. Calif. 




BECHTEL 
CORPORATION 

SAN FRANCISCO 
Los Angeles • New York • Houston 



76 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



For Sikorsky's new 18-acre plant . . . 




Where reliability is the watchword 
JENKINS VALVES were selected 



Reliability has characterized Sikorsky Helicopters 
throughout a long record of military and commercial 
service. A watchword in the building of these versa- 
tile airplanes, reliability also was made the critical 
measure of all equipment for the 18-acre Sikorsky 
plant recently completed in Stratford, Conn. 
On the valves to control much of the complex net- 
work of pipelines, management, architects, engineers 
and contractors found it easy to agree. From long 
experience on many jobs all could be sure of the 
reliability of Jenkins Valves. 
This confidence in the specification "Jenkins", has 
been shared by building experts and plant operating 
men alike for 93 years. The valves that have won this 
great confidence bear the Jenkins Diamond trade- 
mark . . . and they cost no more. Jenkins Bros., 
100 Park Ave., New York 17. 



Architects and Engineers: F. A- Faikbrotmer and George il. imiehls. 
Detroit; with Albert Kahn associated architects A^D 
Engineers, Detroit, as consultants. 

General Contractor: E. & F. Construction Co.. Bridgeport. 

B^echanical Contractor: John Winkie, Tnc , LriT-chmont. N. Y. 




JENKINS VALVES shown controlling heating lines. Used through- 
out the Sikorsky plant on steam, water, air and process piping. 



JENKINS 

LOOK FOR THE JENKINS DIAMOnO 

VALVE S:^^ 



Sold Throush Plumbins-llcating and Industrial Distributors 



DECEMBER, 1957 



n 



^ 



To engineering undergraduat* 

who want to plot a better 



career curve. 



^^^^^^^ 





DOUGI-AS TEAMVtfORK 
HELPS TO RELIEVE 
ENGINEERS OF 
BURDENSOME 
PROJECT DETAil-SI 



There are no "dead end" jobs at Douglas. As part 

of a crack engineering team, you'll be encouraged to use -^gj ^. 

your full talents. Important assignments will give you v;^-"^ -v 

the opportunity for greater accomplishments aP 

and the kind of future you want. Wherever you choose 

to locate — in California or across the nation — 

Douglas has a top assignment for you. 

For important career opportunities in your field, write: 

C. C. LaVENE 

DOUGLAS AIRCRAFT COMPANY, BOX 6101-Q 

SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA 




nai/Gims 



FIRST IN AVIATION 



78 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



A 



O 



o 



Tear out this pn^e for YOUR BEARING NOTEBOOK . . 



How to keep ihe 
world's biggesl 
ripper ripping 



The machine at right does a 
job that dynamite used to. 
Weighing 17 Vi tons, it's the 
world's biggest ripper. In de- 
signing this monster, engi- 
neers faced a load problem. 
The axles of the steel drum 
wheels had to take tremendous 
shock loads as the machine 
ripped five foot furrows in solid 
rock strata. And they had to 
take the heavy radial and thrust 
loads of cross-country travel. 
To handle </// the loads, the 
engineers mounted the wheels 
on Timken" tapered roller 
bearings. 



o 





Slice a Timken bearing in half and see why it takes shock loads 

We case carburize Timken bearing races and rollers to make 
them hard on the outside to resist wear, tough on the inside to 
resist shock. And the taper lets Timken bearings take radial and 
thrust loads in any combination. 




Want to learn more about 
job opportunities? 

Timken bearings make better machines. 
Better machines enrich our lives, give 
us more spare time. It's what the Timken 



Company calls Better-ness. If you'd like 
to know more about Better-ness and 
what it can mean to you, write for: 
"Better-ness and your career at the 
Timken C.ompany". The Timken Roller 
Bearing Company, Canton 6, Ohio. 



TIMKEN 



TAPERED 
ROLLER BEARINGS 



TRADE-MARK REG. U. S. PAT. OFF. 




HOI lUSI » BALI O NOI '"ST « ROLLER QZi) THE TIMKEN TAPERLO ROLLER OT) BEARING TAKES RAOIAL f) AND THRUST -ffl- LOADS OR ANT COMBINATION -©- 



DECEMBER, 1957 



79 



The Illinois Technograph 
Special Award 



This Award Is Presented to: 



ETA KAPPA NU 



c^ 



In recognition of its outstanding contribution 
toward originality and creativeness in literary 
endeavors. 

Through ingenious use of materials and ideas 
for its posters, it has stirred up interest here- 
tofore unknown on North Campus. Few there 
were who did not stop and read the work. 

In recognition of its efforts, this award is pre- 
sented this month of December in the year 
1957. 



-Editors 



(SEAL) 



80 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 





Using a stereoscopic plotter the engi- 
neer can prepare a contour map. The 
photo-anal\'St reads the photographs 
directly for the meaning of earth and 
foliage in determining subsoil charac- 
teristics and much other valuable data. 



In minutes the sur\e\- plane flies over 
the prospective sire, making over- 
lapping stereo photographs. 



A sharp eye in the sky picks plant sites, 
appraises soil and water supply 



Stereo aerial photographs in 
the hands of Donald J. Belcher 
& Associates Incorporated, 
Ithaca, N.Y., reveal a wealth of 
information about a location in 
a fraction of the usual time and 
at far less cost. 

Picking a plant site, determininp; 
drainage and foundation condi- 
tions, routing a liigli\\a\' or pipe- 



line, can mean monrhsof nudging 
toil and sampling. 

But not when you pur photog- 
raphy to work. 

The sharp eye of the depth- 
revealing 3D camera gets every 
detail down on paper where the 
trained analyst can translate the 
photographic record into in\'alu- 
ahle facts tor the engineers. 



\\ hether it is in finding a planr 
site, or in aiding research, im- 
proving a product or increasing 
sales, photography plays an im- 
portant position on industry's 
team. For small companies and 
large, it picks up chores that free 
technical hands for creative work. 
It trains, it sells, it takes oxer 
office routine. You'll find it can 
work for you, too. 



CAREERS WITH KODAK 



With photography and photograpiiic 
processes becoming increasingly im- 
portant in the business and industry of 
tomorrow, there are new and challeng- 
ing opportunities at Kodak in researcii, 
development, design and producrion. 



It you are looking for such an inreresr- 
ing opportunity, write for information 
about careers with Kodak. Address: 
Business and Technical Personnel De- 
partment, Eastman Kodak Company, 
Rochester 4, N. "W 



J 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, Rochester 4, N.Y 




One of a series 




Interview with General Electric's 

W. Scott Hill 

Manager — Engineering Recruiting 

Qualities I Look For 
When Recruiting Engineers 



Q. Mr. Hill, what can I do to get the 
most out of my job lntervie>Ars? 

A. You know, we have the same 
question. I would recommend that 
you have some information on what 
the company does and why you be- 
Heve you have a contribution to 
make. Looking over company in- 
formation in your placement office 
is helpful. Have in mind some of the 
things you would like to ask and try 
to anticipate questions that may 
refer to your specific interests. 

Q. What information do you try to get 
during your interviews? 

A. This is where we must fill in be- 
tween the lines of the personnel 
forms. I try to find out why partic- 
ular study programs have been fol- 
lowed, in order to learn basic motiva- 
tions. I also try to find particular 
abilities in fields of science, or math- 
ematics, or alternatively in the more 
practical courses, since these might 
not be apparent from personnel rec- 
ords. Throughout the interview we 
try to judge clarity of thinking since 
this also gives us some indication of 
ability and ultimate progress. One 
good way to judge a person, I find, 
is to ask myself: Would he be easy 
to work with and would I like to 
have him as my close associate? 

Q. What part do first impressions play 
in your evaluation of people? 

A. I think we all form a first im- 
pression when we meet anyone. 
Therefore, if a generally neat ap- 
pearance is presented, I think it 
helps. It would indicate that you 
considered this important to your- 
self and had some pride in the way 
the interviewer might size you up. 

Q. With only academic training as a 
background, how long will it be before 
I'll be handling responsible work? 



A. Not long at all. If a man joins a 
training program, or is placed direct- 
ly on an operating job, he gets 
assignments which let him work up 
to more responsible jobs. We are 
hiring people with definite consider- 
ation for their potential in either 
technical work or the management 
field, but their initial jobs will be 
important and responsible. 

Q. How will the fact that I've had to 
work hard in my engineering studies, 
with no time for a lot of outside activi- 
ties, affect my employment possibilities? 

A. You're concerned, I'd guess, with 
all the talk of the quest for "well- 
rounded men." We do look for this 
characteristic, but being president 
of the student council isn't the only 
indication of this trait. Through 
talking with your professors, for 
example, we can determine who 
takes the active role in group proj- 
ects and gets along well with other 
students in the class. This can be 
equally important in our judgment. 

Q. How important are high scholastic 
grades in your decision to hire a man? 

A. At G.E. we must have men who 
are technically competent. Your 
grades give us a pretty good indica- 
tion of this and are also a measure 
of the way you have applied your- 
self. When we find someone whose 
grades are lower than might be ex- 
pected from his other characteristics, 
we look into it to find out if there 
are circumstances which may have 
contributed. 

Q. What consideration do you give work 
experience gained prior to graduation? 

A. Often a man with summer work 
experience in his chosen academic 



field has a much better idea of what 
he wants to do. This helps us decide 
where he would be most likely to 
succeed or where he should start his 
career. Many students have had to 
work hard during college or sum- 
mers, to support themselves. These 
men obviously have a motivating 
desire to become engineers that we 
find highly desirable. 

Q. Do you feel that a man must know 
exactly what he wants to do when he is 
being interviewed? 

A. No, I don't. It is helpful if he 
has thought enough about his in- 
terests to be able to discuss some 
general directions he is considering. 
For example, he might know whether 
he wants product engineering work, 
or the marketing of technical prod- 
ucts, or the engineering associated 
with manufacturing. On G-E train- 
ing programs, rotating assignments 
are designed to help men find out 
more about their true interests be- 
fore they make their final choice. 

Q. How do military commitments affect 
your recruiting? 

A. Many young men today have 
military commitments when they 
graduate. We feel it is to their ad- 
vantage and ours to accept employ- 
ment after graduation and then ful- 
fill their obligations. We have a 
limited number of copies of a De- 
partment of Defense booklet de- 
scribing, in detail, the many ways in 
which the latter can be done. Just 
write to Engineering Personnel, 
Bldg. 36, 5th Floor, General Electric 
Company, Schenectady 5, N. Y. 959-8 



*LOOK FOR other interviews dis- 
cussing: • Advancement in Large 
Companies • Salary • Personal 
Development. 



GENERAL 




ELECTRIC 



1 








■ 
■ 





JAisiUARY 2 




Did you ever hear 
atoms move? 



The physicist positions a single crystal of age-hardened 
steel under the sharp diamond penetrator. He touches 
a pedal, and the pyramidal tip of the diamond squeezes into 
the polished surface of the steel. 

The instant that it touches, things begin to happen inside the 
crystal. Atoms begin to slip and slide, in layers. Some layers 
abruptly wrinkle and corrugate. If you listen hard when this 
happens, you hear a faint, sharp, "click." This is the sound 
of atoms suddenly shifting within the crystal. 

You can see the action, too— or, rather, the results of it. 
The photomicrograph above shows the characteristic ridges 
and ripples. The black diamond in the center is the depres- 
sion made by the penetrator. 

By studying these patterns, and correlating the information 
with other data, scientists at U. S. Steel are trying to learn 
what happens atomically when a steel is bent, flexed or 
broken. Thus, they try to develop new and better steels for an 
exacting and ever-growing steel market. 

Research is only one area in which we need high-level scien- 
tific personnel. Partly, this is due to the fact that men progress 
so rapidly at United States Steel. Remember these figures: 
among the 20,000 members of our management team, 99% 
attained their position through advancement within the cor- 
poration. If you want to take advantage of odds like this, 
write for our booklet, "Paths of Opportunity." 
Write to United States Steel, Personnel 
Division, Room 5680, 525 William Penn 
Place, Pittsburgh 30, Pennsylvania. 



® 



UNITED STATES STEEL 



Editor 

Dennis Lantz 
Pat Gaganidze, Ass't. 

Production Editor 

Arlene Hornick 

Business Manager 

Roger Harrison 

Circulation Director 

Arlene Hornick 
Kay Goldsmith, Ass't. 

Editorial Staff 

Lowell Burgin 

Jim Gill 

Donna Zverow 

Production Staff 

Ronald Berry- 
Fred Foreman 
Robert Hilgenberg 
Lawrence Residori 
James Smith 
Donna Toika 
Paul Tyner 

Circulation Staff 

Sue Barnett 

Jim Gerstle 

Bob Nakamura 

Photo Staff 

George Knobloch 

Harry Levin 

Dave Moore 

Dave Yates 

Contributors 

George Carruthers 

Ruth Kahn 

Raymond Norton 

Phil Philhower 

Faculty Advisers 

R. W. Bohl 
P. K. Hudson 
0. Livermore 



Chairman: Prof. R. W. Bohl, 
University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 
Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, City College Vector, Colorado 
Engineer, Cornell Engineer, Denver Engi- 
neer, Drexel Technical Journal, Georgia Tech 
Engineer, Illinois Technograph, Iowa En- 
gmeer, Iowa Transit, Kansas Engineer, 
Kansas State Engineer, Kentucky Engineer, 
Louisiana State University Engineer, Louisi- 
ana Tech Engineer, Manhattan Engineer, 
Marquette Engineer, Michigan Technic, -Min- 
nesota Technolog, Missouri Shamrock, Ne- 
braska Blueprint, New York University 
Quadrangle, North Dakota Engineer, North- 
western Engineer, Notre Dame Technical 
Review, Ohio State Engineer, Oklahoma 
State Engineer, Oregon State Technical Tri- 
angle, Pittsburgh Skyscraper, Purdue Engi- 
neer, RPI Engineer. Rochester Indicator, 
SC Engineer, Rose Technic. Southern Engi- 
neer, Spartan Engineer, T 
neer, Washington Engii 
nometer, Wayne Engine: 
Engineer. 



THE ILLINOIS 

TECHNOGRAPH 



Volume 73, Number 4 



January, 1958 



A & M Engi- 
r. WSC Tech- 
and Wisconsin 



ARTICLES: 

Future of the Highway Phil Philhower 18 

The Automotive Industry Rolls On 22 

Atomic Events 24 

New Developments in Jet Aircraft 25 

High Temperature Photos 27 

Architecture at the U. of I Lowell Burgin 53 

Patent Laws Raymond Norton 55 

Tiniest Tugboat 64 

FEATURES: 

Editorial 17 

The Theory Jack Built 28 

L.A.R. at Night 29 

Brainteasers edited by Donna Zverow 33 

Crated a short story by Ruth Kahn 34 

Technocutie by Dave Moore 45 

Engineering Madness 58 

Begged, Borrowed, and . . edited by Donna Zverow 80 



Cover 

In keeping with major articles on American highways and 
the automotive industry. Donna Toika designed this abstraction 
of a highway scene. 



Copyright, 19;s, Ia Illini I'ublishing (\,. I'ulili>hc,l eight times during the year (Octo- 
ber. November. U.niiilii, Linuary, February, -March, April and .May) by the Illini 
Publishing Comian'. I111.1..I as second class m.-itter, October 30, 1920, at the post 

office at Urban.i. Ill 1-. under the Act of March J, 1879. Office 215 Engineering 

Hall, Urbana, llliuuis. i-ul.scriptions $1.50 per year. Single copy 25 cents. All rights 
resen-ed bv The Illinois Technograph. Publisher's Rcpresentativi^ Littell-Murray-Bani- 
hill, 605 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago II. 111. .^69 Lexington Ave., New York IT, 
New York. 



Picture Yourself in 
Petroleum Chemistry 
at Phillips 




What do you see? Are you helping design a 
fractionation unit? Developing a new 
rocket propellent? Perhaps you're con- 
structing a new polyethylene reactor . . . 
or working on an improved octane num- 
ber system. 

Petroleum chemistry is important at 
PhUlips . . . but so are gasoline refining, 
uranium processing, pipe line design, oil 
geology and exploration, research and the 
dozens of other activities which are essen- 
tial to Phillips broad and diversified oper- 
ations. The wide selection of possibilities 
available in these various specialties en- 



ables you to choose a career that matches 
your education and interests. 

During the past ten years PhiUips has 
expanded tremendously. Many important 
new developments are still in the making. 
So when the Phillips representative comes 
to this campus, be sure to arrange for an 
interview. Meanwhile, write to our Tech- 
nical Manpower Division for your copy 
of our new brochure, "Career With A 
Future". 



D. R. McKeithan, Director 

Technical Manpower Division 

PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY 

Bartlesville, Oklahoma 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 





A GREAT NEVS/ FIELD 
OF RUBBER RESEARCH 
-AND A FIELD DAY FOR 
GOODYEAR ENGINEERS 




Few materials are more vulnerable 
to radiation than rubber. So it seems 
quite certain that atomic-powered 
aircraft of the future will need 
radiation-resistant tires. 

Such tires may well emerge from 
the strange and somber room you 
see here— the "cave" of the new 
Goodyear Radiation Laboratory. 

Within these massive walls, a 17- 
foot aluminum- and concrete-lined 
well holds hundreds of tiny slugs of 
Cobalt 60. 

Working with this powerful, radio- 
active material, Goodyear engineers 
hope to discover why rubber turns 



hard and brittle when exposed to 
radiation. And they hope to open up 
a whole new field of rubber research, 
from which may stem not just air- 
plane tires that resist atomic radia- 
tion—but a host of other advances as 
well. Among them: cooler-running 
auto and truck tires, new synthetic 
rubbers, and food pasteurized 
through radiation. 

This important project is one of 
many at Goodyear that offer unusual 
opportunities and rewards to chem- 
ical engineers. There are other 
opportunities in Production, in Fun- 
damental Research, in pilot plant 
work and in Sales. 



In fact, we need engineers of all 
kinds to test their training skills 
on a wide range of products — tires, 
Airfoam, Pliofilm, Shoe Products, 
Industrial Rubber Products -and a 
long list of familiar items produced 
by — but not always identified with 
— Goodyear. 

If you're interested in a job and a 
lifetime of useful accomplishment, 
you'll very likely find both in the 
Goodyear organization. How about 
dropping us a line? Write: The 
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, 
Technical Personnel, Dept. 806-W, 
Akron 16, Ohio. 



There's a World of 

Opportunity at 



GOOD 



T 



THE GREATEST NAME IN RUBBER 



JANUARY, 1958 




Ernst Macn...on aLsolutes 



No one is competent to assert things about abso- 
lute space and absolute motion ; tney are pure 
matters of thought that cannot be produced in 
experience. All our principles of mechanics, as we 
have shown in detail, are experienced knowledge 
concerning the relative positions and motions of 
bodies. They could not be. and were not. admitted 



in the areas in which they are now recognized as 
valid, without previous testing. No one is war- 
ranted in extending these principles beyond the 
boundaries of experience. In fact, such an exten- 
sion is meaningless, as no one would possess the 
knowledge to make use of it. 
^^Die Mecnanik in inrer Entwicklung, 1912 



THE RAND CORPORATION. SANTA MONICA. CALIFORNIA 

A nonprofit org.ini/iilion enKagcil in rcscarcli on probkins related to niilion.il security and llie public interest 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




ENGINEER YOUR FUTURE AT BENDIX 



Your future success as an engineer 
depends on a variety of circumstances, 
some of which you may influence, 
others which you cannot. Fortunately, 
the odds are heavily in favor of those 
who plan intelligently and well. That 
is why we urge you to gi\'e your 
future the same painstaking study and 
thought you would accord any diffi- 
cult engineering problem. We believe 
you will make a wise decision if you 
plan your engineering future with 
Bendi.x. And here is why: 

Bendix is one of the nation's largest 
and most diversified engineering- 
research-manufacturing firms. The 
creative ability and ambition of 
Bendix engineers have contributed 



importantly to this growth. 

Then, too, Bendix is decentralized 
— with twenty-four semi-autonomous 
divisions located throughout the 
country. Nine of these have been 
created or acquired since 1950. They 
ofTer a broad range of opportunities 
for personal recognition and rapid 
advancement in a wide variety of 
interesting technical fields. 

Opportunities await the young engi- 
neer qualified in such diverse fields 
as electronics, electromechanics, ultra- 
sonics, systems, computers, automa- 
tion and controls, radar, nucleonics, 
combustion, air navigation, hydrau- 
lics, instrumentation, propulsion, 
metallurgy, communications, carbu- 



A thousand products 




retion, solid state physics, aerophysics 
and structures. Working with the 
country's leading engineers, you will 
ha\e chances aplenty to develop your 
talents to the limits of your capability. 
Make it a "must" to meet the 
Bendix representatives when they \isit 
your campus, or write today for fur- 
ther information concerning Bendix' 
progressive personnel policies. Inroad 
educational assistance program, and 
other personal iienefits. See your 
college placement director or ad- 
dress your inquiry to Dr. Gerald A. 
Rosselot, Director of University 
and Scientific Relations, Bendix 
A\iation C'orporation, 1106 Fisher 
Building, Detroit 2, Michigan. 



a million ideas 



JANUARY, 1958 




WEAR IT! 



Lo?t to hip profession . . . liis personal poals destroyed 
... a talented enjrineer reslrieled to detail work by an 
inappreeiative inana<:enienl. But it need not happen! 
.Shrewd analysis of the prospeetive eonipany's future, 
its leadersliij) and initiative will ^iiide an intelligent 
person to a rewartlin;: future. 

Not many companies can say that they ])laee a pre- 
mium on creative ahility and initiative and back it up 
with an outstanding; record. Linde Com|)any can. how- 
ever, point to its world renowned work in such fields as 
atmospheric gases . . . welding processes and equipment 



. . . the hrio;ht new world of synthetic crystals, and many 
others. As a result of this outstanding record, there are 
>onie very desirable positions available ... but with very 
definite requirements. 

There are career opportunities at LlNDE in research 
and development, jiroduction, sales, and staff positions, 
^ou can find out more from your Placement Officer. 
Ask for the booklet "Look to LiNDE For Your Future," 
or write to Mr. Paul 1. Enich, Central Recruiting Office, 
Linde Company, Division of l^nion Carbide Corpora- 
tion, 30 East 42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



A LEADER FOR 50 YEARS 

Tlic terms "Linde" and "Union Carliide" arc registered trademarks of UCC. 




inde 






L,,, 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Horvey Graves (Dortmooth, BA '50, MSEE '51 ) discusses a reactor experiment at the Westinghouse Reactor Evaluation Center, in Waltz Mill, Pa. As manager 
of the Nuclear Design Section, Mr. Graves works with Dr. Wilfried Bergmann (Vienna, PhD '51), on right, and other young scientists who operate the facility. 



At 30, Harvey Graves directs nuclear design 
of two major Westinghouse reactors 



After completing the Westinghouse Student Training 
Course in 1951, Harvey Graves attended the West- 
inghouse Advanced Design Course* and was sent by 
Westinghouse to the Oak Ridge School of Reactor 
Technology for one year. Back at Westinghouse again 
in 1953, Engineer Graves did advanced work on nuclear 
reactor development. 

In 1955, he was promoted to supervisory engineer 
on the Belgian reactor project. In 1956, he was again 
promoted to Manager, Westinghouse Nuclear Design 
Section. Today, Mr. Graves' 24-man section is develop- 
ing and designing the nuclear portion of commercial 
reactors for the Yankee Atomic Electric Company and 
the Center d'Etude de I'Energie Nucleaire in Belgium. 

•Fully accredited graduate school 

JANUARY, 1958 



Progress? Certainly. And if you have ability and 
ambition, you'll find Westinghouse offers equal engi- 
neering opportunities in automation, jet age metals, 
radar, semiconductors, electronics, large power equip- 
ment, guided missile controls and dozens of other 
fascinating fields. 

For more information on professional opportuni- 
ties at Westinghouse, write to Mr. J. H. Savage, West- 
inghouse Electric Corporation, 3 Gateway Center 
Pittsburgh 30, Pa. 

Westinghouse 

FIRST IN ATOMIC PO>VER 



YOU SEE BOTH THE FOREST AND THE TREES AT COLUMBIA-SOUTHERN 

Why learn only about trees when there's so much to learn about the forest? 
Yet, careers with some companies mean just that for many promising en- 
gineers. They become tree experts, literally speaking, never getting the 
chance to find out what's happening in the business forest around them. 
Capable young engineers are establishing their careers with Columbia- 
Southern Chemical Corporation. Here they find varied and interesting 
assignments, a wide range of products, challenging programs and expand- 
ing facilities in a company known as a growth leader in the fast moving 
chemical field. Columbia-Southern affords promising young men the op- 
portunity to utilize all their skills and knowledge in finding laboratory 
and marketing answers, developing products and researching ideas 
throughout many different fields of interest. If you want a career where 
you learn about both the forest and the trees, write to the Personnel Man- 
ager at our Pittsburgh address or to the nearest Columbia-Southern Plant. 

COLUMBIA-SOUTHEKN 
CHEMICAL COKPOKATION 



SUBSIDIARY OF PITTSBUR.&H PLATE CLASS COMPANT 

0N( GATEWAY CENTER PITTSBURGH 11 PEHNSTLVANIA 



OFFICES IN PRINCIPAl CITIES 
PLANTS Borberlon, Ohio* Borllelt.Ccliforr 
Corpu! Chnsti, Texas'Loke Chorlei, I 
New Mortinsville, West Virginia ' 

Cify, New Jeney 
IN CANADA; Slondard Chemical 

and its Commercial Chemicalt Divliion 





THE TECHNOGRAPH 



THE LOCKHEED MISSILE SYSTEMS 

Advumal Stiuly Program for 

M.S. and Ph.D. DEGREES 

in science and engineering 

University of California at Los Angeles • University of Southern California 
University of California at Berkeley • Stanford University 

The Gracluati' StvicU' Council offers an Ad\ancecl Stud\' Program to enable 
tiualifitd indi\iduals to obtain M.S. or Ph.D. degrees. Under this program the 
participants are employed in their chosen fields of research and development 
at Lockheed .Missile Systems while concurrently pursuing graduate study. 

Eligible students must be U.S. citizens holding M.S. or B.S. degrees 
in fields of Engineering, Mathematics and Science applicable to missile 
systems research and development. 

Students are in\ited to contact their Placement Officer for additional information 
or write: 








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do justice to 
your designs? 



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you're halfway there when you pick up an EAGLE 

TURQUOISE drawing pencil. For one thing, no pencil on the 

market can match TURQUOISE for smoothness and consistency — 

thanks to Eagle's exclusive" "Electronic" graphite. What's more, 

every TURQUOISE has a strong needle point that just won't 

crumble — and stays sharp for line after long line of 

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erase without a trace, leave nary a 

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look sharp — and you, too! 



EAGLE "CHtmi * SEALED" TURQUOISE DRflUJinG 



• TURQUOISE DRAWING PENCILS: With 100% ^"Electronic" graphite. 17 grades, 6B through 9H. 



■ EAGLE rr^us^ 408 



t 



U-UAXfMJOriAJl 
■ CLEVKNTEX- 





• TURQUOISE CLEANTEX ERASER: , TURQUOISE DRAWING LEADS: Fit any standard holdei.. Grades SB through 9H. 

Super-soft, non-abrasive rubber. 



M« u5..^;s;^ EA6LE TURQUOISE 3379 



• TURQUOISE LEAD HOLDERS: Hold any grade of Turquoise lead— so firmly that lead cannot be pressed back. 



EAGLE TURQUOISE 

aie the largest-selling drawing materials in the United States ! 



PENCILS, 
LEADS AND 
HOLDERS 



EAGLE PENCIL COMPANY . NEW YORK . LONDON . TORONTO • MEXICO • SYDNEY • BOGOTA 



10 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




A MASTER'S DEGREE FOR SELECTED 
ENGINEERING GRADUATES 



You can get your Master's Degree during regular working hours, 

while earning the salary and all the benefits of a Chrysler Corporation engineer. 

At the same time, you will be preparing for a rewarding career as 

a member of the automotive engineering team that is the leader in the industry. 

Look at some of the advantages to students who qualify: 

• Master's Degree in Automotive Engineering in two years. 

• Regular salaried status. 

• Classes 8 hours a week, during work hours. 

• No tuition, no fees. 

• Broad work experience, through job rotation on 3-month assignments. 

• An opportunity to concentrate in the fields you select. 

Like to learn more? Contact your college Placement Office for full details about the 

Chrysler Institute's Graduate Program and interview dates. If you need any 

additional information, write: Mr. R. W. Rockefeller, P.O. Box 1118, Detroit 31, Michigan. 



CHRYSLER 



INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 
GRADUATE SCHOOL 
DETROIT, MICHIGAN 



JANUARY, 1958 



11 



If NEW WORLDS 

are your oyster 



^19 



\m 



D awe 4.0c car 



HerscKe 
ConVinent 



<ftX 



^,Jo,^C?^t7^ 



'i-aUi. 



M 



(DcLa-Kut/ 
Ocean / 



l^i 



'"•Ait: 



'otitiTijeni 



iaceLan 



Cont ■ 



Mkd 1 cr 

Jont? 



], '^yc'h' 



vSta- 






^'^A 



Map of Mars by Richard A. Proctor drawn in 1867. Follow- 
ing the usage generally adopted for the features of the 
moon, Proctor named the features after astronomers, 
especiall astronomers who hod observed Mors. From the 
book, "The Exphralion of Mors" by Wi//y ley ond Werner 
I Von Braon. (Viking Press) 



FOR DETAILS 

on these engineering positions in the fields of design, test, liaison, 
development, vibration, analysis . . . v^rite to Mr. Timothy K. Bye, 
Engineering Personnel Coordinator at 

HAMILTON STANDARD • division of united aircraft corp. 



12 



you should explore 
the opportunities at 

HAMILTON 
STANDARD 



If you have a pioneering instinct . . . and you 
would like to join a talented team of 
scientists who are blazing new trails through 
outer space in the fields of missile, rocket and 
advanced aircraft equipment . . . here is your 
passport. You will be joining o dynamic 
engineering organization which has recorded 
uninterrupted growth for over 38 years, and is 
nOwfarine;tcessof its wartime employment peak. 



100 BRADLEY FIELD RD., WINDSOR LOCKS, CONN. 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Chemistry is engaged in 

the vital transformations 

of the universe 

Since the time of Ancient Greece, man has been prob- 
ing into the composition of the elements from whic'n he 
derives existence and sustenance. And these first at- 
tempts, crude and unorganized as they may now seem, 
nevertheless marked the first advance toward some 
understanding of matter. Thcreb)' chemistry was born. 
What progress has been accomplished since the Aris- 
totehan doctrine of the four elements! Man advanced 
from there to the alchemist's arcanum, and ultimately 
to the harnessing of the atom by our modern scientists! 
How far will the search go? So many secrets are yet to 
be unearthed. The scientific mind is understandably en- 
thralled by the magnitude of the task ahead. And the 
enchantment, too, for the mystery is irresistible. Partic- 
ularly when the solution means triumph over discoveries 
apt to profoundly influence generations to come. 
It is a tremendous challenge. But the true scientist's 
thirst for knowing, advancing, creating is only hmited 
by his vision and his courage before the unknown. 

. . . and you, too, can help 
shape the future 

See for yourself. WrHe our Director of College Rela- 
tions. He luill .wnd you our booklet "Opportunities For 
College Trained People With The Dow Chemical Com- 
pany" and tell you tvhcn a Dow representative will visit 
your campus. 




THE DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY. MIDLAND. MICH. 



UOMSf 



JANUARY, 1958 



13 



Clock generator and 
power supply unit 




Input-output unit 



The Importance of 
DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 



Digital techniques constitute one of the important devel- 
opments which have made possible the recent advances in 
computers and related equipment for computation, data 
processing, and industrial and military electronic control. 

Digital computers for scientific computation range from 
small specialized units costing a few thousand dollars, to 
large general-purpose computers costing over a million 
dollars. One of these large computers is a part of the Ramo- 
Wooldridge Computing Center, and a second such unit is 
being installed early this year. 

Electronic data processing for business and industry is 
rapidly growing based on earlier developments in electronic 
computers. Data processors have much in common with 
computers, including the utilization of digital techniques. A 
closely related field is that of industrial process control. To 
meet the needs in this field. Ramo-Wooldridge has recently 
put on the market the RW-300 Digital Control Computer. 

The use of digital techniques in military control systems 
is an accomplished fact. Modern interceptor aircraft, for 
example, use digital fire control systems. A number of Ramo- 



Wooldridge scientists and engineers have pioneered in this 
field, and the photograph above shows the RW-30 Airborne 
Digital Computer. 

The RW-30 is an example of what can be accomplished 
through the application of digital techniques in conjunction 
with modern semiconductor components. It performs com- 
plete mathematical operations, including multiplications, at 
the rate of 4000 per second (as fast as large scientific com- 
puters). Yet it occupies only 4.19 cubic feet, weighs 203 
pounds and uses 400 watts power. It is packaged in four 
separate units to facilitate installation in aircraft. The mag- 
netic drum memory has a capacity of 2607 21-bit words. 

The versatility inherent in digital techniques makes it pos- 
sible for the RW-30 to handle such varied military aircraft 
problems as navigation, armament control and bombing, and 
combinations of these problems, without changes in the 
RW-30 itself. 

The RW-30 also serves to illustrate the balanced integra- 
tion of systems analysis and product engineering which is a 
principal objective at Ramo-Wooldridge. Similar programs 
are in progress on other airborne and electronic control sys- 
tems, comniiinication and navigation systems, and electronic 
instrumentation and test equipment. Engineers and scientists 
are invited to explore openings in these fields at Ramo- 
Wooldridge. 



The Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation 



■»730 ARBOR VITAE STREET 



-4GEL.E3 45. CAUIFC^R^4I/ 



14 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



"Fm in the business 



and I know... 



"Not too long ago I was in the same situation yon 
fellows are in now. Senior year and the big de- 
cisions. What am 1 goiwg to do with my education? 
What am I going to do for a living? 

"Well, 1 talked to a niimher of ^>eople and did as 
much letter writing and looking aro^ind as 1 cotdd. 
The way 1 figured it, I wanted opportunity . ..a fair 
chance to put my capabilities to work and to be 
recognized for what I could do. Of course, I wanted 
to be well paid, too. It all seemed to add up to the 
aircraft industry . . . and to me it still does. 

"In the space of just a few years I've worked on 
quite a few projects, important projects that some 
day may mean a great deal to this country. They 
sure meant a lot to me. And I wasn't standirig still 
either. My salary and my respo^tsibilities have 19- 
creased with each promotioti. That means lots of 
challenges, 7iew and tojigh problems that we have to 
solve, hut that's the way 1 like it. So, if you want 
some advice from this "old grad," choose the aircraft 
industry. It's the wisest choice, I'm in the business 
and 1 know." 



Probably no other industry in America has grow] 
so fast and advanced so far in a short time as has 
the aircraft industry. And yet there is no limit to 
how far man's inventiveness and imagination can 
push the boundaries. Radical new concepts tha^ 
would ha\ e been unthought of just a few years ago 
are the drawing-board problems of today. 

Truly aviation is still in the pioneering stage, and 
one of the leaders is Northrop Aircraft, which has 
been making successful contributions to our 
nation's defense for o\er 18 years. Projects such as 
the Snark SM-62, world's first intercontinental 
guided missile, have identified Northrop as a suc- 
cessful pioneer. And new aircraft such as the super- 
sonic, twin-jet T-38 advanced trainer are maintain- 
ing this reputation. 

Let us tell you more about what Northrop can 
offer you. Write now, regardless of your class, to 
Manager of Engineering Industrial Relations, 
Northrop Division, Northrop Aircraft, Inc., 1034 
East Broadway, Hawthorne, California. 



© 



NORTHROP 



A Division of N orthrop Aircraft, Inc. 

BUILDERS OF THE FIBSTINTERCONTINENTAL GUIDED MISSILE 




JANUARY, 1958 



15 




Where young men work on big jobs 



It takes a lot more than electronic calculators 
and push buttons to run a big refinery hke ours 
at Whiting. It takes scientifically trained and 
skilled men. Take, for example, Bill Nemec.who 
shares in the responsibilities of our Refinery 
Economics Division Technical Service group. 
A chemical engineer. Bill came to us from 
the University of Michigan. He and his associ- 
ates work on problems involving chemical 
engineering, economics, cost control and sound 



advance planning. Facing new situations daily, 
they work with many people in the Research 
Center and in the refinery. As a result, they 
gain an ever-widening knowledge of refinery 
operations. 

Sound interesting? Bill Nemec is one of hun- 
dreds of young men with widely varied back- 
grounds, talents and responsibilities building 
careers at Standard Oil's progressive Whiting, 
Indiana, laboratories. 



Standard Oil Company (standard 



910 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago 80, Illinois 



16 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



from the Editor's Desk . . . 



Investment Policy — 



The word is out. The news is being botled bock and forth during 
coffee sessions: engineers ore in demand. It's a familiar theme, and 
true enough, a situation that Sputnik only served to intensify. The jobs 
ore there, the salaries are high, and still there aren't enough trained 
personnel. If you believe some stories, you'd figure that they're buying 
anyone with a diploma and a worm body. 

It's easy to grow lax in such a situation, counting on demand to 
replace the need for ability and a good academic record. A good 
record in technical courses is necessary, certainly, for we are hardly 
fair to ourselves or our employers if we have not mastered our re- 
quired subjects. 

Let's not forget, however, that there's more in the picture than 
lab grades. Business is searching as never before for something in an 
engineer other than the ability to play tricks with a slide rule. Finding 
people with something other than technical knowledge is becoming a 
big job for the industries— because they aren't finding enough people 
with that blend of talent. 

Sales, application, and management in this technological society 
of ours now requires not only general, but technical knowledge as well. 
That's understandable in a machine age. People, though, aren't ma- 
chines, and thermodynamics won't help when handling the human 
factor. 

Sure, technical courses are time consuming, but if you've any 
hope of cashing in on the demand for engineers with a broad back- 
ground, remember that now you're getting that background. 

Or are you? There ore ample rewards, both personal and finan- 
cial, for you if you have that liberal knowledge. Now, at the begin- 
ning of a new semester, is the time to start acquiring it. Take a few 
South-Campus courses now, and begin that investment in your own 
future. 

DEL 



JANUARY, 1958 17 



A complete network of superhighways 
will span the United States by 1975 



Future of the 
Highway 



The road ahead is going to be smooth, 
safe and swift. 

The nation has started building the 
greatest network of roads ever con- 
ceived by man. By 1971, there will ex- 
ist some 50 billion dollars worth of 
roads, most of which are not on your 
road maps toda\. 

This is the biggest building project 
in history — 60 times greater than the 
Panama Canal. It also is the first time 
in American history that our nation has 
promise of completing a planned system 
of highways in a given number of years. 

When finished, the project will affect 
directly more Americans than an\thini: 
our nation ever htis built. 

T?ut if blueprints are going to become 
hi<;hwa\s, you ha\e a part to pla\'. For 
tile law that launched this mammoth 
project has provided that the voice of 
the public shall be heard as the program 
luifolds. Rarely has the individual been 
given such an important role in a pub- 
lic works project. 

This has been written to help you 
act wiselv. In nontechnical terms, it e\- 



18 



plains provisions of the bill, details of 
construction, the history of road build- 
ing in the United States, and the results 
you may expect. 

Only om' nation could ha\'e the \i- 
sion for such a vast program. For only 
America has tlie need for it . . . and 
the resources to see it through to com- 
pletion. And only America . . . un- 
awed by bigness . . . could start such 
a program without a doubt of its suc- 
cess. 

With tlie help of informed citizens 
like yourself, it will succeed. 

If \()u own a car ... if you take an 
hour dri\ing 12 miles to work ... if 
\()u ha\e spent an otherwise pleasant 
summer Sunday creeping through one 
bf)ttleneck after another ... if \nu have 
had a friend or relati\e killed or maimed 
in a traffic accident . . . you are one of 
the originators of this program. 

I"ach ye.-ir it had become more obvi- 
ous that the I nited States — the most 
mobile nation on earth — was being 
stiangled bv poor roads. And the out- 
look was frightening. In 1956, there 



were 65 million \ehicles on the road. 
B\- 1975, this figure is expected to be 
well over 90 million. Unless something 
was done — and done immediately — you 
soon would be able to move just as 
quickly by horse and buggy — as, indeed, 
\ou can in some of our large cities 
tod ay. 

So it was the weight of public opin- 
ion, more than anything else, that was 
responsible for starting this gigantic pro- 
gram on June 29, 1956. 

( )n that day the President signed into 
law the "Federal-Aid Highway Act of 
I'l^h," the deceptively undramatic title 
of the legislation which signaled the be- 
ginning of the greatest building project 
in history. 

Although this magnificent system of 
modern highways is authorized by a 
Federal act and will be paid for mainly 
by Federal money, the building will be 
the job of the 48 individual states. 

In the United States, road building 
is traditionally the job of the states. 
Tiiere are no Federal highways in the 
I'm'ted States, except those roads which 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 




by Phil Philhower 



arc on Federal land. The L . S. Route 
signs you see along highways are mere- 
ly for the convenience of travelers. Such 
roads were built as individual state 
roads and then linked together with a 
common I'. S. Route number. 

The new roads will be a state re- 
sponsibility except for those in national 
forests and parks. The states, working 
together, helped plan the routes. The 
states will make the surveys, plans and 
specifications. The states will let the con- 
tracts. The states will supervise con- 
struction and will be responsible for 
maintenance. 

In all these fimctions, the states will 
have the expert help and guidance of 
the U. S. Bureau of Public Roads, the 
Federal agency which will coordinate 
this gigantic program. 

Bin'Iding of roads in this country is 
a state function. But in 1916 the Fed- 
eral government began to contribute 
money to states to help them build 
roads. 

At first, this money could be spent 
on .-Hiy road used to carr\- mail. But in 



1921 use was restricted to a system of 
roads now known as the — 

Primary System. This is the general 
network of main highways selected by 
the states for improvement with Feder- 
al assistance. Between the two Worhi 
Wars, much of this vast system was 
built, largeh' as two-lane highways. The 
states were requiied to match the 
amount of money which they recei\ed 
from the Federal go\ernment. And the 
money was granted to the states on the 
basis of their area, population and their 
mileage of rural mail routes. 

In 1944, the Federal government pro- 
\ided substantial amovmts of Federal 
money for two other types of roads — 

Secondary S\stem. This is a system 
of farm-to-market rural roads desig- 
nated by the states and coordinated b\ 
the Bureau of Public Roads. 

Urban Roads. For the first time F"ed- 
eral money was provided specifically for 
extension of Federal-aid roads into ur- 
ban areas. 

In 1944, Congress also asked the 
States and the Bureau of Public Roads 
to map out still .mother system — 



Fhe Interstate Highway System. 
This would be a super-network of the 
most important 40,000 miles of the Pri- 
mary System (now increased to 41,- 
0(1(1 miles). It would comiect more than 
90', of all cities with a population of 
50,000 or more (209 cities in all), 42 
of the 48 state capitals, and all 48 
states. Although this system amounts 
to only 1.2 per cent of the total rural 
mileage in the nation it is expected to 
carry about 20 per cent of the traffic on 
all streets and highways. These figures 
give some idea of the importance of the 
Interstate System to our economy as 
well as our national defense. 

Today, there are some 755,278 miles 
of roads eligible for Federal grants. 
They are the Federal-aid roads of the 
I'nited States. 

In the next l.i to 15 years, the Fed- 
eral government will spend about 27. .-i 
billion dollars building Federal-aid 
road.s. And it probably will make addi- 
tional appropriations of 8.7 billion dol- 
lars in that time. The total thus will 
be near 3fi billion dollars — fi\e rimes 



JANUARY, 1958 



19 



niort- than it spt-nt ilnrinji the pitxcd- 
ing 40 years. 

At the same rime, the states will 
spend nearly 13 hillion. Ineluiliiifi ex- 
penditures in Federal lands, the states 
and the Federal {jovernnient will spend 
more than 50 billion dollars buildiiiji 
Federal-aid roads in the next 13 to 1^ 
years. 

More than halt the mcine> will he 
spent on 41,000 miles of interstate 
Hif^hway System. The Federal go\eiii- 
ment will spend 24.8 billion dollars (jn 
this system and the states — required to 



Here's how nuuh mone) it is esti- 
mated each state will receive from the 
federal s"\*^''"""'"f *'"■ Federal - aid 
highway construction during the next 13 
years. 

Alabama i^ 730,800,000 

Arizona 424,200,000 

Arkansas 529,000,000 

California 2,019,600,000 

Colorado 518,300,000 

Connecticut 342,500,000 

Delaware 202,200,000 

Florida 608,400,000 

(jeorgia 838,700,000 

Idaho 364,300,000 

Illinois 1,668,500,000 

Indiana 872,100,000 

Iowa 751,300,000 

Kansas 683,300,000 

Kentucky 666,900,000 

Louisiana 588,500,000 

Maine 284,400,000 

Maryland 418,700,000 

Massachusetts 735,700,000 

Michigan 1,277,600,000 

Minnesota 829,600,000 

Mississippi 574,000,000 

Missouri 986,400,000 

Montana 539,000,000 

Nebraska 544,100,000 

Nevada 371,100,000 

New Hampshire 204,800,000 

New Jersey 753,900,000 

New Mexico 450,700,000 

New York 2,469,500,000 

North Carolina 903,500,000 

North Dakota 406,900,000 

Ohio 1,509,300,000 

Oklahoma 661,200,000 

Oregon 507,900,000 

Pennsylvania 1,865,800,000 

Rhode Island 216,400,000 

South Carolina 476,900,000 

South Dakota 427.700,000 

Tennessee 766,800,000 

Tevas 2,112,500,000 

Utah 351,900,000 

Vermont 201,200,000 

Virginia 718,400,000 

Washington 582,000,000 

West Virginia 418,200,000 

Wisconsin 822,600,000 

Wyoming 369,900,000 

District of Columbia .... 220,900,000 



put up onl\ 1(1 per cent nt the cost — 
will contribute 2.() billion. Therefore a 
total of 27.4 billion dollars will be 
spent on the Interstate S\stem. 

.Most of the remainder will build 
other parts of the Primary S\stem, Sec- 
ondary System and city roads. .As usual, 
states will match the Federal money for 
this construction. 

Improvements will also be made in 
national forests and national parks. 

Tliere is ;i new basis for dividing 
the money foi' the construction ot the 
Interstate Highway System. For the 
first three years, the money will be ap- 
portioned two-thirds on population, one 
sixth on area and one sixth on the mile- 
age of rural post roads. For the final 
10 years, the money will be apportioned 
to states by the estimated cost of com- 
pleting the Interstate System in each 
state. 

Money for the construction of Fed- 
eral-aid highways other than the Inter- 
state Highway System will be divided 
on the old basis, one third on popula- 
tion, one third on area, one third on 
rural post road mileage. 

Intcrstatf Systc/ii 

24.8 hillion — ^This figure refers to the 
amount of Federal money authorized 
through 1969 to build the Interstate 
System only. It represents 90% of the 
cost. 

27.4 billion — This is the total of both 
Federal and State money to be spent 
on the Interstate System. States contri- 
bute 10^;. of the cost. 



Federal-Aid Roads 

billion — This is the amount of 



Othe, 

2.5 

Federal money authorized for all other 
Federal-aid roads for 1957 to 1959. 
States will match this total. 

Totals for .III Federal-.Iid Roads 

$27.3 billion— This is the total Fed- 
eral money authorized for the Inter- 
state System through 1969 — and for all 
other Federal-aid roads through 1959. 

$M.5 billion— This is the total Fed- 
eral and State money to be spent on the 
Interstate System through 19fi9 — and 
for all other Federal-aid roads through 
1959. 

I'rojeeted Totals 

$H.7 billion — It is anticipated that 
Congress will appropriate at least this 
amount for Federal-aid roads (other 
than the Interstate System) from 1959 
to 1969. States will match this money. 

$36 billion — If the above figure is 
appropriated, this will be the total Fed- 
eral appropriation for both the Inter- 
state System and other Federal-aid roads 
from 1957 to 1969. 

,^50 billion- If the $i^.7 billion is ap- 



propriated, this is the i/ranil total of 
stale and Federal money to lie spent on 
all Federal-aid roads through 1969. 

Other Fii^ures 

$\\)\ billion^ln 1954, states esti- 
mated it would cost this much to bring 
all roads and streets to "tolerable stand- 
ards" and to complete the Interstate 
System — over a 10-year period. This 
figure has no meaniiu) in the present 
lirogram, although you often see it men- 
tioned. 

13 \ear.s — Federal authorization for 
building the Interstate System was 
made for the 13 \ears between 1957 
and 1969. 

1 5 years — This is the amount of time 
it is expected will be required to build 
the Interstate Highway System. It 
should be completed about 1971. 

Speed limits, of course, are up to the 
state. But, to provide a margin of safe- 
ty, the roads are being designed for 
speeds of 70 miles on flat land, 60 miles 
for rolling country, and 50 miles in 
mountainous terrain and urban areas. 

The law forbids service stations and 
other commercial businesses on the 
right-of-way. 

Rut don't worry, there will be plenty 
of places to turn off for gas, food, lodg- 
ing and other services. 

A system of signs, which will inform 
you when you are approaching areas 
where such services are available, is 
being worked out. In many cases, you 
will simply be able to turn off into a 
nearby town or city. Out in rural areas, 
commercial services probably will be 
grouped around access points in the 
manner that the businesses themselves 
elect. 

One of the main reasons the Inter- 
state System is being built in this man- 
ner is to save your life. Controlled ac- 
cess roads are much safer than roads 
with intersections at grade and drive- 
ways. The aecident rate on controlled 
areess roads is one-third of that on other 
roads. It is estimated that the Interstate 

System wilt save 3,500 lives a year! 

In addition, controlled access protects 
your tax money. New roads always at- 
tract new commercial businesses and 
homes. More driveways and cross roads 
are added. Soon the road becomes such 
a bottleneck that it cannot handle the 
traffic for which it was built. New 
roads must be built. Thus, controlled 
access stops a road from growing old 
before its time. 

The new law requires that public 
hearings must be held in every city, 
town and village that will either be by- 
passed or passed through by Federal- 
aid roads. When your state submits 
its plans to the Hureau of Public Roads, 



20 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Interstate Highway System Will Provide Safer, 
Faster and Cheaper Driving 



it must attest that it has hehi such hear- 
ings for every community affected and 
reached its decisions on the routes after 
considerinfj the evidence of such hear- 
ings. 

That means there will be h'teralh 
thousands of such hearings in the next 
13 years. You may be called vipon to 
attend one or more. 

Man\' of those attending will not un- 
derstand the advantages of "controlled 
access." Others will think if a town is 
"by-passed" business will be affected 
adversely. According to the U. S. 
Chamber of Commerce and many stu- 
dies of by-passes this is not true. As a 
matter of fact, business usually in- 
creases. The "by-pass" relieves traffic 
congestion in the community and per- 
mits merchants' steady customers to 
drive to their stores easily, find a park- 
ing space and shop. Through traffic 
brings few customers. But it does dis- 
courage regular, local customers. 

Legal Problems Arise 

It is important that you should be 
able to explain these things to those 
who are not as well-informed. 

A good deal depends on the laws of 
your state. Many states have passed 
legislation which permits them to move 
quickly ... to start building roads al- 
most immediately. Some states will have 
to revise their laws in order to avoid 
delay in taking advantage of the money 
now offered them by the Federal gov- 
ernment. 

For instance, some states are not per- 
mitted to acquire land and then con- 
trol access to a highway built upon it. 
The new Federal law offers them help. 
A state, under certain conditions, can 
request the U. S. Secretary of Com- 
merce to acquire rights-of-way for the 
Interstate System. The Federal govern- 
ment will do this, and hold title to the 
land until the state has laws which per- 
mit it to control access. Then the Fed- 
eral government will turn the land back 
to the state. 

Some states, too, have established a 
system whereby they can acquire land 
for roads well in advance of the con- 
struction date. This helps in many ways. 
For one thing, the state can often ac- 
quire the land before it is developed. 
That helps keep to a minimum the 
number of people who will be affected 
later on. And, of course, buying the 
road property in advance helps prevent 
the payment of inflated real estate 
prices. 

To acquire land in advance and save 
monev and trouble, some states have a 



special revolving fund. The state buys 
the land from this fund in advance. 
When the road is built the money is 
returned to the fund from the money 
authorized for the project. 

The Federal government will help 
states building Interstate Highways to 
establish a procedure for advanced pur- 
chase of land for highways. It will ad- 
vance Federal funds for this purpose to 
states if the state agrees to begin con- 
struction within five years. 

Since States can build Interstate 
Highways — which are every bit as effici- 
ent as toll roads — by putting up only 
10% of the cost, the use of tolls as a 
method of financing highways is ex- 
pected to be greatly reduced. 

And, of course, none of the new 
Federal-Aid roads will be toll roads. 
Federal money cannot be used for toll 
highways. 

There probably will be a few toll 
roads. They will be the toll roads that 
now exist and which are on Interstate 
Routes. The law provides that toll high- 
ways may be accepted as links in the 
Interstate System on two conditions. 

The first is that the toll roads will 
ultimately become free roads when the 
bonds are paiil off. 

The second is that there is a satis- 
factory free alternate route. 

New and Increased Taxes to 
Obtain Federal Funds 

A study is being made to aid Con- 
gress in determining whether to pay 
states for completed free and toll high- 
ways that meet Interstate standards and 
are on Interstate routes. This study will 
be submitted in January, 1958. 

It is estimated that about 6,000 miles 
of toll and free highways that conform 
to Interstate standards and are in In- 
terstate routes were in existence when 
the law was passed. It must be under- 
stood that the Interstate Highway Sys- 
tem was laid out to serve traffic on ex- 
isting travel routes. In other words, 
there are roads at present approximat- 
ing practically every mile of those 
routes. Rut they are mostly inadequate 
roads — certainh' not up to handling 
1975 traffic. 

This is a question each state will 
study for each project it undertakes. 
C^ften it is cheaper, particularly in 
heavily populated areas, to relocate high- 
ways rather than acquire a good deal 
more property along the old route for 
controlled access. It appears certain that 
there will be more relocated highways 
built than old highways brought up to 
Interstate standards. 



About two-thirds of the needed Fed- 
eral money will come from highway 
taxes already in effect before the Act 
was passed. One-third will come from 
new taxes and increases in rates made 
effective with the passage of the Act. 

This act increased Federal gasoline 
taxes on tires from five to eight cents 
a gallon. There is a new tax of three 
cents a pound on camel-back recapping 
rubber. The tax on trucks and trailers 
and buses has been increased from 8% 
to 10% and a use tax has been levied 
on all trucks weighing more than 26,000 
pounds. 

New Roads Will Save Lives 

Here is the biggest bargain a motor- 
ist ever got. According to the Bureau 
of Public Roads, you will get these 
41,000 miles of high speed expressways 
and thousands of miles of other roads 
for less than $9 a year additional. 

\a\\ will save many, many times that 
figure in slower depreciation of your 
car, lower insurance losses, saving of 
time. And how can you put a value on 
the 3,500 lives a year that are expected 
to be saved ? 

States have to put up only 10% of 
the cost of the Interstate System, and 
50% of the cost of projects on the re- 
mainder of the Federal-aid road system. 

However, for most states this means 
that the total annual expenditure for 
highways will be higher. They will need 
to appropriate more money for high- 
ways — but not a great deal. 

The important thing to remember is 
that under the present program each 
state dollar will buy a good deal more 
highway construction than in the past. 

Construction on the first new roads 
on the Interstate Highway System be- 
gan a few weeks after the law was 
passed. Results will begin to be evi- 
dent about 1960, but they will be well 
scattered throughout the 48 states. 

It is well to remember that Congress 
did not authorize the entire $24.8 bil- 
lion dollars Federal-aid for the Inter- 
state System in a lump sum. Rather it 
was doled out over 13 years. So some 
projects on this system will not be 
started until about 1970. But by that 
time tens of thousands of miles will be 
completed. 

Despite its enormity ... in the face 
of the many problems to overcome . . . 
the Interstate Highway System is ex- 
pected to be completed in only 15 years. 

To understand what an astounding 
feat of construction this is, compare it 
with the building of the Panama Canal. 



Student (from the back of the room) : 
"Are you sure the third test ques- 
tion is in the book?" 

Prof: "Certainly." 

Student: "Well, I can't find it." 



JANUARY, 1958 



21 




THE AUTOMOTIVE 



Four major nu-tals ina\ soon take 
n\cr constnicriim work in the autoniD- 
tivc iiidiistr>, reports Protluct Engineer- 
in;;. As other metals become scarcei', 
iron, aluminum, magnesium and titani- 
um, plus silicon, \\'ill come to the fore. 
These may be followed by ceramics ami 
ceramic metal compounds. 

American motorists may soon be rid- 
ing on smaller wheels, reports National 
Petroleum News. Car manufacturers aie 
producing 1,5-inch wheels and tires on 
an experimental basis. The wheels are 
pro\ing satisfactory, but designers arc 
ha\ing tro\dilc shrinking the brake 
ilium. 

In answer to this, liquid-cooled brakes 
may soon appear on the market, reports 
Road and Track magazine. Ra\besfos- 
Manhattan has a system which bonds 
the linings to the brake drum and runs 



cooling water through the br.ike shoe. 
As the shoes do not rotate, there is no 
problem of seals or leakage. Under test 
for five years, it is claimed that the new 
system is fade-resistant, inexpensive, 
long-wearing, and does not affect stand- 
ard cooling systems. 

The National Bureau of Standards 
has developed a precise, direct method 
for determining tire operating temper- 
atures. The procedure involves the use 
of a copper-constantan thermocouple in- 
serted through the tire valve. When the 
tire is rotated under load, the thermo- 
couple gives a precise measm'ement of 
the average contained-air temperature. 
Intended for tire research and evalua- 
tion studies, the procedure was devel- 
oped by the Bureau staff and sponsored 
by the Federal Facilities Corporation, 
Office of Synthetic Rubber. 



This year offers an exceptional array 
of things the well-dressed car will wear, 
reports American Machinist of metal- 
working production. They'll have tacho- 
meters to check speed ; built-in con- 
sciences for your speedometer, ranging 
from a red glow to Bermuda bells; 
warning lights to supplement virtually 
e\ery instrument on the dashboard ; and 
a radio that automatically himts up an- 
other station when one goes off the 
air. 

A self-deficcting rear-view mirror has 
been designed that should be a boon lo 
night drivers' eyes. Electronics says. A 
photocell is mounted over the rear-view 
mirror. When headlight glare from a 
following car is too bright, the mirror 
is deflected. 

Completion of the 3880 acre Michi- 
gan Proving Ground gives Ford its big- 



22 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



there will appear an 
exceptional array of improvements 

in the autos of tomorrow! 

edited by Dennis Lantz 



INDUSTRY ROLLS ON 



gest testing facility. The company also 
maintains a 3,840-acre desert proving 
ground near Kingman, Ariz. ; a 360- 
acre test area in Dearborn, Mich., and 
test stations at Jennerstown, Pa., and 
Colorado Springs, Colo. Together, these 
five areas, totaling 8,080 acres provide 
Ford Motor Company's 300 test driv- 
ers with some of the auto industry's 
most extensive facilities for testing all 
types of motor vehicles. 

Feature of the new Michigan facility 
is a five-mile, oval high-speed test track, 
which is five lanes wide and can accom- 
modate safe high-speed driving on its 
steeply banked turns. A 2j/ - mile 
straightaway adjacent to the oval track 
is for checking acceleration and braking 
performance. Completely level, it was 
built to coincide at every point w'ith the 
curvature of the earth so the force of 



gravity would be constant along its en- 
tire length. Three durability roads pro- 
vide all types of dips, curves and sur- 
faces for testing vehicles. Test hills 
range in grade from 7 to 60 per cent, 
with the latter too steep for most pas- 
senger cars but designed to test experi- 
mental militar\' vehicles now under de- 
velopment by Ford. 

Flatter tires, now used only on one 
model car will be standard equipment 
on 1959 passenger cars, predicts Petro- 
leum Week. The low-profile tire has 
a wider, flatter cross-section. It permits 
a lower over-all height without going 
to a smaller wheel diameter. 

Push-button gasoline sales may be 
just around the corner. If a new experi- 
mental preset device is successful, station 
attendants will be free to spend more 
time on service and salesmanship. The 



new device enables the attendant to push 
one of eight buttons and be sure the 
pump will deliver a specific dollar or 
gallon amount into the customer's tank. 

White is today's favorite in car col- 
ors. In 1954, blue was the most popular 
with 30 per cent of the sales. One com- 
pany explains the change this way: Blue 
seems to rise as the stock market rises. 
White may be an index of instability, 
while black, green and gray advance as 
the markets drop. 

An electroencephalograph is being 
used to test the length of time drivers 
remain alert, reports Electronics maga- 
zine. In a recent test, brain waves 
showed drowsiness sets in after 90 min- 
utes. Recorded engine and traffic noises 
are used to add to the realism of the 
test. 



JANUARY, 1958 



23 




ATOMIC 



EVENTS 



PROGRESS: Atomic Cruiser and Sub 
NEW: Atomic Washing Machine 
DIFFERNT: Atomic BB's 



Atomic Cruiser 

The V. S. Navy's first nuclear-pow- 
ered surface ship, a cruiser which will 
he armed with guided missiles for both 
offensive and defensive fire power, will 
be powered by main propulsion equip- 
ment from the General Electrical Com- 
pany. The order amounts to over $4,- 
IH)(), ()()() and includes both the main 
propulsion turbines and reduction gears 
tor the atomic-powered vessel. The ves- 
sel, which will cost approximately $87. S 
million, will be built in Quincy, Mass. 

Twin screws will propel the ship. A 
General Electric cross-compound steam 
turbine will drive each propeller through 
a G-E double-reduction, locked train 
gear set. The saving in weight gained 
through the use of such gears will in- 
crease the ship's capacity for the carry- 
ing of more electronic an<l fire control 
equipment. 

Triton 

A submarine hull section is nearing 
completion at nearby West Milton, N. 
Y., which will ho\isc the prototype of 
the nuclear propulsion plant for the 
\a\y submarine, Triton. 

The prototype plant and actual nu- 
clear propulsion plant for the Triton 
are being designed and developed at the 
Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory 
(KAPL), which the (jeneral Electric 
Company operates for the Atomic En- 
ergy Commission. 

The Triton now is imder construc- 
tion at Groton, Conn., by the Electric 
Boat Division of the General Dynamics 



Laboratory. The Cruiser is designed to 
operate in conjunction with a fast car- 
rier task force and to provide the task 
force with radar information. 

The Triton will be powered by two 
pressurized water reactors, designated 
SAR (Submarine Advanced Reactor), 
and will be the first two-reactor plant 
c\er developed for submarine propul- 
sion. 

Atomic bb's 

Little steel bb's — 35 tons of them — 
are being installed as the shielding in a 
new "hot cell" at the Westinghoiise 
Materials Engineering Department's 
radiation and nucleonics laboratory. The 
cell has half-inch-thick steel walls spaced 
15 inches apart. Between these walls 
are the 35 tons of bb's — equal to 10 
inches of solid steel in their ability to 
"contain " atomic radiations. Use of the 
bb's makes the hot cell portable, since 
the shot can be drained through special 
openings near the base of the walls. The 
new Westinghouse hot cell will be used 
for examining the effects of a nuclear 
"environment" on reactor materials, for 
studying the usefulness of atomic radia- 
tions in industrial processes, for finding 
ways to utilize the radioactive by-prod- 
ucts from nuclear power plants and for 
related atomic and nuclear research. 



Hot Washing Machine 

Something new in washing machines 
— one that solves tough wash day prob- 
lems without water for cleansing — is 
in service at the huge Hanford atomic 
plant, operated by the General Electric 
Company for the Atomic Energy Com- 
mission. 

The Hanford machine, however, does 
not wash clothes. It cleans luanium 
fuel slugs after they have been irradi- 
ated inside nuclear reactors. 

Bolted to the floor luider 1 1 feet of 
water, the washer bathes 16 fuel ele- 
ments in acid to remove the oxides and 
film formed under nuclear pile irradi- 
ation. 

Other water-filled basins in this spe- 
cially designed and equipped laboratory 
contain equipment for photographing 
the irradiated slugs, apparatus for meas- 
uring their gamma ray intensity, as well 
as a special device for determining the 
core grain size of the in-anium. AH of 
these tests are conducted without ever 
bringing the "hot" specimens to the 
surfaces of the pools. 



24 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



New Developments 



Jet Transports 

Last ALitLinin the Air Force provided 
the aircraft manufacturers with the 
incentive to take a look at the execu- 
tive-type turbine transport market by 
announcing it would like to purchase 
up to 1,800 light jet utility transports. 
This interest on the part of the mili- 
tary, coupled with the desire of cor- 
porate aircraft users to purchase modern 
equipment, has led to the offering of 
four new turbine transports in the ex- 
ecutive category. These are in addition 
to the Fairchild M-185 four-jet trans- 
port already announced. 

America's first jet utility transport — 
the lO-passenger Lockheed Jet Star — 
successfully completed its maiden Hight, 
beating by two minutes a date-in-the- 
sky set when engineering started onl\' 
241 days ago. 

The sweptwinged Jet Star broke 
ground off the Edwards Air Force Base 
runway at 8:58 a.m. on a 39-minute 
Hight described by Pilot Ray J. Goudey 
and Copilot Robert Schumacher as 
"silky smooth." 

Setting a new record of 34 weeks 
from start of design to first flight, the 
300-niph plane was developed specifi- 
cally to meet Air Force requirements 
for a small, speedy, versatile transport 
providing jet perfomiance for "utility" 
needs. The Jet Star has a range of 
1700 statute miles but can exteml the 
distance with external fuel tanks. 

"It's fast — plenty fast — and handles 
as responsively as a well-trained race- 
horse," Goudey reported. 

"We had to throttle back even on 
takeoff and then again during the 
flight to keep pace with our chase plane. 
"With jet engines located behind the 
cabin, the cockpit and passenger com- 
partment are so quiet that conversation 
can be reduced almost to whispers." 

The Jet Star measures 58 feet — from 
sharp-pointed nose to tail. Mounted high 
on the vertical fin, the horizontal stabil- 
izer is completely out of the path of 
jet exhausts. The wing span is 53 feet. 
Two Bristol Orpheus engines, mount- 
ed in pods behind the wings on each 
side of the rear fuselage, deliver 10,- 
000 pounds of takeoff' thrust for this 
first prototype. 

JANUARY, 1958 



in 



Jet Aircraft 



A second prototype due to fly next 
\ear will be powered by four General 
Electric J-85 or Fairchild J-83 engines 
when they become available. 

Both planes will cruise at more than 
500 mph at 40,000-foot altitudes. 

"This new airplane can perform mul- 
ti-purpose utility and support missions 
economically," Gross said. 

"It is designed for high-performance 
training. It is adapted to fill high-prior- 
ity military transportation needs — such 
as travel between key command posts. 
It can move critically needed items 
swiftly, and finally it offers added ad- 
vantages as a multi-jet crew trainer and 
air e\acuation transport." he said. 

To meet military requirements. Gross 
explained, a much smaller aircraft than 
a standard jet airliner was needed. 

"In the vast majority of instances, 
neither the number of people nor the 
kind or size of cargo would justify the 
use of a large airliner. This airplane 
will perform these missions at speeds 
equal to those of a large jet airliner — 
at a fraction of the cost," he added. 

"Any expansion in the project beyond 
the prototype stage depends upon mili- 
tary acceptance of the airplane," Gross 
said. 

The prototype is designed to carry 
10 passengers and a 2-man crew. The 
configuration is such that additional 
seats for passengers as needed can be 
provided in the production models. 

Designed as virtually a self-contained 
unit, the new utility jet requires a mini- 
mum of special ground handling equip- 
ment. 

Most unusual feature of the new 
model is the pod arrangement of the 
engines. 



"The reanvard location, which Lock- 
heed engineers selected after seven years 
of jet transport design study, offers 
many important advantages," Gross 
pointed out. 

Attached to the rear of the fuselage, 
they are completely clear of passenger 
or fuel areas and independent of the 
airplane's low, uncluttered wing. They 
are easily accessible for maintenance. 

Among other advantages are lower 
cabin sound levels, a result of installing 
engines behind the passenger area. 

"Flight comfort compares with — or 
exceed.s — that of a large jet airliner," 
he declared. "Completely pressurized 
and air-conditioned, the cabin is cli- 
matized to 8000-foot altitudes when the 
airplane flies at 40,000 feet." 

Location of the powerplant inlets be- 
hind the wing — which also ser\es as 
protection — virtually eliminates the 
likelihood of picking up pebbles or de- 
bris during ground runs. 

The new trainer-transport's wing is 
swept 34 degrees along the leading edge 
and has an area of 323 square feet. 
Over-all height of the plane is 21 feet. 

A "flying stabilizer" attached to the 
fin-— a design worked out for the ex- 
perimental Lockheed XF-90 penetration 
fighter — provides excellent rigidity with 
resultant anti-flutter and minimum drag 
characteristics. 

A dive flap at the bottom of the 
fuselage also ser\es as a means of ac- 
cess to the rear baggage compartment. 

The new utility jet incorporates 
standards set by the Civil Aeronautics 
Administration as a result of studies on 
forthcoming commercial jet airliners, 
Gross pointed out. 

"Thus, while Lockheed designed the 



25 



airplane aaoriliiiji to military iii-eds, it 
will also he i-lijiibU- tor CAA civil cer- 
titication," lie saiil. 

Compact and simple the cockpit is 
tiiriiished with complete radio and navi- 
>Mtioii cquiiMiuMit tor transport opcra- 
don. Tlu- windshield nn-ets latest visi- 
bilitv reqviirements of the Civil Aero- 
nautics Administration and the Society 
of Automotive F'.ngineers. 

The airplane's military designation is 
■ •^•CX"— I' for "utility," C for "trans- 
port" in I'SAF terniinolos:y, and X for 
experimental prototype. 

Another contender in the jet field is 
the fovir-place Sabreliner that North 
American expects to fly next March In 
the turboprop class there is the Un 
Mark Marksman 450 and (.rummans 
1 SQ The information that has been re- 
leased on these transports is limited, but 
some of the specifications are given in 
the above table: 



Gross weinht 
Passengers 
Empty weight 
CruisiiiK speed 
M.1X. range 



Lockheed 
Model 32V 
32,400 lb 
10-12 
14,670 lb 
Over 500 mph 
1,730 miles 



Surtit .Imeriian 

Sahreliner 

14,350 lb 

4 

I'navailable 

500 mph 

1,500 miles 



(irurnan /.i'' 
31,000 lb 
12 

19,000 lb 
370 mph 
1,760 miles 



On Mark 
Marksman 4>0 
40,000 lb 
Fp to 14 
23,000 lb 
436 mph 
3,100 miles 



Jet Metals 

Westinghouse scientists have devel- 
oped a new high-strength, high-temper- 
ature metal which is designed to help 
push back the "heat barrier" now- being 
encountered by jet engines in the na- 
tion's new supersonic aircraft. 

As jet planes travel faster and faster 
into the realm of supersonic flight, they 
encounter what is commonly called the 
■heat barrier'— excessive heating of the 
plane due to its own impact with the 
onrushing air. It is the same phenome- 
non which causes a meteorite to burn 
to ashes as it falls at high speed through 
the earth's atmosphere. In aircraft, this 
heating creates many serious problenis. 
not only in the general structure of the 
plane, but also in the jet engine which 
powers it. 

Impact heating i^ now a major con- 
sideration in the design of the inlet and 
compressor of modern jet engines. By 
using titanium for those parts that were 
formerly made of .aluminum, magnesium 
.and low-alloy stainless steels, engineers 
can protect these sections of the engine 
from the effects of impact heating with- 
out sacrificing the turbojet's light-weight 
advantage. 

However, back in the turbine section 
of the engine exists what might be called 
a second "heat barrier" which is prov- 
ing to be a much more ditTicult problem 
for the turbojet designer. A jet engine 
gets its energy for propulsion by increas- 
ing the temperature of the air passing 
through it. As a general rule, the great- 
er the increase in air temperature, the 
more thrust a given engine will produce 
and the faster the airplane will fly. If 
the speeds of new fighters, bombers and 
missiles are to continue up the super- 



26 



sonic scale, their engines must be able 
to run at higher and higher tempera- 
tures and they must do this without 
having any of their components suffer 
significant losses in mechanical strength. 
The new Westinghouse metal is intend- 
ed as a structural material for use in 
the turbine section of the jet engine, 
where the hottest moving parts are 
found. It offers special promise as a 
material for constructing turbine discs. 

A jet engine turbine disc is a metal 
wheel that is bolted to the aft end of 
the rotating shaft of the engine. An- 
chored to its outer rim are some 50 or 
more turbine blades. White-hot gases 
from the burning fuel push against the 
blades and spin the disc and shaft at 
speeds up to 20,000 revolutions per 
minute. The disc, whirling at red-hot 
temperatures, undergoes stresses as great 
as 50,000 pounds per square inch. 

Present materials for turbine discs 
and blades are pushed to the limit by 
today's jet engine requirements. 

The new material, which is referred 
to siniplv as W545. is an alloy of six 
essential elements: iron, nickel, chromi- 
um, and in smaller proportions, molyb- 
denum, titanium and boron. 

Increasing the operating strength of 
temperature of a high-temperature alloy 
can be done by adding greater quanti- 
ties of these ingredients which cause 
hardening in the alloy. However, this 
procedure usually results in a loss of 
ductility, causing the alloy to become 
brittle and more susceptible to fracture. 
This low ductility starts to grow during 
the hardening process when imperfec- 
tions and dislocations of the atoms oc- 
cur along the individual grain boun- 
daries of the alloy. It appeared likely 
that one solution to the problem might 
be to fill up these spider-web lines of 
brittleness to make the precipitation re- 
action more generalized within the 
grains rather than concentrated at the 
boundaries. This called for an element 
whose atom was of such a size that it 
would not merely move in and be a 
substitute in the alloy lattice for one of 
the iron, cobalt, nickel or chromium 
atoms, which are all about identical in 
size. It would also have to be a larger 
size atom than carbon, nitrogen, or 
oxygen which can actually slip^ inside 
the crystal lattice of the alloy. The ele- 
ment boron fllled the bill. Approximate- 
ly Ya the size of the iron atom, it is 
too small to be a substitutional-type 
atom and too large to be the interstitial 
type. 



Basically, W545 is a modified version 
of Discaloy, a high-temperature alloy 
first developed at the Westinghouse Re- 
search Laboratory some ten years ago, 
and an outstanding turbine disc material 
in its own right. 

Soviet Jets 

Four new types of Soviet civil air- 
craft designed to re-equip the national 
airline Aeroflot in the near future were 
shown at Moscow Vnukovo Airport 
last month. 

Reports in the Soviet Press name 
these as the Tupolev Tu-104A, the 
Tupolev Tu-lU), the Antonov An- 10 
Ukraina (pictured in Shell Aviation 
Nncs No. 229) and the Ilyushin 
Moskva. The Tu-104A is reported to 
have a better range than the Tu-104 
from which it is derived, and is likely 
to be used on the Czechoslovak Airline 
Prague-London route for which agree- 
ments have been reached with BEA. 

The four-engined Tu-110 turbojet is 
again a larger, more advanced version 
th.-in the Tu-104. It is to be built in a 
luxury version for 78 passengers and 
also in a 100-seat tourist layout. Its 
maximum speed is reported at 540 kts 
and range 2,000 nautical miles. The 
fuselage and wings have been lengthened 
and the jet engines arranged in pairs 
at the wing roots, as in the Comet, but 
no other m a j o r structural changes 
appear. 

The Ilyushin 11-18 Moskva is a 
large capacity, medium-range turboprop 
very similar to the Vanguard and Elec- 
tra in design and performance. With 
fuel reserves for one and a half hours, 
it has a range of 2,700 nm and a cruis- 
ing speed of 350 kts at 26.000 to 33.000 
ft. The empty weight of 28 tons, and 
gross weight of 58 tons reveal a favor- 
able ratio of useful load to gross weight. 
The Moskva is designed to the "fail- 
safe" principle of duplication of load- 
bearing parts and double-pane windows. 
The economic fuel consumption of four 
NK-4. 4,000 hp turboprops, allied with 
low cost airframe structure, is reported 
to result in a particulaih' low level 
of fares. 

Finally, a new Tupoley transport, 
due to tiv in October, is the turboprop 
Rossiya referred to as a 180 passenger, 
4,300-mile liner, powered by four 12,- 
000 hp Kuznetsov engines and with a 
speed of 550 mph. 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 







High 



Temperature 



PHOTOS 



Camera Utilizes 
Rainbow Colors 



lilast furnaces, open hearths, coke 
ovens, and other steelniaking facilities 
appear in all the colors of the rainbow- 
through the lenses of an "evaporgraph," 
a new type of camera now in use for 
the first time in the steel industry at 
L'. S. Steel's Fairless Works in Fairless 
Hills, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. 

Developed by Baird-Atomic, Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, as a direct ther- 
mal-imaging device, the new instrument 
functions as efficiently in absolute dark- 
ness a's in daylight, requiring no source 
of external illumination. In.stead, it 
forms a colored, two-dimensional image 
by utilizing the long-wavelength, infra- 
red radiation emitted from the object 
or area being photographed. The image 
is made visible by a light source inside 
the instrument. Sensitivity of the device 
is such that differences of as little as 
1-degree Centigrade {1.8 degrees 
Fahrenheit) can be detected in the tar- 
get temperatures. It will function so 
long as the target temperature is above 
zero and there is a temperature differ- 
ence existent in the field of view. Ob- 

JANUARY, 1958 



jects as distant as three miles or more 
will register accurately in the evaporo- 
graph. 

The new instrument was first brought 
to the publics attention in color in the 
July 30, 1956 issue of Life magazine. 
Test observations and color photo- 
graphs made with the instrument 
throughout the mill area have shown 
that temperature differences on the ex- 
terior surface of high-temperature oper- 
ating units make possible the study of 
interior wall conditions in such installa- 
tions as open hearths and blast furnaces. 
Thus, the evaporograph answers a long- 
time need of operation and maintenance 
departments in steel mills. It shows 
promise al.so as a detector of hot-spots 
or worn areas in machinery, steam lines 
and other auxiliary mill equipment 
where temperature is a measure of in- 
terior conditions. 

The heart of the new instrument is 
the evaporograph cell, a vacuum-en- 
closed membrane on which a thin film 
of oil condenses. 

The membrane is made of nitrocellu- 
lo.se about 4 micro-inches (0.000004 
inch) thick, mounted on a metal ring. 
When the membrane is illuminated with 
white light, interference between light 
reflected from the front and rear sur- 
faces of the membrane has the effect of 
cancelling certain wave-lengths in the 
incident light and gives the membrane 
a colored appearance. Thickness of the 



membrane is controlled so that it ex- 
hibits a \elIow interference color. 

One siile of the membrane is lightly 
blackened with vaporized gold deposited 
under high vacuum to absorb the ener- 
gy incident upon the membrane from 
that side. The membrane is then mount- 
ed in a cell with the coated side toward 
the infrared optical system. This side 
of the cell is sealed with a sodium- 
chloride window which will admit radi- 
ation up to a wa\elength of approxi- 
matel> 10 microns. 

The other half of the cell is lined 
with oil-saturated blotting paper and 
sealed with a special glass having a con- 
ducting layer facing the membrane. A 
slight electrical current passes through 
this layer and heats its surface to pre- 
vent any oil condensation from obscur- 
ing the membrane. A small heater covers 
this half of the cell to permit it to be 
heated a few degrees above the ambient 
temperature. 

In use, air is evacuated from the cell 
and the rear half is heated slightly to 
increase the vapor pressure of the oil. 
Just as water will condense on a cold 
glass in hot weather, the oil starts to 
conden.se on the m'trocellulose mem- 
brane. 

If the image of an object is focused 
on the blackened side of the membrane, 
different portions of the membrane will 
fCniitiriiict/ on Ptit/c 37) 

27 



THE ■ 

Thi- i> the 'riuMirx ]:wk built. 


FHEC 
JA( 


DRY 

:k built 

Cloaking Constant K 
That saved the Summary 


This is tlif I'law 




Based on the Mummery 


Thar la\ ill the Theor\- Jack built 




Hiding the Flaw- 
That la\ in the Theors Jack built. 


1 Ills Is tlu- Mumiiif i\ 






Hilling the Flaw 




This is the Cvbernetics and Stuff 


'i'liat la\ in the Thcoix' Jack built 




That covered Chaotic Confusion and Bluff 
That hung on the Turn of a Plausible Phrase 


This is the Suiiiniary 




And thickened the Erudite V^erbal Haze 


Based on the Mummery 




Cloaking Constant K 


Hiding the Flaw- 




That saved the Summary 


That la\ in the Thenrv Jack built 




Based on the Mummery 
Hiding the Flaw- 


This is the Constant K 




That la\- in the Theory Jack built. 


That saved the Summary 






Based on the Mumnier\ 




This is the Button to start the Machine 


Hiding the Flaw- 




To make with the Cyberenetics and Stuff' 


That lay ill the The(ir\ Jack buil 


t. 


To cover Chaotic Confusion and Bluff' 

That hung on the Turn of a Plausible Phrase 


This is the Erudite Verbal Ha-/.e 




And thickened the Erudite Verbal Haze 


Cloaking Constant K 




Cloaking Constant K 


That sa\ed the Sumiiiary 




That saved the Summary 


Based on the Mummers 




Based on the Mummery 


Hiding the Flaw- 




Hiding the Flaw- 


That lay in the Theor> Jack built 




That lay in the Theory Jack built. 


I his IS the Turn ut a Plausible P 


:irase 


This is the Space-Child with Brow Serene 


That thickened the Erudite \'erba 


Ha/e 


Who pushed the Button to start the Machine 


Cloaking Constant K 




That made with the Sybernetics and Stuff 


I hat saved the Summary 




Without Confusion, e.xposing the Bluff' 


Based on the Mummery 




That hung on the Turn of a Plausible Phrase 


Hiding the Flaw 




And, shredding the Erudite Verbal Haze 


^ hat lay in the Theory Jack bui 


t. 


Cloaking Constant K, 
Wrecked the Summary 


This is Chaotic Confusion ami Bl 


lii' 


Based on the Mummery 


That hung on the Turn of a Plai 


sible I'hrase 


Hiding the Flaw- 


And thickened the Erudite Verbal 


Ha/.e 


And demolished the Theor\ Jack built. 


Stolen from 7V;< Allantic 


Dec. 1936 


with the 


aid of The (]i)l(i 


ado Engirii'ir. .May, 19S7 



28 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



LAR at night 



Far though it may be from North Campus, 
Lincoln Avenue Residence Hall is well known 
to most engineers. Within its ivy-covered walls 
live 542 girls, soon to be joined by the more 
than 600 which Allen Hall, just west of it, will 
hold. 

Isolated though these charmers may be, 
they are certainly seldom lonely, for the 
"ratio" guarantees them many admirers. Un- 
derstandably, these gentlemen are loathe to 
leave the premises, for a great number of 
them are pinned or engaged to the lovely 
lassies of LAR. 

This preference they hove for staying 
around, and the residents' willingness that they 
do so leads to a large number of people in the 
lounge. As a reader service, TECHNOGRAPH 
here presents the story of that lounge. 



JANUARY, 1958 



29 




The lucky ones find seats . 



the others have to stand 




30 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




some prefer the back of the lounge 



. . . while others line up in the hal 




JANUARY, 1958 



31 




And so, good night . 



These pictures represent a normal evening at 
LAR, as vouched for by much of our staff. We 
accept their authority on the subject, although 
for once, none of them was in the lounge when 
the pictures were taken. 



32 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



B 



R 



N 



A 



R 



S 



1. Take the four Aces, Kings, Queens 
aiul Jacks out of a deck of cards and 
lay out four of the cards as shown he- 
low : 

J-I) A-C Q-S K-H 

Phice the remaining twelve cards in 
three rows below, such that no two 
alike cards (either in value or in suit) 
are in any row, any coluni, or any 
diagonal. 

2. A certain coeducational institution 
is reported to have made a special effort 
to incidcate good manners in the stu- 
dents. It was, we are told, the custom 
each morning to follow this procedure: 
Every girl made a bow to every other 
girl, to every boy and to the teacher. 
Every boy made a bow to every other 
boy, to every girl and to the teacher. 
There were twice as many girls as bo\s. 
In all, there were exactly "^OO bows 
made each morning. How many boys 
were in the school ? 

3. ( )n train there are three passengers, 
Mr. Smith, Mr. Jones and Mr. Robin- 
son, there are also an engineer, a brake- 
man, and fireman whose names are 
Jones, Smith and Robinson. Mr. Robin- 
son lives in Detroit. The brakeman 
lives halfway between Detroit and Chi- 
cago. Mr. Jones earns $8,000 a year. 
Smith beat the fireman at billiards. The 
brakeman's nearest neighbor, one of the 
passengers, earns three times as much 
as the brakeman who earns $4,000 a 
\ear. The passenger whose name is the 
same as the brakeman's lives in Chicago. 

What !!< the name of the engineer? 

4. Over the top of a fence there is 
placed a rope, the same amount on both 
sides. The rope weighs one-third pound 



per foot. On one end of the rope hangs 
a monkey holding a banana, and on the 
other end is a weight equal to the weight 
of the monkey and the banana. The 
banana weighs two ounces per inch. 
The length (in feet) of the rope is as 
long as the age of the monkey, and the 
weight of the monkey (in ounces) is as 
much as the age of the monkey's 
mother. The combined ages of the mon- 
key and its mother are thirty years. One- 
half of the weight of the monkei,' plus 
the weight of the banana is one-fourth 
as much as the weight of the weight 
and the weight of the rope. The mon- 
key's mother is one-half as old as the 
monkey will be when it is three times 
as old as its mother was when she was 
one-half as old as the monke\ will be 
when it is as old as its mother will be 
when she is four times as old a> the 
monkey was when it was twice as old 
as its mother was when she was one- 
third as old as the monkey was when it 
was as old as its mother was when she 
was three times as old as the monkey 
was when it was one-foLuth as old as 
it is now. 

How long is the banana? 

5. Find the digits represented by the 
letters below if no two letters represent 
the same digit. 



Slap 
+ DEB 

Dude 



Slap 
DEP 



PIPS 



6. A. It's as far from OMSK to 
r.MSK as from AMSK to MONSK. 

H. It's as far from MINSK to 
MUNSK as from MANSK to 
MONSK. 



C. .\I(ONSK is on a straight road 
from MINSK to UMSK. 

D. MONSK is on a straight road 
east from OMSK to MUNSK. 

K. AMSK is 8 miles north of OMSK 
and S miles west of UMSK. 

F. MANSK is 6 miles south of 
MUNSK and 6 miles east of MINSK. 
How far is it from OIVISK to MINSK? 
How far is it from UMSK to 
MUNSK? 

7. This will take a little time, but it 
is really quite simple. Just find the in- 
tegers that are represented by these let- 
ters. As a starter, \ = 7 
SUSY 



MSU 



DEMURE 
SRE 



MARU 
MAST 



DTR 

SRE 

UKE 
UKE 

S. If two locomotives start from two 
cities 132 miles apart headed toward 
each other on the same track, and if a 
Hy flies back and forth between the 
headlights of the two trains as they 
speed to their own (and the Hy's) des- 
truction, how many miles will the fly 
fly before he is crushed to death by the 
two headlights? One locomotive travels 
at a constant speed of 83 miles per hour; 
the other at 37 miles per hour. The fly 
does 7 miles per hour. 

( C.fnit'iniicil rin Fnnf 62) 



JANUARY, 1958 



33 



Crated . . 



Alfred never thought 
constructively about 
his future 




Alfred j. Frutnick had reached the 
estimable age (it 17, had grown a soft 
yellow beard which alread\ was 1 S 
centimeter long, and knew the rudi- 
ments of chemistry ai.d physics as the 
local college textbook had set them 
forth. 

Alfred J. I'nifnick, with these 
achievements, felt himself a complete 
man whose future growth would only 
he a matter of repetition, or if anything 
more productive, height. As far as an\' 
external stimulant to growth was con- 
cerned, there was nothing else but the 
food which he ate. 

If one asked him what the world was 
made of, he would immediately reply 
at the snap of a finger. 

"Why, tiny particles, mo\ uig at fan- 
tastic speeds through space." 

"And, what my lad, is space?" 

"Why, space is that which assures 
motion." 

.'Xnd he would run his slender fingers 
down the sides of his face like a sage 
divining great truths from the Testa- 
ment of Moses. Then he would e.xcuse 
himself and vanish into his imaginary 
chamber, furni.shed with great quanti- 
ties of glistening glass tubes and pipes, 
leading to the heavens and relaying the 
secrets of the cosmos through a circuit 
private to his alert ear. 

But no one asked him these ques- 
tions, although he was well rehearsed 
in case any scholar should happen to 
meet with him. \Ian\ times he hail 
stood before his silenth' philosophic mir- 
rors, watching his dark eyebrows bob up 
and down impressively and his jaw strut 
proudly as he opened up the eyes of an 
admirer to the simple facts of exist- 
ence. 



.Alfred had become quite early in his 
teens, the bane of his parent's life. C^ne 
had to admit he \\'as too studious to 
condemn ; yet there was something an- 
noying about his prophetic air. While 
his father, who held a very innocious 
position as clerk in a powerful indus- 
trial firm, expounded political economy 
to his credulous wife, Alfred would in- 
variably interrupt with: 

"And of what importance is the 
Smith Rill when we considei' how in- 
significant we all are." 

Then he would return to his plate 
and devour great quantities of meat with 
which to nourish his insignificant bodv. 

In school, Alfred exhibited utter con- 
tempt. While the ph\sics class was en- 
grossed in an illustration of a cloud 
chamber, make-sliiftly constructed out of 
coffee jars and pie tins by the class bril- 
liants, he would sit silently in the back 
of the room, his eye wandering out past 
rows of apartment buildings out of the 
window, out into a private region where 
cosmic rays were all powerful deities, 
not mere dancing spots on a wrinkled 
black cloth; and the only thing left of 
Alfred J. Prufnick would he a sl\, con- 
temptuous smirk. 

Alfred never thought constructively 
about his future. In his scheme of things 
there was no future, nor past, nor even 
present: Only ideation, which preclud- 
ed natural events. Ideation transcended 
people, classes, dates, giggling girls, ath- 
letics, and school activities. Ideation was 
.limed at the skies, trying to divine their 
great design and capture it in cruiie 
markings on a sheet of fresh white 
paper. So while his father scribbled into 
the night beside his agreeable wife, jug- 
gling figures so that .Alfred could re- 



ceive the costh education in law and 
medicine, the \oung boy would be 
tassling with his own newly conceived 
ideational theory. 

Mr. Prufnick would enter a figure in 
an elaborate system of auditing, mumb- 
luig inaudibly to his wife. 

"See, see Eva. If we set this figure 
aside right over here. There. Xow he 
cou'd maybe go to Harvard. Harvard 
for law my dear." 

"Yes, Emil. Yes dear." 

".And Eva. Look here. If we can only 
invest this over there. We'll be secure 
then, just in case Alfred shouldn't — 
well, just in case." 

"Yes. You're so wi.se Emil." 

-And during all this, Alfred would 
toss and turn in his narrow beil shut- 
ting out all thought for eternities ot 
time, then relaxing in one instant, trv - 
ing to capture the impetus of everv 
idea. He had discovered already that no 
one of his ideas followed from a chain of 
reasoning. At least none of his brilliant 
ideas. .And even those which were not 
so brilliant, but which he could not 
trace to any previous knowledge or in- 
ference from any previous stream of 
thought. But instead, each fresh idea 
seemed to emerge from no where, like 
a spark which had its causes to be sure, 
but where are they once the spark has 
emerged? Like and hot and cold, who 
each depended upon the other, yet where 
was cold when heat was felt and didn't 
heat vanish when cold was .sensed? It 
was no use tracking things down to ir- 
reducible elements. You had to either 
treat things as if they were according 
to your theory, in which case you were 
always falsifying and distorting from 
lack of information, or vnu must di>- 



34 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



^^^sif^-'^a^ini^'^f'tMri 




peiise with \()ur theory altogether, in 
which case you might as well give up 
your inquirw There seemed to be no 
middle ground. Ideational theory was a 
gross issue, not one which could be e\- 
l>lained b\' still more nnsterious en- 
tities, it \()u coidd even presume to call 
neural impulses entities. 

Alfred kept a wide loose leaf note- 
book in which he recorded his nightly 
efforts. One night he had set about re- 
futing Euclid's axiom. But where had 
he gotten the idea that a straight line 
Wits an ambiguous term ? What else 
could a straight line be but what was 
illustrated by the side of a triangle or 
the edge of his ruler. Yet he sensed an- 
other type of straight line, existing be- 
\ond measmement, that betrayed Eu- 
clid and made his brilliant geometry, 
revered through the ages, an isolated 
and restricted study. 

And Alfred was only 17 and knew 
the rudiments of chemistry and physics. 

Mr. and Mrs. Priifnick were not 
surprised when Alfred failed to come 
down to breakfast early one Sunday 
morning. The radio had been full of 
announcements regarding the promi- 
nence of the planet Mars which was to 
be glowing red in the sultry summer 
sky all that e\ening. Alfred had prob- 
ably stayed up to watch it and was 
still sleeping. Breakfast over, the elder 
Prufnick retired to the living room to 
read the market reports leaving his 
agreeable wife smiling over the dishes. 

It was already noon before Emil 
Prufnick returned to the kitchen inquir- 
ing after Alfred. 

"He hasn't come down \et, then?" 



"No, Emil. He's probabh tired from 
all that watching. Don't wake him \et." 

"What a boy, Eva. What a boy we've 
got here. Why doesn't he watch his 
pocket book that close." 

"Come now Emil, he doesn't spend 
anything. He never goes out at all. " 

"Does he earn anything. Does he go 
out and work? Get a job in a store, 
sweeping, or at the butchers. Or a news- 
stand, like the others, like I did when I 
came over here. On a newsstand I 
worked, Eva." 

"I know dear. I know you worked 
hard, and in the cold." 

"All he does is his watchmg, and his 
stud\ing late at night when we were 
asleep. I used to watch him. He knew 
the Talnnid from co\er to co\'er. But 
oiu' boy, he won't e\ en go to the Heder 
anymore." 

Emil sighed a great sigh and lit up 
a smelly pipe as his wife prepared the 
noon meal, in their small but immacu- 
late kitchen. The noon meal was over, 
and soon it was one o'clock and then 
two and finally Emil called angrily to 
his wife from the bedroom. 

"Eva, call Alfred down here already. 
He's been sleeping all day. " 

"I know Emil. Maybe he's sick 
though. I'm afraid to go up. " 

"Sick. Sick. How could he be sick. 
He was alright yesterday wasn't he. He 
didn't have a cold or anything?" 

"(^o up there Emil. You go yovuself. 
Maybe he's sick." 

The father came out of the bedroom 
moodily and headed up to the attic 
where Alfred had made himself a quiet 
st\i(i\-. He stood at the head of the 



stairs and gingerly opened the door not 
without apprehension. Once he had 
caught his son in an embarrassing posi- 
tion, during one of Alfred's rehearsals 
before the mirror, and he spent many 
days in despondency' trying to eradicate 
the impression of his own son parading 
before a mirror, showing off his gangly 
young body in an unhealthy solitude. 
Now he opened the door gingerly and 
scanned the room quickly. There was 
Alfred bent over the desk, or in the 
closet, or sitting in the overstuffed chair 
with a book. When he finally caught 
sight of his son, he gasped and closed 
the door, shutting his eyes to the task 
of another look, and collapsed in a worn 
heap on the top step. 

"Emil, is he allright?" Eva came to 
the foot of the stairs and taking one 
look at her husband flew into a fit of 
hysteria. 

"What is it? Emil. Speak. W^hat is it 
already? What's happened?" She ran 
from the steps into the kitchen, clutch- 
ing her apron in her hands and wring- 
ing it frantically. Then she ran back to 
the steps and pounded on the wall out 
of sheer impotence. 

"Please Emil. " 

"It's nothing. Go into the kitchen. 
It's nothing Eva." 

"No. Tell me. Can I come up. Is 
he . . .?" 

"No. Go into the kitchen. Hear?" 

Emil spoke sternly and his wife fol- 
lowed his voice into the kitchen and 
sat at the table wringing her hands and 
tugging at her hair rocking back and 
forth in her chair, uttering chant-like 



JANUARY, 1958 



35 



. . . this thing was on my head 



Meanwhile the tatlier. had pioiH-lleil 
hiiiiselt back into the room aiul was 
gazing at liis NoiiJig son on his baik in 
his narrow beJ, his head and neck eji 
cased in a large wooden (.rate. 1 he 
father approached him shiwly. 

"Alfred. Can \ou hear nie? It's Noiir 
lather talking." 

"1 can hear you Pa." 11 i^ \oice w a^ 
nuirfleil coming tliiougb tiie thick wood- 
en boards. 

".Alfred. W'hat can I do for \()ii ? 
How can 1 take this oti'?" 

"1 ilon't know Pa. I can't answer 

NOU." 

"Does anything hurt?" 

"Pa. I feel fine. 1 never felt better. 
Realh. If I coidd only eat I'd be real 
li:ipp\. U Ma worried? Tell her not 
to worry because I'm just fine." 

"But we've got to get you out ot 
that — out of there. You can't stay there. 
Think of how that'll look?" 

"I don't care. I like it in here. I feel 
real rested Pa. " 

"You stay there now, don't move. 
Don't move now, \()u'll strain \our- 
self." 

Emil rusiied out of the room and 
wiped the perspiration off of his fore- 
head before he began to descend the 
stairs. He tried earnestly to regain his 
composure before he should have to ex- 
plain to his wife what he had seen. 
What could he say? That his son was 
l\ing in his bed with an apple crate on 
his head. It was absurd. How should 
she belie\e it. How could he belie\e it 
e.xcept that he had seen him lying there 
in his thin blue jeans with an old brown 
shirt. Fidly dressed, in his socks and 
sneakers too. As though he were resting 
on his bed. Rut that apple crate. Or or- 
ange crate, whatever it was, he hadn't 
really gotten a look at it. It was not a 
strange crate. The boards looked worn 
and dirty and rusty nails hung out from 
various corners as though at one time 
the boards had been pried open and then 
pounded shut again, bending the nails 
and causing them to rust in the open 
air. Perhaps the boy in a gesture of 
wildness was playing a joke. Perhaps 
he had brought that crate home and 
coxeied hi> head with it only to scare 
his family. I'"mil was about to rush uji 
again in anger and dematiil an explan- 
ation, when he remembered the boy's 
reserve and calmness. Certainly, if he 
were playing a joke he would have 
laughed, or maybe cried, but he would 
iiave done something, not lie there anil 
say he was happy and rested. Alfred 
never pla\ed jokes, he u'as a .serious boy, 
and the only time he ever approached 
bis family at all was to berate them for 
tiieir ideas. If it were a joke, Alfred was 
not pla\'ing it. 



He walked into the kitchen and cm- 
brace<l his wife comfortingly. 

"Now K\a. Don't get all upset. I he 
bo\ is sick. I'm going to call the doctor 
.irul everything will be all right." 

Kva looked up, reassured. "He's got a 
temperature? Ma\be I'll bring him up 
some hot soup." 

"Not tor breakfast Kva," he remind- 
ed her. He stooped into a cabinet and 
picked up the heaw phone book, found 
the nundier lie wanted and placed bis 
call. -Meanwhile F.\ a watched bis e\eiy 
mo\ement trying to <lisceiri the trouble 
on his harsh face. 

"Kniil, can 1 get him ;m\thing?" 

"Ssh. No. just wait 'til the doctor 
comes." 

He linished his call and reassured that 
the doctor would be coming soon, and 
that he hadn't made him suspicious or 
worried his wife by repeating what he 
had seen over the phone, he sat beside 
K\-a at the kitchen table holding her 
hand gently and puffing on his dark, 
well smoked piiie. 

The doctor took one look at Alfred 
Prufnick and refused the case. He had 
been led up to the attic by the worried 
father, under the pretense that Alfred 
had a common human disease. He was 
not sure what exactly, but he felt siu'e 
it was probably a flu, for which he 
could write out a useless prescription, 
collect his fee and leave. The Prufnicks 
had been good patients in that w-ay. 
They never were .seriously ill, they 
visually appreciated the prescriptions, 
and they always paid the bill. His medi- 
cal practice threatened by this oddity, 
which he had always intuited would 
happen to Alfred, he bad nothing but 
cmses for Emil's ears and upon the rare 
child he had rai.sed. He left giving Eva 
a sympathetic look and refusing Emil's 
isS bill. This much help he could still 
offer. But Emil Prufnick was left with 
bis son and his crate and an unknowing 
wife. The doctor bad promised to send 
over an as.sociate to examine Alfred. Rut 
how many others w-ould he tell and 
what if this should get into the |iapers 
and ha\e reporters screaming at the 
doors and women looking in to see the 
crated youngster, his son. Eva's little 
bo\. 

He leturnetl to the attic and sat on 
the edge of the bed watching the slow, 
even breathing of his scrawny son. The 
boy did seem more rested. His nervous 
twitch was gone from his hands which 
were folded lightly on his stomach. His 
body was perfectly still and he appeared 
to be sleeping. The father bowed his 
head and thought the painful thoughts. 

"Pa. Is that you?" 

"I thought \ou were sleeping." 



"I was, for a while." 

"The doctor was here. Did \ou know- 
that ?" 

"No. Who, Dr. Stern? What',] he 
say?" 

"He's coming back with .uiotlier doc- 
tor." 

"This sine is strange isn't it. .Me in 
this silly thing. What is it exacth ? I 
can't make out \\hat's on top of me." 

"It's an ordinary apple crate. " 

"I'll be. I wonder bow it happened to 
me." 

"What did happen? Did you wake 
up that wax.''" 

No. 1 got up earlx for breakfast, 
and I got dressed. Onh I had a ter- 
rible headache and just laid down on 
the bed for a second when I fell back 
to sleep. I had a strange dream, I re- 
member. I dreamed I was in school, 
in college, and I was a teacher teach- 
ing very intelligent men, not young 
kids. This one man asked me a question. 
I don't remember what it was, but I 
started to answer it on the blackboard 
when everything started spinning around 
and m\ bead began to hurt and I woke 
up for just a second with this weird 
pain. Then 1 don't remember anything 
until much later, I think. Just before 
you came in, when I woke up again and 
everything was dark. I thought I was 
blind or something, but when I tried to 
get up this heavy thing was on my head. 
I felt it, and knew it was something 
wooden. I tried to speak but then I 
realized I could be heard from up here 
so I just laid back and waited. Rut I felt 
so funny. Not like I used to feel all the 
time. I felt younger and more relaxed. 
Like I did when I was a real young 
kid. I really don't want to get out of 
here, even though I am starved. I'd like 
to stay here all my life. I don't even 
have to think here. I just lie in the dark- 
ness and doze and then wake up again 
and feel my body moving inside, it 
moves slowly in rhythm. Do you think 
you coidd make a hole in the front, 
where my mouth is, so I could eat. Pa?" 

The old man looked with disgust at 
his son. He could hardly believe what 
he heard. Make a hole in this thing .so 
he could eat. He felt like getting a 
heavy hammer and smashing it to bits. 
He made no answer but sat on the edge 
of the narrow bed, his head in his hands. 

"Pa. Can \oii hear me. Do you sup- 
pose you could just get a saw and make 
a hole right where my mouth is? " 

Emil Prufnick could take no more 
and rose abruptly and left the room. 

"Pa. Where are you? Are you getting 
the saw? Get the saw and make a hole 
right here, where my mouth is." 

— Ruth Kahn 



36 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



High Temperature Photos . 

( (,'rjiitiniirrl fro/n' Pnyc 27 ) 



be at diftereiit temperatures because of 
variations in the infrared radiations from 
the target. The oil will condense prefer- 
entially upon the cooler portions of the 
membrane. This variable condensation 
causes variation in the thickness of oil 
film which in turn changes the appar- 
ent color of each temperature-differen- 
tial area of the membrane. Thus, the 
heat image focused on the membrane 
becomes visible and distinguishable 
through the different interference colors 
formed by the oil film. An oil slick on 
«'ater exhibits the same colors. 

The infrared optical system of the 
evaporograph is comparatively simple, 
consisting of a 4-inch-diameter, spheri- 
cal, front-surface mirror with an 8-inch 
focal length, mounted to move along its 
axis to focus the image on the mem- 
brane. It is adjustable for distances from 
ten feet to infinit\'. A Hat mirror in 
front of the sperical mirror is mounted 
at an angle of 45 degrees and serves 
to reflect the infrared image into the 
evaporograph cell. 

The viewing optical system is equip- 
ped with a light source which illumin- 
ates the membrane uniforniK' and forms 
an image of the membrane both on pho- 
tographic film and in an eyepiece for 
direct observation. 

Light from the special bulb, which 
contains a spare filament, passes first 
through a piece of heat-absorbing glass 
and is then reflected by a mirror in a 
direction at a right angle to its original 
path. This light passes through a col- 
limating lens which illuminates the 
membrane through a senu-transparent 
mirror. 

The light is then reflected by the 
membrane to another mirror and passes 
down the viewing tube in a right-angle 
direction to the axis of the cell. Two 
lenses in this tube form an image of 
the membrane surface. A partially-re- 
flecting mirror placed in the path of 
this light serves to split the beam into 
two parts. One beam forms an image 
on the film of a built-in 35-mm camera, 
the other forms a true image of the 
membrane in back of the mirror. This 
image is observed and photographed 
simultaneously. 

By employing a reference temperature 
in the field of view, the e\aporograph 
can be used to calculate unknown tem- 
peratures. By comparison of colors on 
the membrane, differences of tempera- 
ture in the target area are readily seen. 
Thus, the new device serves the 
duel purpose of making temperature dif- 
ferences visible and permitting temper- 
ature measurements to be made from 
the images produced. 



MARS outstanding design SERIES 




birth of a satellite 

Most new ideas, like this inhabited satellite, start 
out as drawings on a sheet of paper. Here artist Russell 
Lchmann shows the first step in building the space 
station proposed by Darrell C. Roniick, acrophysics 
engineer at Goodyear Aircraft. 

Two ferry ships, one stripped of rocket units, are 
jomed end to end. As others arc added, this long tube 
forms temporary living quarters for crews. E\cntually, 
outer shell will be built around core, making com- 
pleted station 3,000 feet long, 1,500 feet in diameter. 

No one can be .sure which of today's bright ideas 
will become reality tomorrow. But it is certain that 
in the future, as today, it will be important to use 
the best of tools when pencil and paper translate a 
dream into a project. And then, as now, there will be 
no finer tool than Mars — from sketch to working 
drawing. 

Mars has long been the standard of profes- 
sionals. To the famous line of Mars-Tcehnico push- 
button holders and leads, Mars-Lumograph pencils, 
and Tradition-Aquarell painting pencils, have re- 
cently been added these new products: the Mars 
Pocket-Technico for field use; the efficient Mars lead 
sharpener and "Draftsman's" Pencil Sharpener with 
the adjustable pomt-length feature; and — last but 
not least — the Mars-Lumochrom, the new colored 
drafting pencil which offers revolutionary drafting 
advantages. The fact that it blueprints perfectly is 
just one of its many important featnrcs. 



The 2886 Mars-lumogroph drowing pencil. 19 
degrees, EXEXB 10 9H. The 1001 Mars-Technico 
push-bution lead holder. 1904 Mars-lumogroph 
imported leads, 18 degrees, EXB 10 9H. Mors- 
lumochrom colored drolling pencil, 24 colors. 



J.S. 



TAEDTLERINC 

HACKENSACK, NEW JERSEY 

at all good engineering and drawing material suppliers 



JANUARY, 1958 



37 




i|^|li^^ VIk. 








HOVi TO "BREADBOARD" YOUR FUTURE 
... AT RAYTHEON 



Right at the start, it's nice to feel you "belong"— 
to know what your job is, and the kind of future 
open to you. 

At Raytheon, while we recognize the importance 
of trying your skills in various places, it's company 
policy to make you a producing engineer as soon 
as possible. 

Career opportunities exist for engineers, physicists 
and mathematicians to man important projects in: 
missiles, radar, communications, transistors, micro- 
wave and cathode ray tubes, physics, infrared, 
metallurgy, servomechanisms. 



You enjoy pleasant living in one of many attrac- 
tive communities. Through Raytheon's graduate 
programs you can continue your studies at one of 
several convenient centers of learn 
ing in the Boston area. 



WRITE FOR THIS HELPFUL BOOKLET 

Raytheon conducts campus interviews at 
many colleges. Check with your place- 
ment officer for more information. Write 
to William J. Howells, Jr., for a copy of 
"Your Life and Your Future at Raytheon" 
-no cost or obligation. 




RAYTHEON MANUFACTURING COMPANY 



Waltham S4, Massachusetts 



RAYTHEON 



Excellence 
in Electronics 



\- 




ENRICO FERMI ATOMIC POWER PLANT 



The shape of things to come . . . 



The world ahead looks bright indeed for today's 
graduate engineer . . . especially at Wisconsin Elec- 
tric Power Company where a wealth of engineering 
skill is needed to meet the important responsibility 
of serving well over half a million electric customers 
and more than 75,000 gas customers. 

There's no "standing still" at Wisconsin Electric 
Power Company. Our organization is geared to 
the opportunities to be found in the years ahead. 
Take atomic energy, for example. Our engineers 
gain experience in this important field by partici- 
pating in the activities of a group of electric com- 
panies now engaged in building the Eni'ico Fermi 
Atomic Power Plant pictured above — the world's 
largest commercial "breeder" reactor installation. 
When completed in 1960, this pioneer plant will 
provide excellent operating experience for the fast 
approaching atomic age. 



At Wisconsin Electric Power Company you will 
have a chance to use your engineering skills in a 
wide variety of fields — electrical, mechanical, civil, 
chemical, statistical, research, sales, administrative, 
etc. Opportunities are available both in our Mil- 
waukee metropolitan area and in many of the 
smaller communities of the Wisconsin Electric 
Power Company system which extends from the 
Wisconsin state line on the south into upper Michi- 
gan on the north. 

If you are interested in good wages, interesting 
work, excellent working conditions, numerous em- 
ploye benefits, exceptional opportunities for ad- 
vancement — and most of all, a chance to learn 
and grow in your chosen profession — then find out 
more about the Wisconsin Electric Power Company 
system. Make it a point to see our representative 
when he visits your campus. Find out more about 
"the shape of things to come" as they may affect 
your personal career. 



For complete information on a wide variety 
of interesting and rewarding careers . . . see 
our representative wiien lie visits your campus. 

WISCONSIN ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY SYSTEM 



Wisconsin Electric Power Co. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 



Wisconsin Michigan Power Co. 

Appleton, Wis. 



Wisconsin Natural Gas Co. 

Racine, Wis. 



JANUARY, 1958 



39 



THAT'S DOING at 

Pratt & Whitney Aircraft . . . 




Pratt & Whitney Aircraft engineer checks a 
bread board model for a subminioture, 
encapsulated amplifier built with transistors. 




A rig in one of the experimental test cells at P & W A 's Willgoos laboratory. The six large finger-like devices are remotely 
controlled probe positioners used to obtain basic air flow measurements within a turbine. This is one of the techniques 
for obtaining scientific data vitally important to the design and development of the world's most powerful aircraft engines. 



40 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



in the field of INSTRUMENTATION 



Among the many engineering problems relative to 
designing and developing today's tremendously 
powerful aircraft engines is the matter of accumu- 
lating data — much of it obtained from within the 
engines themselves — and recording it precisely. 
Such is the continuing assignment of those at Pratt 
& Whitney Aircraft who are working in the highly 
complex field of instrumentation. 

Pressure, temperature, air and fuel flow, vibra- 
tion — these factors must be accurately measured 
at many significant points. In some cases, the meas- 
uring device employed must be associated with 
special data-recording equipment capable of con- 
verting readings to digital values which can, in turn, 
be stored on punch cards or magnetic tape for data 
processing. 

Responsible for assembling this wealth of infor- 
mation so vital to the entire engineering team at 



Pratt & Whitney Aircraft is a special group of elec- 
tronic, mechanical and aeronautical engineers and 
physicists. Projects embrace the entire field of 
instrumentation. Often involved is the need for 
providing unique measuring devices, transducers, 
recorders or data-handling equipment. Hot-wire 
anemometry plays an important role in the drama 
of instrumentation, as do various types of sonic 
orifice probes, high temperature strain gages, tran- 
sistor amplifiers, and miniaturized tape recording 
equipment. 

Instrumentation, of course, is only one part of a 
broadly diversified engineering program at Pratt & 
Whitney Aircraft. That program - — • with other 
far-reaching activities in the fields of combustion, 
materials problems, mechanical design and aero- 
dynamics — spells out a gratifying future for many 
of today's engineering students. 




Instrumentation engineer at Pratt & 
Whitney Aircraft is stiown investigating 
modes of vibration in a blade of a 
single stage of a jet engine compressor. 



Special-purpose probes designed 
and developed by P & W A engi- 
neers for sensing temperature, 
pressure and air flow direction 
at critical internal locations. 



The "Plottomat", designed by P & W A 
Instrumentation engineers, records pres- 
sure, temperature and air flow direction. 
It is typical of an expanding program in 
automatic data recording and handling. 



Pratt & Whitney Aircralt operates a 
completely self-contained engineering fa- 
cility in East Hartford, Connecticut, and 
is now building a similar facility in Palm 
Beach County, Florida. For further in- 
formation about engineering careers at 
Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, write to Mr. 
F. W. Powers, Engineering Department. 




M'orld's foremost designer and builder of aircraft engines 

PRATT & WHITNEY AIRCRAFT 

Division of United Aircraft Corporation 

EAST HARTFORD 8, CONNECTICUT 



JANUARY, 1958 



41 




FIGURING OUT A CAREER? 



Robert G. Hildenbrondt tells 
what it's like to be . . . and 
why he likes being ... an 
Electronic Circuit Designer 
with IBM. 



♦"SOLUTION" 

This is one nf tin- Cflc- 
bratc'd prdblcms of math- 
ematics, dating frnm the 
18th century. That it 
CANT be done was 
proved by the great 
mathematician Euler in 
1735. Elder's ".solution" 
founded the science of 
topology, important to- 
day in electronic circuit 
design. 



Selecting a career can be puzzling, too. 
Sometimes, as with the seven bridges, the 
answers aren't alwa\'s available. In engi- 
neering and research, it's just as important 
to discover that no solution may be possible 
as to find the solution. It is equally true in 
career selection that some companies can 
provide solutions . . . opportunities for 
growth . . . not alwa\s available in all com- 
panies. Here's how Bob Hildenbrandt found 
the solution to his career problem — at IBM: 
"Since joining IBM," Bob sa\s, "I've seen 
some amazing developincnts in advanced 
circuitry. In my opinion, transistorized digi- 
tal airborne computers represent one of the 
most progressive assignments in electronics 
t()da\ . .\s we enter the missile age, the 
technology of packaging and miniaturiza- 



tion will take on increasing importance. 
Transistorized computers offer an excellent 
chance for development work in computer 
circuits . . . high-frcquencv power supplies 
. . . magnetic amplifiers, regulators, storage 
devices. Challenge? It's tremendous — for 
we're working not onlv on present systems, 
but those of the future!" 



There are manv excellent opportimities for 
well-fiualified enginecirs, physicists and 
mathematicians in IBM Research, Develop- 
ment and Manufacturing Engineering, Why 
not ask \our College Placement Director 
when IBM will next interview on vour cam- 
pus? Or, for information about how your 
degree will fit you for an IBM career. 



JUST WRITE TO: 



Mr. R. A. Whitehorne 
IBM Corp., Dept. 852 
590 MacJison Avenue 
New York 22, N. Y. 



IBM 



INTERNATIONAL 
BUSINESS MACHINES 
CORPORATION 



DATA PROCFSSING 

ELECTRIC TYPEWRITERS 

MILITARr PRODUCTS 

SPECIAL ENGINEERING PRODUCTS 

SUPPLIES 

TIME EQUIPMENT 



42 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




John Reiter (right) discusses the route of signals from the ivave guide through the IF stages of a microwave receiver 

"This was the kind of challenge I was looking for" 

John A. Reiter, Jr., B. S. in Electronics, Arizona State College, '54, 
discusses the biggest project so far in his Bell System career 



"One of the reasons I joined a Bell Telephone 
Company." John says, "'was because the engineer- 
ing woukl he more interesting and challenging. I 
knew Id chosen well when I was assigneil to assist 
in planning a microwave radio relay system between 
Phoenix and Flagstaff, Arizona. This was the kind 
of challenge I was looking for. 

"It was to be a system requiring fiye intermedi- 
ate relay stations, and I began by planning the 
tower locations on 'line of sight' paths after a study 
of topogra])hical maps. Then I made field studies 
using altimeter measurements and conducted path- 
loss tests to determine how high each tower should 
be. This was the trickiest ])art of the job. because 
it called for detecting the presence of rellecting sur- 
faces along the transmission route, and determining 
the measures necessary to avoid their effects. 

'"Not the least part of the job was estimating 
the cost of each of the five relay stations, taking into 
consideration tower height, access roads, and the 
need for special equipment such as de-icing heaters. 
All told, the system will cost more than S500.000. 



\^lien construction is finished in December of this 
year. TU be responsible for the technical consider- 
ations involved in connecting radio relay and tele- 
phone carrier equipment. Initially this system will 
handle 48 voice channels, but can be expanded to 
540. In addition to long distance telephone service, 
it will also provide data transmission circuits. 

"This assignment is an example of the challenges 
a technical man can find in the telephone company. 
You take the job from start to finish — from basic 
field studies to the final adjustments — with full re- 
sponsibility. To technical men who want to get ahead, 
that's the ultimate in opportunity." 

John Reiter is building his career with the Moun- 
tain States Telephone and Telegraph Company. Find 
out about career opportunities for you. Talk with 
the Bell interviewer when he \ isits your campus. 
And read the Bell Telephone booklet on file in your 
Placement Office, or write for a copy of "Challenge 
and Opportunity" to: College Fmployment Super- 
^ isor. American Telephone and Telegraph Company, 
195 Broadway, New York 7, N. Y. 



BELL TELEPHONE COMPANIES 




JANUARY, 1958 



43 



Emerson Electric 

of St. Louis 

. . .where the Voodoo means business 




^A 



J. his Voodoo's ancestry is strictly mid- 
western. Not any mumbo-jumbo about its 
purpose, either. The F-101 climbs fast, 
' travels far, and really means business when 
its incomparable fire-power is unleashed. 
The Voodoo means business with Emerson 
Electric, too, where F-101 supersonic airframes 
are among the many advanced projects in 
our Electronics and Avionics Division. 

When, on the other hand, the product is 
fractional h.p. motors, our Commercial 
Division is just as successful in meeting 
manufacturing specifications for quality and 
speed. With over 5,000 employees, 850 
engineers, Emerson is geared to produce, 
whatever the product . . . fans, motors, radar 
assemblies, or fire control systems. 

With broad, long-range expansion in progress 
right now. we have challenging career positions 
for graduating AEs, EEs, and MEs. For full 
details, write to Mr. A. L. Depke, Office 
and Technical Employment Supervisor. 
Or arrange an interview when we 
visit your campus. 




8100 W. FLORISSANT 




ST. LOUIS 21, MO. 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




JANUARY 
TECHNOCUTIE 



Photos by Dove Moore 



W> 




JANUARY, 1958 



-y 



45 



Technocutie 



The girl with the Greenwich Village sweater is Miss 
Dorothy Manning, of Harrisburg, Illinois, lhis month's Tech- 
nocutie. She is a sophomore in the School of Music, so for 
you who are interested in voice and piano, she's a real find. 

A sparkling personality, she's interested in almost 
everything, especially if it's of an artistic nature. Participat- 
ing in University Choir and Opera Workshop here on cam- 
pus, she aims some day at a spot in grand opera. Classical 
music interests her too, but she's quile fond of jazz in the 
"cool school," and would like to learn more about it. 

Outside the world of music, she studied for a time with 
the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, and slill loves to dance. 
Also in the range of active sports, she likes all aquatic 
activities, especially swimming and waterskiing. After she 
leaves the University, Dorothy hopes to travel to Europe, 
particularly Switzerland and Italy, where she'd like to do 
some skiing. "I love the mountains," she admits, "and I'd 
even like to go prospecting." 

Turning from the great outdoors, Dorothy claimed an 
interest in Sherlock Holmes, Ernest Hemmingway, Tennes- 
see Williams, and Pablo Picasso, to round out an avid 
interest in the oris. Other than dramatic writers and im- 
pressionist painters she also likes good plays, concerts, 
sports cars, and pinochle. An interesting girl, and unat- 
tached, too. 



46 THE TECHNOGRAPH 




For you mathematicians, 
Dorothy is 19 years old, and 
carries some 1 19 pounds on 
that 5'-6" figure. She tops 
off those blue eyes with 
dark brown hair, and tapes 
35-23-35 anyway you look 
at it. Give her a call at 
Evans Hall, for she isn't spo- 
ken for yet. 




* rte 





JANUARY, 1958 



47 



Know any cute girls? 



. . . then tell us at Technograph! 



SERIOUSLY, the Illinois Technograph is interested in obtaining nominations for the Technocutie 
of the Month. For many years we have been printing photos of girls who have won various 
queen contests on campus (or were among the finalists). We shall continue to print some of 

these pictures. 

HOWEVER, and here is where you come in, we are interested in finding new talent. We are sure 
that there are many beautiful girls on campus who never appear in contests; you see them 
every day walking down the broadwalk. All we need to do is get names and phone numbers 
of these girls and we'll take care of the rest. Just fill in the blank and drop in any University 
mail box (not U. S. mail) or drop it off at 215 C. E. H. or the basement of lllini Hall (Daily 
lllini Office). 

REWARDS are in it for you. For each girl selected, you will get a personally-autographed photo. 
Sound like a good deal? Then get busy! 

Tear Here 

ILLINOIS TECHNOGRAPH 
215 Civil Engineering Hall 



My nomination for Technocutie is 

who lives at , phone. 

Her description is 



I am ■ and live at_ 



phone. 



(Signed) 



48 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




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50 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



LBTY 






How RCA brings a richer, wider range 
of musical sound to your home 



Before high fidelity, the 
sound of recorded music 
was limited — much as 
piano music would be if 
you could hear only the 
notes played on the center 
of the keyboard. No 
rich bass notes, no keen, 
vibrant highs. 
RCA achievements in the science of 
sound and acoustics changed all that. 
Today, with RCA Victor records and 
high fidelity "Victrolas," the full range 
of sound is reproduced so faithfully 




that you can enjoy music almost as 
though you were there. 

And now, Stereophonic Sound! A 
new and dramatic dimension in re- 
corded music is also yours to enjoy 
on RCA high fidelity instruments. 
Stereophonic units can be added to 
most "Victrola"'' Hi-Fi systems any 
time you choose. 

In this, as in almost every area of 
electronic progress in home entertain- 
ment, defense and industry, the leader- 
ship of RCA serves you. RCA means 
electronics at its best! 



WHERE TO, MR. ENGINEER? 

RCA offers careers in research, 
development , design, and man- 
ufacturing for engineers with 
Bachelor or advanced degrees 
in E.E., M.E. or Physics. For 
full information, write to: Mr. 
Robert Haklisch, Manager, 
College Relations, Radio 
Corporation of America, 
Camden 2, N. J. 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 



JANUARY, 1958 



51 




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S OX 2. 1 73 — M O u 5T0 M — TEXA3 



52 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




New 




A. Elaborate Georgian architecture, so common in 
college towns, is expensive to construct and maintain. 



In U. of I. 
Architecture 



by Lowell Burgin 




B. The simple, clean lines of contemporary architecture lend themselves to 
simplified, economical construction processes. 

JANUARY, 1958 



People who think, the L ni\ersity of 
Illinois has a large campus now would 
be amazed to know about the large 
number of buildings now under con- 
struction or in the planning stage. 

At the present time several new build- 
ings are Hearing completion. The Lin- 
coln Avenue Residence Halls are now 
in the final stages of construction. The 
new band building was recently com- 
pleted and is now in use. Construction 
of the biology building and an aiidition 
to the mini L'liion are in the planning 
stage. The planning of these new build- 
ings is a long procedure. 

There are several individuals and 
committees responsible for the planning 
of a new building. First step in the con- 
struction of any new building on cam- 
pus is the decision of the University 
building program committee that a cer- 
tain department is most in need of a 
uew building. 

It is often a \ery difficult job for 
this committee to decide \\hat building 
should be constructed first. The money 
acquired from the State Legislature for 
the University building fund must be 
used to the best advantage. Since every 
department of the L^niversity is in great 
need of expanded facilities, it is import- 
ant to decide how the money shoidd be 
spent. 

After it is ilecided that a certain de- 
partment needs a new building, an archi- 
tectural firm is hired to design the struc- 
ture. The b\iilding program committee, 



53 



Old vs. New 

In U. of I. Architecture 




Photos b\ Dove 
C. Pouring the cement floor of new Men's Residence Hall additions. 



D. A new, economical method of pouring concrete pillars into spiral card- 
board forms which are discarded after the concrete hardens. 




a coiunuttcc from the <l('partinent ot 
architecture, ami the University architect 
make sugfiestions to aid in designing the 
hest structure. The last phase in the 
planning is preparation of the working 
drawings. 

A building which is being designed for 
the U. of I. campus today will have a 
much different appearance than the older 
buildings. The style of architecture be- 
ing used on the campus is rapidly chang- 
ing. The old Georgian style of architec- 
ture is being abandoned as shown by 
rile neu Law Building. 

1 he new style of architecture allows 
the use of less expensive building ma- 
terials. The old Georgian style required 
a great deal of carving and decorative 
work on the outside of the building. 
1 he new trend in architecture, how- 
ever, is to bring out the natural beaut\ 
lit a building through better selection 
of building materials, such as glass, 
masonry, and wood. 

It is now realized that the quadrangle 
arrangement of the campus has the dis- 
advantage of not providing adequate 
parking space. The new buildings are 
therefore being built further away from 
the quadrangle. Thus the style of archi- 
tecture on the L . of I. campus is being 
changed into a modern one. 

Several new construction methods 
have been adopted for use on the new 
buildings. It has been found that build- 
ing forms for a concrete floor are less 
expensive than using a pre-cast beam 
system. In the past, concrete floors were 
poured over a floor structure sup[iorted 
by concrete beams. This method is both 
expensive and inconvenient. The beams 
ha\e to be specially made and much 
labor is involved in emplacing them. 

When the new addition to L.A.R. and 
additions ,^ and 4 of M.R.H. were con- 
structed, the concrete floors were poured 
over forms with no beams or girders 
being used other than spandrel beams. 
It was found that building forms were 
less expensive than using pre-cast con- 
crete beams. 

No beams or girders will be used in 
the floors of the new women's resi- 
dence hall to be built at Pennsylvania 
and Lincoln .Avenues. The floors will 
be supported entirely by the partition 
walls beneath. 

These are just a few of the ways in 
which the appearance of architecture 
on the campus is changing. Since the 
si/,e of the campus is increasing rapidly 
:md most new buildings are being built 
in the south end of campus, a tremen- 
dous growth of the campus in that 
direction is seen for the future. Many 
changes will come about in architecture 
on the L'. of I. campus in the next 
few years, all with an eye toward bet- 
ter design and construction as well as 
economv. 



54 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



The legal complications of taking 
a patent are sometimes worth 
all the trouble. Here's how to find out 
what you need to know about . . . 



Do you want to shed your status as 
an amateur inventor and step into the 
ranks of those who hold patents? The 
procedure is somewhat difficult and not 
always justifiable, but it is of major 
importance if your invention meets cer- 
tain qualifications. 

First, keep in mind that only cer- 
tain types of inventions are patentable. 
Only new and useful devices, machines, 
processes, articles of manufacture and 
improvements of previous patents can be 
filed for a new patent. 

Now let's suppose that you have in- 
vented something patentable. The first 
thing to do is to make a rough sketch 
of your invention and write up a des- 
cription of it as clearly as you can. A 
master copy with one carbon copy 
should be sufficient. Then call in a cou- 
ple of your engineering friends or col- 
leagues — people whom you think you 
can trust and who are capable of un- 
derstanding your explanation of how 
the invention works. Tell them you are 
about to make a patent disclosure to 
them, and that you trust them not to 
disclose the information to anyone else. 
Then explain your invention to them 
and have them sign and date a state- 
ment, on the same sheet as the written 
description, that you have this day made 
a disclosure to them of the above-des- 
cribed invention. Sign and date the dis- 
closure yourself, put your carbon copy 



Patent Laws and You 



by Raymond Norton 



in a safe place, and mail the original 
to yourself by registered mail. When 
the letter returns to you, do not open 
it but put it away in a safe place apart 
from the place where your carbon copy 
is located. 

This may sound like a lot of red 
tape and a dangerous thing to do. It is, 
though, the only sure way to prove the 
date on which you conceived your in- 
vention in case of future lawsuits. It is 
actually relatively safe, since most peo- 
ple, strangely enough, are honest. They 
will not try to kidnap your brainchild. 
To do so would be a breach of trust, 
for which you could sue them. 

After making your patent disclosure, 
do not rush to file a patent application. 
First, consider the following. Does your 
invention have engineering merit? That 
is, will your invention actually work 
and can it be reproduced in reasonable 
quantity? Second, does your invention 



JANUARY, 1958 



55 



li;i\f a rt-asonablc >alfs potential? It it 
ilocs not have ri-asoiiablf sales potential 
in the form in which \ou oriiiinalh 
coiicciveii it. can that form be change 1 
to jiive it a n asonabic sales potential ? 
If \ou have a pretty clear idea that the 
answers to these qn- fioiis are favor- 
able, the next step is to contact a repu- 
table patent attorney and talk to him 
about the advisability of a preliminary 
patent search. 

What is the purpose of such a search? 
.■\ preliminary search ma\' serve a num- 
ber of purposes, but there are two in 
w hich you are interested just now. One. 
it will gi\e >ou a reasonable idea as to 
whether or not your inxention is really 
new. Another purpose served by a pre- 
liminary search is to acquaint you and 
your patent attorney with similar pat- 
ented inventions. This information will 
enable the patent attorney, with your 
close cooperation, to draft a better pat- 
ent application by more clearly dis- 
tinguishing your in\ention from the so- 
called prior art. It is helpful to you, 
moreover, in that it may give you some 
ideas for either improving your inven- 
tion or for redesigning it to better avoid 
the possibility of infringing upon sonie- 
bod\ else's patent. Parenthetically, you 
may use a so-called "state-of-the-art" 
patent search as a tool. If you want to 
design something for a specific purpose, 
and if you're not sure of the latest dc- 
\elopments in the field, you might have 
a patent search made and thereby save 
yourself considerable preliminary re- 
search. If someone else has already done 
part of the engineering work necessary 
to meet your requirements and em- 
bodied it in a patent, why not use his 
results as your departure point and 
work up from there? 

Patent Claims 



Let's assume now that on the basis 
of all these preliminary steps you de- 
cide to apply for a patent. You then 
request your patent lawyer to prepare 
an application for you. You do this, 
rather than drafting the application 
yourself, because the Patent OtTice has 
numerous technical requirements con- 
cerning the format and contents of the 
application with which the patent lawyer 
is more familiar. But, you can't simply 
turn the job over to him and forget 
about it. You must work with him to 
arrive at patent claims which will cover 
not only the "preferred embodiment" 
of your invention but also as many other 
"equivalent forms" as you can think of. 
One reason for this is that patent claims 
are narrowly construed by the courts. 
If you don't claim invention of all the 
equivalent forms of your device or proc- 
ess, a potential competitor can walk off 
with vour market by selling at a lower 



56 



Patent Laws and You 



jirice tlie equi\alent torni \nu didn't 
mention and nothing can be done about 



Suppose that \i)ur p.itent application 
is finally filed and you receive notifica- 
tion of the filing or serial number from 
the Patent (Office. What happens now? 

Time for Action 

If all does not go well, you might 
become involved in a controversy with 
the Patent Office over the allowability 
of some or all of the claiins in your ap- 
plication. You might also become in- 
volved in a legal proceedings in the 
Patent Office known as an "interfer- 
ence." An interference arises when two 
applications are subnu'tted about the 
same time conveying what the patent 
examiner regards as substantially the 
same invention. Since, under the Pat- 
ent Act, a patent can be issued only to 
the inventor of a new process or device, 
it's up to the Patent Office (and some- 
times the courts) to decide which of 
the two people first conceived the in- 
vention. This, of course, is the point 
at which your witnessed and dated pat- 
ent disclosure (which you mailed to 
yourself) comes in handy as evidence 
of the date when you first conceived 
your invention. 

On the other hand, if all goes well 
vou will receive a patent in about two 
or three years. In the meantime, you 
can try to market your invention. If 
you are wise, and if you want to sell 
your patent rights outright, you will 
try to do so between the time you file 
your application and the time the patent 
is issued. One reason for this is that 
the purchaser might want to amend your 
application so that the resulting patent, 
when issued will conform to his own 
patent policies. It is naturally harder 
to persuade the Patent C^ffice to reissue 
a patent in an amended form than to 
issue the original patent in the newly- 
desired form. 

In connection with selling \our pat- 
ent rights, never, under any circum- 
stances, sell a fractional interest in your 
patent rights. Sell either your entire in- 
terest, or none at all. You might be 
tempted to sell or mortgage a fraction- 
al interest to finance yourself or your 
application, or to capitalize early on the 
patent you expect, but patent laws per- 
mit a part owner of a patent to exploit 
the patent 100% without accounting to 
the other part owner for one cent. 

Of course, there are other ways of 



exploiting \()ur iiuention. One is to 
manufacture or use your invention \our- 
self. Another, is to license others to man- 
ufacture, use, or sell it on payment of 
royalties. I'nfortunately, both of these 
steps are frouglit with perils. Consult 
your patent law\er before embarking in 
either of these directions. 

Now let's suppose that your efforts 
have been successful and the postman 
delivers to your door a parchment that 
looks like a fancy diploma and is signed 
bv the incumbent United States Coni- 
mis.sioner of Patents. What do \ou 
have ? 

In answering this question 1 should 
like to shift both my emphasis and nn- 
viewpoint. Until now I've been dis- 
cussing the mechanics of obtaining a 
patent, and I've aimed the discussion at 
the prospective individual inventor. Rut 
not all inventors fall into this category. 
At least, in their early professional 
careers, most engineers are employed by 
corporations of various sizes where they 
work in groups on new developments. 
And, frequently, one of the pre-condi- 
tions of their employment is that they 
sign over their potential patent rights 
relating to the company's business to 
their prospective employers. So now I'd 
like to discuss the meaning of patents 
from the emplo\er's viewpoint and from 
the \iewpoint of the potential engineer- 
ing executive and businessman. 

Legal Monopoly 

In essence, a patent is a legally pro- 
tected monopoly. The patent document 
itself intends to give to its owner the 
exclusive right, to make, use, and sell 
the invention described in the patent 
application, for a period of .seventeen 
years. More accurately, it permits its 
owner to prevent anyone else from mak- 
ing, using, or seUing the invention 
claimed. 

Since a patent is a monopoly, and 
since our society has expressed itself 
through the antitrust laws, as opposed 
to monopoly in general, the granting of 
patents must somehow be justified. The 
classical justification is that a patent 
is granted as consideration for public 
disclosure which promotes the progress 
of science and the useful arts. In view 
of this justification, sound administra- 
tion of the patent system requires that 
a patent be i.ssued only when there has 
been a genuine iiuention which promises 
to lead to the development of science 
and the useful arts, that the invention 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



". . . patent laws permit a part 
owner of a patent to exploit the 
patent 100% without accounting to 
the other part owner for one cent." 



be fully disclosed to the public through 
the patent application, and that the pat- 
ent monopoly cease at the expiration of 
the statutory period of seventeen years. 
\o\v, there have been a number of 
.serious obstacles to sound administration 
of the patent system. One is that there 
have been no exact standards of what 
constitutes genuine invention. Congress 
has laid down no infallible test, and the 
courts use conflicting standards. Conse- 
quently gadgetry sometimes succeeds 
where basic work fails. A new com- 
bination of circuits in a pinball machine 
has been held to constitute an inven- 
tion, but Marconi's work was held to 
be insufficiently above the level of the 
prior art to make him the inventor of 
the wireless. 

Other Obstacles 

Another major obstacle in the sound 
administration of the patent system is 
that the Patent Office is not equipped 
to apply even such vague standards as 
there are. Not only is the number of 
examiners inadequate to permit careful 
scrutiny of the tremendous flow of ap- 
plications, but also the examiners are 
hampered because of their lack of lab- 
oratories and proving grounds. More- 
over, the examiners can't keep abreast 
of the court decisions. As a result of 
this, many patents are issued which 
could not stand up in court. It has been 
estimated that the average patent has 
only one chance in ten of being upheld 
if fully tested in court. This doesn't 
mean that the other fellow's patent can 
be ignored. Lawsuits are expensive. 
Small manufacturers frequently yield 
to the mere threat of a patent infringe- 
ment suit, even when convinced of the 
validity of the patent. 

A third obstacle to sound administra- 
tion is that the exclusive right may be 
extended beyond the statutory" limit of 
1 7 years by accident or design. An ap- 
plication may lie dormant in the Patent 
Office for some time before the patent 
is issued. Mistakes may be made in the 
application and then corrected. Improve- 
ments, and then improvement on im- 
provement, may be patented. One com- 
pany, whose business was built on about 
a dozen basic or "pioneer" patents, ac- 
cumulated more than 9,000 secondar\' 
patents and obtained rights under 6,000 



others. This company used these patents 
to eliminate its competitors long after 
its original basic patents had expired. 



"Too Many Fingers" 

As a particularly good illustration of 
how patents are sometimes used, I 
should like to relate certain facts which 
were brought out in a fairly recent 
criminal antitrust case. This case re- 
sulted in conviction of all defendants 
and the imposition of relatively small 
fines. 

In the early 1920's some ingenious 
Americans began to make and market 
cutting tools made from an alloy of a 
new material which greatly increased 
the hardness of steel. By 1928 a foreign 
manufacturer was marketing this ma- 
terial in the United States at a price 
of S48 per pound. About the same time 
a large American company was experi- 
menting in the making of tools of this 
new material, and it naturally assigned 
one of its patent lawyers to study the 
patents owned by the foreign manufac- 
turer. It was his opinion that these pat- 
ents were worthless. Some of the exe- 
cutives of the American company were 
informed of this opinion and believed 
these patents worthless. Nevertheless, 
when approached by officials of the for- 
eign manufacturer, the American com- 
pany entered into an agreement with 
the foreign company for the pooling of 
patents, with the hope, as expressed in 
one of the home-bound reports of a rep- 
resentative of the foreign company, that 
it would "succeed in delaying unauthor- 
ized competition." The American com- 
pany then established a subsidiary to 
make and market the new steel harden- 
er. Shortly afterward the subsidiary 
raised the price of this material from 
the original S48 per pound to :?453 per 
pound or SI per gram. American indus- 
try was naturally slow to use the ma- 
terial at this price. 

Having exchanged patent rights with 
the foreign company, and having ob- 
tained the right to grant licenses in the 
United States under the foreign patents, 
the American company's subsidiar>- be- 
gan to license other manufacturers of 
the new material. In each case these 
licenses required the licensee, who was 
a competitor of the subsidiar\-, to grant 
back a license to the subsidiarv under 



any patent the licensee possessed or 
might later acquire in the field. Thus, 
the subsidiar>' acquired rights under al- 
most all the patents in the industry. 

Sometimes it was necessary to start 
infringement suits to bring competitors 
into line. The subsidian^ started nine 
such suits and threatened others in the 
period from 1928 to 1940. But always, 
except in one case, the subsidiar>' side- 
stepped a judicial determination of the 
validity of the basic patents. Except for 
one case, the subsidiary obtained out-of- 
court settlements in which the so-called 
"infringers" were forced to accept either 
license or agency agreements from the 
subsidiary". The agreement made them 
unwilling partners to an arrangement 
imder which the subsidiary fixed prices 
not only on its patented tools but also 
on unpatented tools as well. 

The one case in which the subsidiary 
failed was that of a small tool-and-die 
maker in Detroit. When he refused to 
maintain prices, the subsidiary' sued him 
for patent infringement. L nfortunately 
for the subsidiary, the Detroit toolmaker 
was a very stubborn man. He fought 
the suit to the bitter end. refusing to ac- 
cept any out-of-court settlement. The 
court in 1941 declared the patents in- 
valid. The Detroit toolmaker. incident- 
ally, had been forced to spend $75,000 
in his defense. It is interesting to note 
that a similar defense today would cost 
about three times as much because of 
inflation since l'^41. 

2000 Abuses 

In conclusion it might be pointed out 
that, while not all companies engage in 
similar practices, the case described is 
not unique. The Antitrust Division of 
the Department of Justice has brought 
approximately 2000 cases in its history. 
Many of these involving patent abuses, 
have been brought about successfully. 
Moreover, it is well known that the 
Antitrust Division, because of limited 
resources, is forced to limit itself to tak- 
ing action in only a small percentage of 
cases where violations are known to exist. 
The patent grant, therefore, while con- 
ceived as an incentive to invention, 
achieves additional importance in the 
business world as a handy weapon, both 
for legal and illegal reduction of com- 
petition and for self-defense against the 
more predatory use of other patents. 



Tranquilizers Mean Business 

The total number of prescriptions dis- 
pensed by domestic retail druggists last 
year came to 629 million — nine per cent 
more than 1955's 577 million, reports 
Chemical fFeci. yiore than half the to- 
tal increase can be attributed to sales of 
tranquilizers and hormones, with gains 
also scored by blood-pressure drugs. 



JANUARY, 1958 



57 



Z4iXfiKjee/ilt^ McixlL44e>l6. 



^ 



The designer sat at his drafting board; 

A wealth of knowledge in his head was stored; 

Like "What can be done on a radial drill, 

Or a turret lathe or a vertical mill?" 

But above all things, a knack he had 

Of driving gentle machinists mad. 

So he mused as he thoughtfully scratched his bean 

"Just how can I make this thing hard to machine?" 

If he made this body perfectly straight, 

The job had ought to come out first-rate. 

But 'twould be so easy to turn and bore 

That it would never make a machinist sore. 

So he'll put a compound taper there, 

And a couple of angles to make 'em swear. 

And brass would work for these little gears. 

But it's too damned easy to work, he fears. 

So just to make the machinist squeal. 

He'll make him mill it from tungsten steel! 

He'll put those holes that hold the cap 

Down underneath where they can't be tapped. 

Now if they can make this it'll be just luck, 

'Cause it can't be planed and can't be ground. 

So he feels his design is unusually sound. 

And he shouts in glee, "Success at last! 

This damned thing can't even be cast!" 

—j Id III I III- win lis/;, I Hhic Pi 'ml 



58 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



CAREERS WITH BECHTEL 




Karl Bausch, Chief Electrical Engineer, 
Power Division oj the Bechtel Corporation. 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 

One of a series of interviews in which 
Bechtel Corporation executives discuss 
career opportunities for college men. 



Question: Mr. Bausch, in con- 
sidering a position with Beclitel, or 
any other firm, isn't it true that what 
most college men want to know first 
of all is "What will I be doing?" 

Bausch: That's true, and it isn't an 
easy question to answer. So much de- 
pends on individual preferences and 
abilities and the way a man develops. 
On joining us, he would be asked if 
he'd like to work on the drafting 
board doing layout work. As an 
alternate, he might prefer a starting 
assignment involving helping out on 
calculations, requisitioning materials, 
writing specifications, etc. 

Question : In other words you try to 
give the new man some freedom of 
choice? 

Bausch: As far as possible. We 
know that the beginning period is a 
difficult one. It takes some time for 
him to get his feet on the ground and 
we try to "expose" him to many dif- 



ferent activities. In that way he gets 
needed experience and familiarity 
that help him decide the work for 
which he feels best qualified. It also 
gives us the opportunity to evaluate 
his potential. 

Question: Assuming a man shows 
the necessary ability and begins to 
produce, how does he branch out? 

Bausch: Generally, in either of two 
ways. He may work on the electrical 
portion of power plants, designing 
circuits, control and relaying systems, 
unit protection, etc. The other way is 
on the physical layout of power plants 
— that is, location of equipment, con- 
duit and raceway systems, etc. In 
either case he would be put in charge 
of one section of the project. 

Question: And his next advance 
would be ...? 

Bausch: Assuming he progresses 
satisfactorily, he would ultimately 



move into a lead job as a group 
supervisor in charge of the design of 
the electrical system of the complete 
plant. 

Question: Could you give an 
estimate of tlie time involved in the 
various steps? 

Bausch: That's impossible. We have 
no hard and fast schedule. In general, 
we have found that it takes a man 
about a year to get his feet on the 
ground and become a real producer. 
From that point on, it's up to him. 

Question: //; other words, he can 
advance in l<eeping with his indivi- 
dual ability ? 

Bausch: That's right. Of course, 
there are many other factors in- 
volved, including the vitally impor- 
tant one of the great advancements 
being made in every phase of the 
electrical industry. These create new 
jobs and new types of jobs involving 
new skills. And for every opportunity 
existing today, it is safe to predict 
there will be at least two tomorrow. 



Bechtel Corporation (and its Bechtel 
foreign subsidiaries) designs, engineers 
and constructs petroleum refineries, 
petrochemical and chemical plants: 
thermal, hydro and nuclear electric 
generating plants: pipelines for oil and 
natural gas transmission. Its large and 
diversified engineering organization 
offers opportunities for careers in many 
branches and specialties of engineering 
— Mechanical. ..Electrical. ..Structural 
. . .Chemical . , . Hydraulic. 

Write for new brochures showing the 
wide variety of projects Bechtel builds 
throughout the world. 

Address: John F. O'Connell, 

Vice President, Industrial Relations 

220 Bush Street, San Francisco 4, Calif. 




BECHTEL 
CORPORATION 

SAN FRANCISCO 
Los Angeles • New York • Houston 



JANUARY, 1958 



59 



YOUR ENGINEERING CAREER 

with INGERSOLL-RAND 








Seven electric-driven Ingersoll-Rond reciprocoling compressorj totaling 21,900 horsepoy»er are at work in this large 
ammonia synthesis plant. The units in the foreground compress mixed goses to more than 12,000 pounds per square inch. 



Here's ^/hat Compressor Engineering at Ingersoll-Rand 
can mean to you... 



TODAY, air power is one of the industry's 
most vital requirements. Compressed air 
and gases are the "breath of life" to chemical 
and process industries, refineries, power 
plants, steel mills, manufacturing plants, 
mines and all types of construction jobs. 
Hence, compressor and blower engineering 
offers an exciting and ever-expanding field of 
challenging opportunities that are virtually 
industry-wide. 

Ingersoll-Rand is the world's largest man- 
ufacturer of air and gas compressors and 
Turbo-Blowers — supplying over 1000 differ- 
ent sizes and types, ranging from Vi hp to 



17,250 hp, in pressures from vacuum to 
35,000 psi. 

Ingersoll-Rand also manufactures pumps, 
rock drills, diesel and gas engines, vacuum 
equipment, blowers, air and electric tools 
and specialized industrial machinery as illus- 
trated at the right. These products require 
engineering know-how in their design, manu- 
facture and field application. 

If you are looking for a leadership career 
with long-range job security and excellent 
opportunities for advancement, you'll find 
it at Ingersoll-Rand. For further details, con- 
tact your Placement Office, or write to 
Ingersoll-Rand, 1 1 Broadway, New York 4. 



Air & Electric Tools 



OPPORTUNITIES for ENGINEERS NOW AVAILABLE: 
• Sales Engineering • Production Engineering 



• Design Engineering 



• Business Engineering 



In0ensoll-Rand 



1.711 ^r II Broodway. Ne 



y. New Yorlc 4, N. Y. 




60 



Diesel & Ga:, Engines 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 





thrive in this ideal 
'growing" environment 

WORLD'S LARGEST RESEARCH CENTER FOR 
AUTOMATIC PRESSURE AND LIQUID LEVEL CONTROL 



iL 



During the past three quarters of a century, the Fisher research 

and development departments have produced some of the 

outstanding developments in control instrumentation and automation. 

At the same time, these laboratories have developed some of the 
nations leading control engineers! The two go together at Fisher. 

If you are looking for challenge, opportunity and a future 

that will touch practically every basic industry in the 
world, consult your placement office or write us about the 
opportunities Fisher holds in store for you. 



IF IT FLOWS THROUGH PIPE ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD. ..CHANCES ARE IT'S CONTROLLED BY 

FISHER GOVERNOR COMPANY 

Marshalltown, Iowa / Woodstock. Ontario / Rochester, England 




SINCE 1S80 



JANUARY, 1958 



61 



Brainteaser Answers 



( ('^iiiiiiitiitil f 1 0/11 I'iKjf 33) 



I. .la Ac Qs Kh 

Ks (Jli Acl }k- 

All Js Kc Q(l 

Qc K,l Jh As 

_'. 'riu-rc were ID hoss in tlic school. 

,^. riic engineer of tlic tniiii was 
named Snutli. 

4. The monkey was hoUling a banana 
wliicli was exactly 7.67 inches lonj;. 

r SLAP 7,^_'() SIAP 7326 

+ I)EP SV) -DKH -.SSq 



2827 



128 ) 361856 
256 

1058 
1024 

345 
256 

896 
896 



8. He goes 7.7 mil 



DIDK 8185 PIPS 6467 

6. H\ similar triangles and the P\ - 
thagorean theorem it ma\ be easily 
shown that 

O.MSK to MINSK— 10 Miles 

OMSK to MUXSK— 10 Miles 



Healthy Diets 

Food sales through chain stores will 
increase 6.7 per cent in 1957, reports 
F()(j/l Engineering. Supermarkets now 
handling 7,500 items will have dou- 
bled this figure by 1961. Food stores de- 
clined from 3487,000 in 1939 to 279,- 
000 in 1954 — but sales per store have 
nearly tripled. 



Kp^gflrffglli^ 



THE NAME BACKED BY 

104 YEARS 

OF 

ENGINEERING 
75 YEARS 

OF 

REFRIGERATION 



FRICK REFRIGERATING r l\ \/r»nf 

MACHINES BUILT IN OVER ^\j J L AK J 




TYPES and SIZES 



OF 



AIR CONDITIONING 



WRITE FOR INFORMATION ON AIR CONDITIONING- 
REFRIGERATION ENGINEER TRAINING COURSE 



_ ^ ' ' f vj ' m f . I r ■ !■ 1 1 ■ I ' I p « I W- w f 



/VJ.'m MIWJJ l.'fT 



Why Vought Projects 

Bring Out The Best 

In An Engineer 

At Vought, the engineer doesn't often 
forget past assignments. Like all big 
events, they leave vivid memories. 
And it's no wonder. 

For here the engineer contributes to 
history-making projects — among 
them the record-breaking Crusader 
fighter; the Regulus II missile, chosen 
to arm our newest nuclear subs; and 
the new fast-developing 1,500-plus- 
mph fighter, details of which are still 
classified. 

The Vought engineer watches such 
weapons take shape. He supervises 
critical tests, and he introduces the 
weapons to the men with whom they 
will serve. 

Engineers with many specialties share 
these experiences. Today, for exam- 
ple, Vought is at work on important 
projects involving: 

electronics design and numujaciure 

inertial navigation 

investigation of advanced propulsion 

metliods 
Much 5 configurations 

Vought's excellent R&D facilities 
help the engineer through unexplored 
areas. And by teaming up with other 
specialists against mutual challenges, 
the Vought engineer learns new fields 
while advancing in his own. 

*** 
Would you like to know what men 
with your training are doing at 
Vought . . . what you can expect of a 
Vought career? 

For full information, see our repre- 
sentative during his next campus visit. 
*** 
Or write directly to: 

C. A. Besio 

Supervisor, Engineering Personnel 

Dept. CM-4 



"^UGJH-r jiMtnyMtJiF'r 



62 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



A 

Vought 
Vignette 

ONE OF A SERIES 




The Aircraft Designer 
Who Went to Sea . . . 



It was a routine cruise 
for the Bon Homme Richard. 
But for Wayne Burch, it was a memorable climax 
to months of hard work. Aboard the carrier with 
the Chance Vought design specialist was the white- 
lacquered fighter he'd worked on so long. 

* 

Wayne had joined the Crusader dayfighter project 
in Preliminary Design, on alighting and arresting 
gear. He'd transposed his initial drawings into detail 
design and, later, he'd watched his gear pass jig and 
aircraft drop tests. At the Navy Test Center, the 
Crusader's gear absorbed maximum sink speeds and 
arresting tension, and Burch once more was there. 

• 

Now, Navy pilots on the Bon Homme Richard were 
taking the Crusader to sea, and Burch was going 
along. This time his assignment was simply to watch, 
and this time the Crusader was to be just part of 
the picture. Vought wanted him to experience carrier 
life and to see how his new weapon fitted in. For 
Wayne, whose sea log began and ended with one 
day's fishing from a 20-foot launch, it promised to 
be an eye-opening voyage. 



For six days the designer shared quarters with Navy 
fighter pilots and had colTee with maintenance men. 
He studied aircraft spotting and catapulting, and he 
learned the sign language of the LSO (Landing Sig- 
nal Officer). He marveled at the fingersnap timing 
of the Navy's deck handlers and at the Bon Homme 
Richard's mid-voyage refueling of two bobbing 
destroyers. », 

Wayne calls it "one of the most enjoyable weeks 
of my life" . . . and, as other sea-going Vought 
engineers have discovered, "one of the most profit- 
able, too. 

"Now I know the pilot's job, what maintenance 
wants . . . how really big the operation is. 
"It's something you don't get if you stick too close 
to design. 
"I guess you'd call it perspective." 

.\t Chance Vought the designer stays in touch 
with his product . . . Contact begin.s in development, 

extends through test and includes, when possible, 

a study by the designer of the tactical environment 

in which his weapon will serve. 



^EMGMtT' Jim^yRj^M^T' 



JANUARY, 1958 



63 




Tiniest 
Tugboat 



This Boneyard" sized tugobat is only 34 inches long 




Engineering talent and modern construction draw no limits in their 
application, as proven by the "Polaris." This 34 inch radio control tug- 
boat, built by Harry H. Larkin of Buffalo, New York, has all the main- 
tenance problems of the full size article and a few more of its own be- 
cause of its unusual size, but ingenuity solves them. 

Corrosion, erosion, and metal fatigue are especially critical because 
of the small size of the parts. When the original steel propeller shaft gave 
way, Mr. Larkin replaced it with one made of "R" monel, which is ex- 
tremely corrosion-resistant. 

Performance was so good that the reduction gearbox has since been 
replaced with the same material. Mr. Larkin used a common solution to 
the corrosion problem, and now boasts the smallest monel propeller. 





64 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



When you graduate, do you want a 




Sure you want a job . . . but you want more than just a job. You want a job 
with opportunity, a job that offers a challenge. Union Carbide offers such jobs. 

Jobs with opportunity for what? Advancement, for one thing. Union Carbide 
is introducing new products at the rate of one every fifteen days. Each new 
product opens up new avenues of advancement. Not only that; markets for 
our present products are expanding at an exciting rate too. 

Jobs with what kind of challenge? Union Carbide has always operated on the 
frontiers of science. The challenges are the challenges of that frontier — the 
challenges of new ideas. Union Carbide is already among the largest U. S. 
producers of titanium — will tantalum be the next "wonder metal"? Union 
Carbide pioneered the two major plastics, vinyl and polyethylene — is another 
major break-through in the making? Challenging questions, and Union Carbide 
people are answering them. 

Representatives of Divisions of Union Carbide Corporation, listed below, will 
be interviewing on many campuses. Check your placement director, or write to 
the Division representative. For general information, write to V. O. Davis, 
30 East 42nd Street, New York 17, New York. 



BAKEIITE COMPANY Plasties, Including 
polyethylene, epoxy, fluorothene, vinyl, phenolic, 
and polystyrene. J. C. Older, River Road, Bound 
Brook, N. J. 



SILICONES DIVISION Silicones for elec- 
trical insulation, release agents, water repellents, 
etc.; silicone rubber. P. I. Emch, 30 East 42nd 
Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



GENERAL OFFICES-NEW YORK 

Accounting, Electronic Data Processing. Operations. 
Research, Industrial Engineering, Purchasing. E. R. 
Brown, 30 East 42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



ELECTRO METALLURGICAL COMPANY 

Over 100 ferro-alloys and alloying metals; titanium, 
calcium carbide, acetylene. C. R. Keeney, 137— 
47th St., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 



HAYNES STELLITE COMPANY Special 
alloys to resist heat, abrasion, and corrosion; cast 
and wrought. L. E. Denny, 725 South Lindsay Street, 
Kokomo, Ind. 



LINDE COMPANY Industrial gases, metal- 
working and treating equipment, synthetic gems, 
molecular sieve adsorbents. P. I. Emch, 30 East 
42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



UNION CARBIDE CHEMICALS COMPANY 

Synthetic organic chemicals, resins, and fibers 
from natural gas, petroleum, and coal. W. C. 
Heidenreich, 30 East 42nd St, New York 17, N. Y. 



UNION CARBIDE INTERNATIONAL COM- 
PANY Markets Union Carbide products and 
operates plants overseas. C. C. Scharf, 30 East 42nd 
Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



UNION CARBIDE NUCLEAR COMPANY 

Operates Atomic Energy Commission facilities at 
Oak Ridge, Tenn., and Paducah, Ky. W. V. Hamilton, 
P. 0. Box "P", Oak Ridge, Tenn. 




NATIONAL CARBON COMPANY indus- 
trial carbon and graphite products. Prestone 
antifreeze, Eveready flashlights and batteries. 
S. W. Orne, P. 0. Box 6087, Cleveland, Ohio. 



VISKING COMPANY A pioneer in packaging 
—producer of synthetic food casings and poly- 
ethylene film. Dr. A. L Strand, 6733 West 65th 
Street, Chicago, III. 



JANUARY, 1958 



65 




1 



ii 



\k$ Imp i^ w^^i ^^ p|l3H 

1^ DIVISION QP GENERAL DYNAMICS CORPORATION Up^SKS! 




' r,-),/ /,,,„ /), rnwrdi, ,Vo/rf Dame, ■5/; Mormon LoT<nson, Mich. St.. 'SS; Ernest .Sr/mrm<i.m. M.I.T., 'S.3; Dick Swcman, Purdue, '50. 






CONVAI R 

FORT WORTH 






66 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Let's get acquainted... 



• These are important days for you. You're 
coming down the "home stretch" of your 
college training. And you're probably won- 
dering just where you can best start on a 
productive, satisfying engineering career. 
There are many directions in which you can 
go. You want to be sure you select wisely. 
It isn't always an easy decision. 



From our many experiences, we've found 
that our brochure "your engineering 
career" has proved to be very helpful 
reading to men confronted with exactly the 
same questions and decisions you're facing 
right now. Why not mail the coupon for 
your copy? It's packed with down-to-earth 
information which may help you... plenty. 




Square D Company, Dep'l EM 

6060 Rivord Street, Detroit 11, Michigan 

I'd like a copy of Square D's brochure, "your engineering career" 
I am primarily interested in D Research, Design & 
Development Engineering D Manufacturing Engineering 
D Sales Application and Field Engineering 




JANUARY, 1958 



67 



OPPORTUNITIES POR YOUNG PROPKSSIONAL. MEN WITH KELLOGG 



R&D ChE's, ME's, Chemists (inor- 
ganic and physical) -BS, MS, PhD- for 

theoretical chemical and mechanical re- 
search; petroleum and chemical process 
development, catalysis, computer appM- 



or mechanical equipment design and 
development. 

ENGINEERING ChE's, ME's, CE's 
-BS, MS- for petroleum and chemical pro- 
cessing: customer process planning and 



engineering: technical service; plant com- 
missioning. 

CONSTRUCTION CE's, ME's, -BS- 

for all phases of refinery and chemical 
plant erection, site planning, construe- 



cations; client process consul tation; economics: plant equipment and systems tion administration. 




Orihoflow? fluid catalytic cracker, designed 
and constructed by The M. W. Kellogg Co. 

'!> registered trademark of The M. W. Kellogg Co. 



For a career serving basic 

industry technologies, 

make an appointment 

through your college 

Placement Officer to talk 

with the Kellogg 

representative. Or write to: 

R. L. Stacom 



Engineering 

has a Dynamic Quality 

at KELLOGG 

- That Is Friendly to Individual Achievement 

This is because no two projects undertaken by the company 
are ever exactly alike. 

Kellogg is the pre-eminent leader — on an international as 
well as national scale — in the design and construction of 
modern refineries and chemical plants. 

It has gained and maintained this position through continu- 
ous laboratory research and engineering development. 

Professional staffs here are constantly at work developing 
new and improved processing methods, engineering stand- 
ards, mechanical equipment and on-site as well as lab and 
shop testing techniques. 

Young men who join this company work with associates 
responsible for such achievements as: 

. , . engineering 60^'c of the world's fluid catalytic cracking 
. . . designing and building the U-235 gaseous diffusion 

plant at Oak Ridge 
...perfecting fluid hydroforming process 
. . . designing and constructing production facilities for 

ethylene, phthalic anhydride, ammonia, phenol and 

acetone, penicillin, edible glycerides. 

Diversity and accomplishment are the rule at Kellogg, as 
engineers and scientists work together toward modernizing 
and improving the productivity of basic petroleum and 
chemical facilities and processing, as well as in the develop- 
ment of new industrial products from petro-chemical 
research. 

The young professional man gains variety of experience 
here, and the opportunity to make a name in any given field, 
or to broaden into technical administrative work. Other 
stimuli to professional development at Kellogg are in-plant 
courses, the Tuition Refund Plan for graduate study and 
unusual encouragement to participate in the activities of 
professional societies. 



KELLOGG The M.lMf. KELLOGG Company 



711 Third Avenue • Ne\v York 17, N. Y. 



68 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Recently AiResearch engineers were 
called upon to develop an accessory 
power motor for aircraft and mis- 
siles which would operate at 
+ 1000°F. ...a temperature area 
where present-day hydraulic and 
electrical devices fail. 

Their answer was this cam piston 
air motor, pictured above in a spe- 
cially built trans|)arent shell. Operat- 
ing on hot air or gas, its efficiency 
actually increases as temperatures 
rise. 

This problem and its solution are 



typical of many encountered at 
AiResearch in aircraft, missile, 
nuclear and electronic fields. Specif- 
ically, you'll find them in system 
electronics; computers and flight 
instruments; gas turbine engines and 
turbine motors; cryogenic and 
nuclear systems; pneumatic valves; 
servo control units and air motors; 
industrial turbochargers; air condi- 
tioning and pressurization ; and heat 
transfer. 

Upon your employment, in addi- 
tion to direct assignments, a 9-month 



orientation program is available to 
aid you in selecting your field of 
interest. This permits you to survey 
the project, laboratory and adminis- 
trative aspects of engineering at 
Garrett. Also, with comjjany finan- 
cial assistance, you can continue 
your education at outstanding uni- 
versities located nearby. 

Project work is conducted bv small 
groups where individual effort is 
more quickly recognized and oppor- 
tunities for learning and advance- 
ment are enhanced. 



THE 






• for full information write to Mr. G, D. Bradley. 



98B1 S. BEPULVEDA BLVD.. LOS ANCELES tS. CALIFORNIA 



DIVISIONS: AIRESEARCH MANUFACTURING. LOS ANGELES » AIRESEARCH MANUFACTURING. PHOENIX • AIRSUPPLY 
AIRESEARCH INDUSTRIAL » REX • AERO ENGINEERING • AIR CRUISERS • AIRESEARCH AVIATION SERVICE 



JANUARY, 1958 



69 



A DU PONT JOB-FINDER CHART FOR 

Here is a sampling of llie kinds of cnpinoors and scien- roliimn. The rode letters refer to the type of work 
lists which Du Pont will employ this year with BS-MS (Research, Development, etc.). The deparlinents of the 
training — and their fields of work. The chart is an easy Company are listed across the top. The column across 
way to match your own interests against ]»h openings (he bottom indicates some of the locations where these 
at l)u Pont. departments have openings. Du Pont also has oppor- 
For example: If you are a mechani(;al engineer, tunities for other engineering and scientific specialties, 
run your finger across the "Mechanical Engineers" but space does not permit a complete listing. 


departmentW 


ENGINEERING 


ELASTOMER 
CHEMICALS 


ELECTRO- 
CHEMICALS 


EXPLOSIVES 


EXPLOSIVES, 
ATOMIC 
ENERGY 
DIVISION 


FABRICS 

AND 

FINISHES 


PRODUCTS 


Designs and constructs 
major plant facilities. 
Conducts research and 
development, and provides 
engineering consul- 
tation in ctiemical and 
mechanical engineering, 
instrumentation, 
and materials technology. 


Neoprene 

Rubber 
Chemicals 

Organic 
Isocyanates 


Metallic Sodium 
Hydrogen Peroxide 
Vinyl Products 
Sodium Cyanide 
Chlorinated Solvents 
Nylon Intermediates 


Sporting Powders 
Blasting Supplies 
Dynamite 
Polymer 
Intermediates 


Nuclear Reactor 

Materials 
Heavy Water 


Coated Fabrics 
Paints, Varnishes. 

Lacquers 
Synthetic Resin 

Finishes 


CHEMICAL 
ENGINEERS 


A, B, C 


B 


A, B, D, F 


B. D 


A, B 


A, B, F 


MECHANICAL 
ENGINEERS 


A, B, C 


B 




E 


A, B 




ELECTRICAL 
ENGINEERS 


A, B, C 






E 






METALLURGICAL 
ENGINEERS 


A, B 


A, B 






A. B 


I 
1 


CHEMISTS 






F 






1 

A, B, F 


PHYSICISTS 










A, B 




POSSIBLE 

INITIAL 

ASSIGNMENTS 


Wilmington, Del., 

or 
Plant Locations 


Beaumont, Tex. 
Louisville, Ky 
Montague, Mich. 
Wilmington, Del.** 


Memphis, Tenn. 
Niagara Falls, N.Y. 
Wilmington, Del.** 


Gibbstown, N.J. 


Aiken, S.C* 


Newburgh, N.Y. 
Parlin, N.J. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 


PERSONAL 

you will do 
depend on 
able. Since 


ZED INFORMATION- 

and the location of yc 
our qualifications and 
the above chart was pr 

>VATCH THE C 


The kind of wo 
)ur first assignme 

the openings ava 
epared, some of t 

U PONT ••SHO> 


rk openings list 
nt have been ad 
il- mation abou 
le representativ 

V OF THE MONI 


sd may have bee 
ded to the list. F 
t possible jobs 1 
e when he visits 

rH" ON TELEV 


1 filled or new 
or up-to-the-min 
or you, see the 
your campus. 

ISION 


jobs may 

ute infor- 

Du Pont 



BS-MS ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS 



/\ Research 

B Development 



C Design 
Q Production 



E Plant Engineering 
p Sales 



FILM 


GRASSELLI 
CHEMICALS 


ORGANIC 
CHEMICALS 


PHOTO 
PRODUCTS 


PIGMENTS 


POLYCHEMICALS 


TEXTILE FIBERS 


Cellophane 
Sponge Yarn 
Mylar^ 

Polyester Film 
Cel-o-seal-iS Bands 


Acids and Heavy 

Chemicals 
Biological and 

Agricultural 

Chemicals 


Dyes 
Petroleum 

Chemicals 
Tetraethyl Lead 
Fluorinated 

Hydrocarbons 


Photographic 

and X-Ray Film 
Photographic 

Papers 
Processing 

Chemicals 


Titanium Pigment 
Pigment Colors 
Titanium Metal 
Hyperpure Silicon 


Ammonia 
Antifreezes 
Urea Products 
Plastics 
Nylon 
Intermediates 


Nylon 
Dacron'® 

Polyester Fiber 
Orion?' 

Acrylic Fiber 
Rayon 


A, B, D, F 


A, B, D 


A, B, F 


A, B, D, F 


A, B, F 


A, B, D, F 


A, B, D 


A, B, D, E 




A, B, F 


A, B, E, F 


A, B 


A, B, D, I 


A, B, D, E 


B. D. E F 






E 




A, B, D, F 


B, D, E 




















A, B, F 


A, F 


F 


A, B, D, F 


A, B, D 








A 




A, B 


A, B 


Buffalo, N.Y. 
Circleville, 0. 
Clinton, la. 
Old Hickory, Tenn. 
Richmond. Va. 
Wilmington, Del.** 


Cleveland, 0. 
East Chicago, 

Ind. 
Houston, Tex, 
Linden, N.J. 
Wilmington, 

Del.** 


Deepwater, N.J. 
Wilmington, 
Del.** 


Parlin, N.J. 
Rochester, N.Y. 


Edge Moor, Del. 
Nev^port, Del. 
New Johnsonville, 

Tenn. 
Wilmington, Del.** 


Charleston, W. Va. 
Orange, Tex. 
Parkersburg, 

W. Va. 
Victoria, Tex. 
Wilmington, Del.** 


Camden, S.C. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Kinston, N.C. 
Martinsville, Va. 
Old Hickory, Tenn. 
Richmond, Va. 
Seaford. Del. 
Waynesboro, Va. 
Wilmington, Del.** 



♦Government owned, Du Pont operated 



*Sales and/or Research d Development only 



SEND FOR INFORMATIVE BOOKLETS jiacked with information about careers 
at Du Pont in chemical, mechanical, electrical, metallurgical and other engi- 
neering fields, and in research and development. Just send your name, address, 
class, school and name of subject that interests you to Room 24y4-D Nemours 
Building, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., Wilmington 98, Delaware. 





ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATES . . . don't get lost In a forest of details! 

DOUGI-AS CLEARS THE WAV FOR CAREER BUILDING WITH 
MAJOR ASSIGNMENTS BASED ON ABILITY 

In planning your career, it's important to know that your job will be more than a mere 
detail in a vast project. At Douglas, you'll work as part of a team sharing total responsibility 
for projects of prime importance. This gives greater scope 

to your assignment . . . and with promotion from within, more 
opportunity to chart your future. Many important Douglas 

assignments are awaiting career-minded engineers. 
For important career opportunities in your field, write: 

C. C. LaVENE 
DOUGLAS AIRCRAFT COMPANY, BOX S101-Q 
FIRST IN AVIATION SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA 



^^^O^er wif^ 



^ '^ 

o 




aoi/Gim, 



72 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




WRITE for your copy of A Career for You With Alcoa 



Aluminum is where the excitement is. New uses, new designs, 
more metal being produced than ever before. Tomorrow will 
be even better. Maybe you've seen Alcoa's Forecast ads in 
Time, Saturday Evening Post, The New Yorker. 

The men who will make this forecast come true are in 
college today. Perhaps it's the man who sits next to you in 
Advanced Phys Met or Machine Analysis or Heat Power 
Design or Chem Engineering Kinetics or Marketing or Cost 
Accounting. Or maybe it's you. 

If you have that extra spark of imagination . . . creativity 
. . . adventurousness . . . take the first step: see your Place- 
ment Director or write for your copy of Alcoa's Career 
Guide. It tells an exciting story ... of the future of the 
young Imagineers who join up with the men who built the 
aluminum business. 




NEWI "ALCOA THEATRE- 
EXCITING ADVENTURE 
•LTEHNATE MONDAY EVENINGS 



Alum 


inum 


Company 


of America 


1625 


Mcoa B 


jildi 


ig 










Pillsbu 


rgh 19, 


Pen 


nsylva 


nia 








Pleose 


send IT 


e a 


copy 


of A 


Career 


for 


You 


Alcoa. 

















CITY AND STATE- 



DATE OF GKADUATION- 



JANUARY, 1958 



73 



This can be YOU.. 



Art Fox, B.C.E., Manhattan College '47, reaches 77,000 engineers and construction 
men as a Senior Editor of McGraw-HilVs ENGINEERING NEWS-RECORD 




In ten short years, Art has climbed rapidly in Y 
profession. Just back from a 2,500-mile editorial tr 
to Canada, here's what he has to say: 

"To me, journalism is a form of teaching. Backi 
by the world-wide resourcesof McGraw-Hill, ttu-ou] j 
travel, by working with leading engineers, I repcc 
on what's new and significant in engineering ai 
construction. I try to make my articles more th. 
instructive — to inspire readers to tackle and sol 
projects they might otherwise shy away from." 

Other than preparing reports in college. Art hi 
no early writing experience. Immediately after gra 
nation, he was employed by a leading firm of co 
suiting engineers. WhUe on the job his appreciatii 
for the inspiration-power of the industrial magazi . 







An Editor with a Hard Hat. Art, pictured above at 
right with Assistant Resident Engineer McCormack, 
observes progress at the Beaumont Rapids power dam 
at St. Maurice River, Quebec. 



Cranes and Concrete. Another view of the Beaumc 
Rapids project. Art drove 1,800 miles from Montreal 
get three on-site stories. Like other McGraw-Hill edit(! 
he got his story firsthand. ' 



m "Engineer- Journalist" 



jew, and in less than a year he applied for a position 
ith McGraw-Hill. 

Art started with ENGINEERING NEWS- 
lECORD in 1948 as an Assistant Editor. Since 
ten, Art has been "up to his neck in engineering" 

1' . earned his P. E. license while an engineer- 
jmalist . . . been active in A.S.C.E. and other 
ofessional organizations. 

you want a fast-moving career in engmeering 
jrnaHsm: prestige, variety, a view of the "big 
cture" in your industry, and more — we're looking 



Advertising Opportunities, too ! 

Excellent job openings exist on many 
McGraw-Hill magazines, domestic and inter- 
national, for advertising careers. "Successful 
Careers" wiO give you the facts. 



for you! You do not need previous writing experience, 
but you do need: ambition, an alert, inquiring mind 
and a desire to write. 

Send today for yoinr copy of "Successful Careers 
in Publishing at McGraw-Hill." Or write and tell us 
about yourself, your achievements and career goals. 
Write to: 

Peter J. Davies 

Assistant to the Editorial Director 

McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., Inc. 

330 West 42nd Street, New York 36, N. Y. 

McGraw-Hill 
Publications 

McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, Inc. v^TI^* 
liy 330 West 42nd Street, New York 36, New York '-^m:,' 




I mis and Tunnels. Here's a shot Art took of work 
; iic Bersimis Powerhouse. As a McGraw-Hill engineer- 
j irnalist, you, too, will expand your professional back- 
g')und while reporting to your industry. 



Desks and Plans. Here's Art at his desk in the McGraw- 
Hill Building. You, like Art, will travel, participate in pro- 
fessional societies and advance yourself financially and edu- 
cationally —as well as servingyour industry and profession. 



IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS AT JPL 




The Jet Propulsion Lnhorn- 
lory is a stable research and 
development center located 
north of Pasadena in the 
foothills of the San Gabriel 
mountains. Covering an 80 
acre area and employing 
2000 people, it is close to 
attractive residential areas. 

The Laboratory is staffed by 
the California Institute of 
Technology and develops its 
many projects in basic re- 
search under contract with 
the U.S. Government. 

Opportunities open to quali- 
fied engineers of U.S. citizen- 
ship. Inquiries now invited. 




Weapons Systems Responsibility 



In the development of guided missile 
systems, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
maintains a complete and broad respon- 
sibility. From the earliest conception to 
production engineering— from research 
and development in electronics, guidance, 
aerodynamics, structures and propulsion, 
through field testing problems and actual 
troop use, full technical responsibility rests 
with JPL engineers and scientists. 

The Laboratory is not only responsible for 
the missile system itself, including guid- 
ance, propulsion and airframe, but for all 
ground handling equipment necessary to 
insure a complete tactical weapons system. 



One outstanding product of this type of 
systems responsibility is the "Corporal," 
a highly accurate surface-to-surface ballis- 
tic missile. This weapon, developed by JPL, 
and now in production elsewhere, can be 
found "on active service" wherever needed 
in the American defense pattern. 

A prime attraction for scientists and 
engineers at JPL is the exceptional oppor- 
tunity provided for original research 
afforded by close integration with vital and 
forward-looking programs. The Laboratory 
now has important positions open for 
qualified applicants for such interesting 
and challenging activities. 



76 



SYSTEMS ANALYSIS • INERTIAL GUIDANCE • COMPUTER EQUIPMENT 

INSTRUMENTATION • TELEMETERING • FLUID MECHANICS 

HEAT TRANSFER • AERODYNAMICS • APPLIED PHYSICS • PROPELLANTS 

MATERIALS RESEARCH 



JET PROPULSION LABORATORY 

A DIVISION OF CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 
PASADENA • CALIFORNIA 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Tear out this page for YOUR BEARING NOTEBOOK , . . 



o 



o 



o 



How to get higher 

spindle accuracy, 

cut costs too 



The engineers who designed 
this new surface grinder had to 
be sure of the highest spindle 
accuracy in order to get the 
smooth spindle operation re- 
quired for extreme precision 
worii. To hold the work and 
wheel spindles rigid, maintain 
highest accuracy, the engineers 
specified Timken-"'00" tapered 
roller bearings. Timken "00" 
bearings make possible the 
closest machining tolerances 
ever achieved. Run-out is held 
to 75 millionths of an inch. 
And they gave the manufac- 
turer greater capacity in less 
space, cut manufacturing costs 
Vi over earlier spindles used. 





How Timken bearings hold shafts rigid to maintain 
accuracy — The full line contact between Timken bear- 
ing rollers and races gives shafts rigid support over a 
wide area. Shaft deflection is minimized. And the tapered 
design of Timken bearings permits them to be set up 
with the most desirable amount of end play or preload 
that gives the best performance. 




Want to learn more about fob 
opportunities? Timken bearings 
help make better machines. Better 
machines enrich our lives, give us 
more spare time. It's what the Timken 
Company calls Better-ness. Want to 



help create Better-ness? If so — write 
for your free copy of: "BETTER-ness 
and your career at the Timken Com- 
pany". The Timken Roller Bearing 
Company, Canton 6, Ohio. 



TIMKEN 



TAPERED 
ROLLER BEARINGS 



TRADE-MARK REG. U. S. PAT. OFF. 




NOI lyST A BULL Q NOT lUSI A ROLLER CD THE TIMKEN TAPERED ROLLER QZD BEARING TAKES RADIAL ffl AND THRDST -ffl- LOADS OR ANY COMBINATION -J}^ 



JANUARY, 1958 



77 



Sandia Corporation is a laboratory 
which was established in 1919 to 
design atomic and nuclear weapons. 
It now has over 7,000 people, of 
whom 2,000 are professional staff, 
■ at its $60,000,000 laboratory in 
Albuquorijue, New Mexico, and its 
expanding branch laboratory in 
Livermore, California. 

If you are a graduating engineer 
(mechanical, electrical, electronic, 
industrial or quality control), or if 
you are graduating in mathematics 
or the physical sciences, Sandia has 
an opportunity for you in one of 
many fields. We do research, design 
and development, test engineering, 
standards engineering, manufactur- 
ing relations engineering and quality 
control engineering. 

Our modern, well-equipped labora- 
tories, model shops, and offices com- 
bine with liberal benefits — including 
our graduate educational aid pro- 
gram, life insurance, sickness 
benefits, retirement plan, and gener- 
ous vacations and holidays— to make 
Sandia an exceptionally attractive 
place to work. 

Albuquerque (a city of more than 
200,000) with its exceptional climate 
and cosmopolitan blend of ancient 
and modern cultures, provides a re- 
laxed, informal environment for 
pleasant living. The location of our 
branch laboratory at Livermore 
offers the advantages of suburban 
living plus all the attractions of the 
San Francisco Bay area. 

Our illustrated brochure will give 
you more complete information on 
Sandia Corporation, its background, 
work, and the cities in which it is 
located. Write for your copy to Staff 
Employment 




New 
Horizons 

FOR GRADUATING 
ENGINEERS 
AND SCIENTISTS 





78 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




These young engineers are developing better automotive 
brakes in Wagner's Automotive Research Laboratory. 



Grow with a growing company! 

Wagner Electric Corporation serves 2 great growth industries — AUTOMOTIVE — ELECTRICAL 



If you want to grow with a company that is consistently growing in 
two great industries, take a look at the opportunities you can find with 
the Wagner Electric Corporation. Wagner is St. Louis' largest manu- 
facturer of products for the automotive and electrical industries. 
Established in 1891, Wagner has a history of doubling its volume of 
business every eight to ten years. Today Wagner ranks among the 350 
largest industrial companies in the country— a well established company 
offering real opportunity. 
Here are some of the advantages you can find at Wagner: 

• Advancement from within. The management team today is com- 
posed of many men who started with Wagner as junior engineers. 

• Further training in the area of your special interest. 

• Post-graduate courses available. 

• Attractive working conditions and salary. 

• Excellent insurance and retirement plans. 

• Athletic and recreational programs. 

• Many other benefits and activities. 

For a challenging career in a growing company, sign up now with your 
College Placement Officer ... or write to the Wagner Industrial Rela- 
tions Division. 



Roo 


d 


te 


brak 


es 


w 


spe 


io 


i ' 


whe 


3l' 


to 


ure 


ex 


act 


ping 


d 


sta 




-^.2?=^ 



WainerEledlric G>rporatioQ 

6400 PIxmoalh Ave.. Si. Louia 14, Mo., U.S.A. 



ELECTRIC MOTORS • TRANSFORtVIERS • INDUSTRIAL BRAKES .AUTOMOTIVE BRAKE SYSTEMS— AIR AND HYDRAULIC 

JANUARY, 1958 79 



Begged, Borrowed, and . 



SEX AND THE ILLINOIS 
ENGINEER 

two woiKls apart, far far apart 

two spheres which never merge 
sex and the Illinois engineer 

are scopes which cannot converge 
the first stays in Evans hall 

flashing eyes and swaying hips 
the fishhowl sees them all 

tight-fitting sweaters and red-red lips 
the second lives beneath the arch 

his slide rule b\' his side 
and daily off to bluebooks march 

to live unlo\ed until he died 

a million miles is the diag's length 

and the hill is further still 
when homework assigimients stay his 
strength 

and finals break his will 
two worlds apart, far far apart 

two spheres which never merge 
sex and the Illinois engineer 

are scopes which cannot converge 
Adapted frnrii The M'uhit/an Engineer 



(jetting out a joke column is fun, but 
it's no picnic. 

If we don't print jokes, we are too 
serious. 

If we do print jokes, we are silly. 

If we take them from other maga- 
zines, we are too lazy to write them our- 
selves. 

If we don't print contributions, we 
don't appreciate true genius. 

If we do print them, the pages are 
full of junk. 

And now, like as not, someone will 
say we stole this from some other mag- 
azine. 

We did. 



Four and twenty test tubes, 
A beaker full of lime, 
Eight students a-yawning 
Asleep for most the time ; 
When the tubes are opened, 
Fumes begin to reek. 
Isn't that an awful mess 
To have three times a week. 



The farmer had been to the big cit\' on business for a 
couple of weeks. Getting off the train at liis home t(jwn, 
he happened to run into his hired hand. 

"Hi Zeb!" What's new?" 

"Not much." 

"That's fine, boy did 1 . . ." 
'Ceptin' we buried Nour dog." 

"You buried m\' dog? Why?" 

" 'S daid." 

"I figured it was it \ou buried it. How'd it die?" 

"Hoss kicked it." 

"Why'd the horse kick it?" 

"Spark fell on it. " 

"Spark- Where did the spark come from?" 

"From the barn. " 

"From the barn? What h.ippened to the barn?" 

"Burned down. " 

"How'd the barn catch fire?" 

"S'po.se it was sparks from the house." 

"You mean the house burned too? " 

"Yep!" 

"Ho«'d that start?" 

"Figure the candles caught the drapes." 

Candles? What candles?" 

"The ones around ver wife's coffin." 



Ginger ale: a drink that tastes like your foot feels when 
it's gone to sleep. 

Golddigger: A girl who breaks dates by going out with 
them. 

Alcoholic rheumatism: (jetting stiff in every joint. 

Mi.xed company: What you are in when you think of 
a story you can't tell. 



The wild crowd has a new game going. Three guys 
rent a hotel room and each brings a quart of Old Screech 
with him. They sit and drink for an hour, then one of them 
gets up and leaves. The other two have to guess which one 
left. 



Notice to the Milk Depot: 
We are a little short of milk just now 
best cows are out having a bull session. 



. . some of our 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



PHOTOGRAPHY AT WORK 
No. 30 in a Kodak Series 




Pepsi-Cola International Panorama, 
a magazine of places and people, 
reaches people around the world, 
builds recognition for Pepsi-Cola as a 
product associated with the better, 
happier side of lite. 



Photography 
speaks 
in every 
language 




■Ib.spur,,,. I.. 
are neighborly. 



iduulit that NetlurLinders 




What better way to say people take naturally to 
"Pepsi" whether in Lcopoldville or Lichtenstem? 



To tell its story in 75 coun- 
tries, Pepsi-Cola puts pictures 
to work to add meaning to the 
product's global billing as "the 
refreshment of friendship." 

To build up an atmosphere of 
friendliness and understanding 
in markets around the world, 
Pepsi-Cola Internationa! pub- 
lishes "Panorama" — and gives the 
brunt of the job to photography. 

Photography knows no lan- 
guage barrier. It is clear to young 
and old alike — appeals to e\er\- 



one. With photography, people 
are real; situations authentic, 
convincing. This is what makes 
photography such a powerful 
salesman. 

Large businesses and small crn 
use this powerful salesmanship — 
can also use photography to cut 
costs and save time in many other 
ways. It can help with problems 
of product design — can watch 
quality in production. It trains. 
It cuts office routine, ^'ou'll find 
that it can work for you, too. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, Rochester 4, N. Y 




With photography and photographic processes 
becoming increasingly important in the business 
and industry of tomorrow, there are new and 
challenging opportunities at ICodak in research, 
engineering, electronics, design and production. 



CAREERS WITH KODAK 

If you .in looking for such an interesting oppor- 
tunit\ , write for information about careers with 
ICodak. .Address: Business and Technic 
Personnel Dept., Eastman Kodak Company, 
Rochester 4, \. 'l'. 




One of 



or a series 



Where do yoo find better advancement 
opportunities in a large company or a 
small one? To help you, the college 
student, resolve that problem, Mr. Abbott 
answers the following questions con- 
cerning advancement opportunities in 
engineering, manufacturing and tech- 
nical marketing at General Electric. 

Q. In a large Company such as General 
Electric, how can you assure that every 
man deserving of recognition will get if? 
Don't some capable people become lost? 

A. No, they don't. And it's be- 
cause of the way G.E. has been 
organized. By decentralizing into 
more than a hundred smaller oper- 
ating departments, we've been able 
to pinpoint both authority and re- 
sponsibility. Our products are engi- 
neered, manufactured and marketed 
by many departments comparable 
to small companies. Since each is 
completely responsible for its success 
and profitability, each individual 
within the department has a defined 
share of that responsibility. There- 
fore, outstanding performance is 
readily recognized. 

Q. If that's the case, are opportunities 
for advancement limited to openings 
within the department? 

A. Not at all. That's one of the 
advantages of our decentralized 
organization. It creates small oper- 
ations that individuals can "get their 
arms around", and still reserves and 
enhances the inherent advantages of 
a large company. Widely diverse 
opportunities and promotions are 
available on a Company-wide basis. 

Q. But how does a department find the 
best man. Company-wide? 

A. We've developed personnel reg- 
isters to assure that the best quali- 
fied men for the job are not over- 
looked. The registers contain com- 



Interview with General Electric's 

Earl G. Abbott 

Manager — Sales Training 

Advancement in a Large 
Company: How it Works 



plete appraisals of professional em- 
ployees. They enable a manager to 
make a thorough and objective 
search of the entire General Electric 
Company and come up with the 
man best qualified for the job. 

Q. How do advancement opportunities 
for technical graduates stack-up with 
those of other graduates? 

A. Very well. General Electric is 
recognized as a Company with out- 
standing technical skills and facili- 
ties. One out of every thirteen em- 
ployees is a scientist or engineer. 
And approximately 50 per cent of 
our Department General Managers 
have technical backgrounds. 

Q. How about speed of advancement? 
Is G.E. a "young man's Company"? 

A. Definitely. A majority of all 
supervisors, managers and outstand- 
ing individual contributors working 
in the engineering function are below 
the age of forty. We believe that a 
job should be one for which you are 
qualified, but above all it should be 
one that challenges your ability. As 
you master one job we feel that 
consideration should be given to 
moving you to a position of greater 
responsibility. This is working, for 
in the professional field, one out of 
four of our people are in positions of 
greater responsibility today than 
they were a year ago. 

Q. Some men want to remain in a 
specialized technical job rather than go 
into managerial work. How does this 
affect their advancement? 

A. At G.E. there are many paths 
which lead to higher positions of 
recognition and prestige. Every man 
is essentially free to select the course 
which best fits both his abilities and 
interests. Furthermore, he may mod- 
ify that course if his interests change 



as his career progresses. Along any 
of these paths he may advance 
within the Company to very high 
levels of recognition and salary. 

Q. What aids to advancement does 
General Electric provide? 

A. We believe that it's just sound 
business policy to provide a stimu- 
lating climate for personal develop- 
ment. As the individual develops, 
through his own efforts, the Com- 
pany benefits from his contributions. 
General Electric has done much to 
provide the right kind of opportu- 
nity for its employees. Outstanding 
college graduates are given graduate 
study aid through the G-E Honors 
Program and Tuition Refund Pro- 
gram. Technical graduates entering 
the Engineering, Manufacturing, or 
Technical Marketing Programs start 
with on-the-job training and related 
study as preparation for more re- 
sponsible positions. Throughout 
their G-E careers they receive fre- 
quent appraisals as a guide for self 
development. Company-conducted 
courses are offered again at all 
levels of the organization. These 
help professionals gain the increas- 
ingly higher levels of education 
demanded by the complexities of 
modern business. Our goal is to see 
every man advance to the full limits 
of his capabilities. 

// you have other questions or want 
information on our programs for 
technical graduates, write to E. G. 
Abbott, Section 959-9, General 
Electric Co., Schenectady 5, N. Y. 



*LOOK FOR other interviews dis- 
cussing: • Qualities We Look For 
in Young Engineers • Personal 
Development • Salary. 



GENERAL 




ELECTRIC 



|0 
" 

Is o 
o 

lo V 




rylARV71958 







OPEN HOUSE ISSUE -25/ 



This is the lool< 
of boiling steel 



"T~he picture was taken with a camera that exposes 
3,000 frames per second. One second of action 
takes more than three minutes to project at normal 
viewing speed. 

The picture was taken looking into an open hearth 
furnace, and it discloses action that was only vaguely 
perceived before. This enables U. S. Steel scientists 
to develop a better understanding of the kinetics of 
heat transfer and chemical reaction at temperatures 
approaching 3,000" F. 

This is but a small part of the scientific world that 
exists within United States Steel— the leading pro- 
ducer in one of the most interesting businesses in the 
world, the steel business. If you want to dig ore out 
of the mountains of Venezuela, investigate the atomic 
structure of steel crystals, help rocket designers solve 
new problems with new steels, there might well be a 
place for you at United States Steel. Read our booklet, 
"Paths of Opportunity." Write to United 
States Steel, Personnel Division, Room 
5681, 525 William Penn Place, Pitts- 
burgh 30, Pa. 



(^ 



UNITED STATES STEEL 





Editor 

Dennis Lantz 

Production Editor 

Hat Gaganidze 

Business Manager 

Roger Harrison 

Circulation Director 

Sue Barnett 

Editorial Staff 

Lowell Burgin 
James Gill 

Donna Zverow 
Al Soloman 

Keith Lentner 
Ernest Yap 

Production Staff 

Ronald Berry 

Fred Foreman 

Robert Hilgenberg 

Lawrence Residori 

Donna Toika 

Paul Tyner 

Circulation Staff 

Jim Gerstle 
Bob Nakamura 

Photo Staff 

George Knobloch 

Harry Levin 

Dave Moore 

Dave Yates 

Bob Dellert 

Contributors 

George Carruthers 

John Finley 

Dave Bell 

Faculty Advisers 

R. W. Bohl 
P. K. Hudson 
O. Livermore 



MEMBERS OF ENGINEERING 
COLLEGE MAGAZINES ASSOCIATED 
Chairman: Prof. R. W. Bohl, 
University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 
Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, City College Vector, Coloradu 
Engineer, Cornell Engineer, Denver Engi- 
neer, Drexel Technical Journal, Georgia Tech 
Engineer, Illinois Technograph, Iowa En- 
gineer, Iowa Transit, Kansas Engineer, 
Kansas State Engineer, Kentucky Engineer, 
Louisiana State University Engineer, Louisi- 
ana Tech Engineer, Manhattan Engineer, 
Marquette Engineer, Michigan Technic, Min- 
nesota Technolog, Missouri Shamrock, Ne- 
braska Blueprint, New York University 
Quadrangle, North Dakota Engineer, North- 
western Engineer, Notre Dame Technical 
Review, Ohio State Engineer, Oklahoma 
State Engineer, Oregon State Technical Tri- 
angle, Pittsburgh Skvscraper, Purdue Engi- 
neer, RPI Engineer, Rochester Indicator, 
SC Engineer, Rose Technic. Southern Engi- 
neer, Spartan Engineer, Texas A & M Engi- 
neer, Washington Engineer, WSC Tech- 
noraeter, Wayne Engineer, and Wisconsin 
Engineer. 



THE ILLINOIS 

TECHNOGRAPH 



Volume 73, Number 5 



February, 1958 



Table of Contents 

Editorial 17 

After Project Vanguard 18 

Engineering Open House 24 

St. Pat's Ball 25 

Physics Department 26 

Ceramic Engineering 27 

General Engineering 27 

Mechanical Engineering 28 

Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps 29 

Mining and Metallurgical Engineering 29 

Theoretical and Applied Mechanics 30 

Agricultral Engineering 31 

Skimming the Industrial Headlines 32 

Cover 

Inspired by the construction exhibits prepared for the Engi- 
neering Open House, Donna Toika designed this abstraction of 
heavy machinery at work. 

Copyright, 1958, by Illini Publishing Co. Published eight times during the year (Octo- 
ber, November, Decembei , January, February, March. .April and ULiy) by tlie Illini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second cUis, niill.i. Il,l,il.,i in, l'):n, ,,l Iht- post 
office at Urbana. Illinois, under the Act ..( Mn.li ■ . is"', iiilh, _' H lli.t lucering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscriptions $1.50 p.. >> i. ^m-l. ' -i' ' "'H- All rights 
reserved by The Illinois Tecltnografli. Pubhsli. i ~ K, ,,i , „ nl.t. vr l.m, II M m .:i> Harn- 
hill, 605 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago II. Ill M^'' l.exniKluii Ave.. .New "1 ork IT, 
New York, 




ENGINEERS and SCIENTISTS 



when 
parallels 
meet 



, . as in advancement opportunities 
at Sylvania 



It remained for Nicholas Lobachevsky to solve a riddle that bothered mathe- 
maticians for the better part of twenty-two centuries.* He was able to construct 
a rational geometry by denying Euclid's fifth postulate — by maintaining that 
parallels do meet. 

Here at Sylvania Electric we have a noneuclidean geometry of our own, in 
which parallels also meet. It's a geometry of professional development, though, 
and not just of points, lines, and planes. 




w 



WHAT DO AVE MEAN? 



• WE MEAN NO DISCREDIT TO BOLYA 
OR GAUSS. LOBACHEVSKY MUST TAK 
CHRONOLOGICAL PRIORITY. HOWEVER 



THIS: At Sylvania a man advances by one of two parallel paths. 

If his interests and talents lie in the areas of engineering and scientific 
specialization, he advances as a specialist. 

If his forte is in the areas of organization and administration, he advances 
through manngetnenl. 

These parallel paths meet in a common point: .-\t Sylvania a man knows that 
he is given the fullest opportunity to develop and exercise his talents. He knows 
that a man goes as far and as fast as he is able in the path of his choice. Whether he 
chooses management or specialization, he finds equal rewards and compensation. 

Graduates and men with advanced degrees in science and engineering will discover 
Research, Development, Manufacturing and Marketing careers at Sylvania — in 
specialization or management — in: 

LIGHTING, RADIO, TV, HI-FI, ELECTRONICS, SEMICONDUCTORS, PHOTOGRAPHY, 
COMMUNICATIONS & NAVIGATION SYSTEMS, AIRBORNE DEFENSE, RADAR, ECM, 
MISSILES, COMPUTERS, CHEMICALS, PHOSPHORS, PLASTICS, METALS & WIRE. 

Contact your college placement officer for an interview, or write us and ask for a 
copy of "Today & Tomorrow with Sylvania". 

^ SYLVANIA^ 

SYLVANIA ELECTRIC PRODUCTS INC. 

1740 Broadway, New York 19, N. Y. 



LIGHTING . TELEVISION-RADIO . ELECTRONICS . PHOTOGRAPHY . ATOMIC ENERGY . CHEMISTRY-METALLURGY 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




This Filings a Starring Vehicle 



—for Goodyear Engineers 



Nearly a quarter-century ago, Goodyear intro- 
duced to the world of packaging a rubber 
hydrochloride called PLIOFILM. 

Ever since, year by year— except for the war 
period— more and more industries have been 
using Pliofilm, and constantly discovering 
new uses for it. Even during the war, when 
none was available for commercial packag- 
ing. Pliofilm safeguarded vital material.^- 
like tools, guns and airplane engines. 

For engineers working at Goodyear, this film 
is a rare and exciting challenge, and they've 
made the most of it. 

They've developed innumerable types and 
gauges of Pliofilm to fit all kinds of prod- 
ucts. They've produced special films for 
packaging frozen foods, meats, textiles, cof- 
fee, pharmaceuticals, hardware, and a host 
of other items. They've made films that can 
be handled readily by automatic packaging 
machinery— so that now Pliofilm saves time 



and money, as well as quality. They've made 
Pliofilm as much a part of the American 
supermarket scene as the checkout counter, 
or junior riding the package cart. 

There you have the story of just one product 
—and the opportunities it offers young engi- 
neers. And the Pliofilm story has its 
counterpart in a whole range of Goodyear 
products— from atomic energy to tires— each 
ofi'ering the widest possible scope for special- 
ized skills and training. 

So we need engineers, lots of them— chemical, 
mechanical, industrial, electrical. We need 
them in Production, in Research, in Devel- 
opment, and in Staff Engineering. We need 
them to provide technical service on our 
products. 

If you're interested in a job and a lifetime of 
useful accomplishment, you'll very likely find 
both in the Goodyear organization. How 
about letting us hear from you? Write: The 
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Technical 
Personnel. Dept. 806-W, Akron 16, Ohio. 



There's a World of 

Opportunity at 



GOODYEAR 



T 



THE GREATEST NAME IN RUBBER 

Pliofilm, a rubber hydrochloride -T. M. The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Akr. 



FEBRUARY, 1958 




A thousand miles up the Amazon 

CONTROLS MUST FUUCTlOt* ... WITHOUT PAMPERING! 




A thousand miles up the Amazon puts you about 200 miles south of 
the Equator— and a whale of a long way from service, as we know it. 
But, nevertheless, there stands the Manaus Refinaria del Companhia 
de Petroleo da Amazonia, complete with the most modern refining 
equipment. 

Here, every bit of equipment must stand on its own merit . . . there 
is no time for pampering. Sources of supply and repair are too far 
away to help much. 

So, when they hacked this refinery out of the jungle, they chose Fisber 
control valves and liquid level controls. 

In a recent report, Arturo Amorim, Vice President and Director of 
Operations, states, "... All are delivering excellent performance"! 
Which again proves that you can't beat more than three quarters of a 
century of Fisher engineering know-how for day-after-day depend- 
ability. 



FISHER GOVERNOR COMPANY 

Marshalltown, Iowa/Woodstock, Ontario 



Manoul Refinery 
COMPANHIA de PETROIEO do AMAZONIA 

Designed by 

SOUTHWESTERN ENOINEERING COMPANY 

los Angeles. California 

Inaugurated September 6, 1956 

fluid Catalytic Crotklng Unit 
Designed by 

UNIVERSAt OIL PRODUCTS COMPANY 
Des Plaines, Illinois 

CONTROL VAIVES— IIQUIO LEVEL CONTROLS 
Supplied by 

fISHER GOVERNOR COMPANY 
Mariholltown, lowo /Woodstock, Ontario 




SINCE 7880 
WORLD LEADER IN RESEARCH FOR BETTER PRESSURE AND I.IC3UID LEVEL CONTROLS 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



REPORT FROM RYAN 



Ryan's Diversification 

Creates Wide Opportnnity for Engineers 





X-13 Vertijet Adds New Punch to Airpower 



Washington— Unveiled in an unpre- 
cedented flight at the Pentagon, the 
Ryan X-13 Vertijet gave military 
officials a glimpse of the future of air- 
power. Like a huge bat, the Vertijet 
unhooked itself from its nose cable, 
hovered vertically, then whipped over 
into horizontal flight and roared out of 
sight. 

World's first jet VTOL aircraft, the 
Vertijet combines the flashing perform- 
ance of jet power with the mobility of 
missile launching. It frees supersonic 
airpower from runways and airports. 
Without landing gear, flaps, actuators, 
the X-13 concept means less weight- 
more performance in speed and climb. 

In the words of a top Air Force 
General, "The Vertijet has provided 
military planners with a new capability 
for manned aircraft of the future." 

Achieved in close cooperation with 
the Air Force and Navy, the Vertijet is 
based upon Ryan's unsurpassed 21^ 



million manhours of research, develop- 
ment, and test in VTOL aircraft. 

Navy, Army 

to Use New Ryan 

Navigator 

San Diego — Navy aircraft — piston 
engine, jets and helicopters will soon be 
equipped with Ryan lightweight auto- 
matic navigators and ground velocity 
indicators. Lightest, simplest, most 
reliable, most compact of their type, 
these systems are self-contained and 
based on continuous-wave radar. 

The navigators provide pilots with 
required data such as latitude, longi- 
tude, ground speed and track, drift 
angle, wind speed and direction, ground 
miles covered and course and distance 
to destination. Ryan is also developing 
guidance systems for supersonic missiles. 



More Orders for 
r^ViSP^ Ryan Firebees 

San Diego- Nearly $20 million worth 
of Ryan Firehee jet drone missiles have 
been ordered by the Air Force and Navy 
in 1957. In o]>o rational use, the Firebee 
is the nation's most realistic "enemy" 
target for evaluating the performance of 
air-to-air and ground-to-air missiles. It 
possesses the high speed, altitude, 
maneuverability and extended duration 
needed to simulate "enemy" intercept 
problems. 

America's number-one jet drone, the 
Firebee is another example of Ryan's 
skill in blending aerodynamic, jet pro- 
pulsion and electronics knowledge to 
meet a challenging problem . . . answer a 
vital military need. 



Ryan has immediate career 
openings for engineers 

Look to the future. Look to Ryan . . . where you can 
grow with an aggressive, forward-looking company. 
You'll find a variety of stimulating projects. Ryan 
engages in all three elements of modern flight— 
airframes, engines and electronic systems. 



liflr. James Kerns, Engineering Personnel 
Ryan Aeronautical Company 
Lindbergh Field, 2736 Harbor Drive 
San Diego 12, California 



FEBRUARY, 1958 




<4 

dliiUtciaut . , . 



Man of distinction? Of course you 
plan to be one. Who doesn't? But not 
like this slightly ludicrous gentleman 

at the left who exhibits some of the 
popular advertising concepts of distinction. 
True distinction is based on achievement 
— and there is plenty of opportunity for that 
at Wisconsin Electric Power Company. 



Opportunities for achievement and success are to 
be found in abundance at Wisconsin Power Com- 
pany by young engineers of skill, vision and initia- 
tive. Problems are here for you to solve — rewards 
are here for you to earn. Opportunities for personal 
growth and advancement are unlimited. 

A wide variety of interesting work is available. 
For example, you may take part in designing and 
building power plants, substations, electric and gas 
transmission and distribution lines. You may help 
solve chemical engineering problems, create rate 
schedules, work on special engineering and economic 



studies. You may help our industrial and commer- 
cial customers solve their power problems. As you 
grow in stature, you may design electric systems, 
supervise operations. It is quite possible you may 
take part in the development of the exciting new 
techniques of producing electric power from the 
atom. 

Whatever your work may be when you begin 
your career here, you may be sure that it will be 
worthy of achievement and will contribute toward 
your becoming — some day — a real "man of dis- 
tinction." 



>Ve invite you to begin your career 
here . . . and grow with us! 

The area we serve extends from the Wisconsin state 
line on the south into upper Michigan on the north. 
It is blessed with a wide diversification of economic 
activity — including large industrial centers as well as 
the business and manufacturing activities of many 
small communities with their surrounding farm areas. 
Demands for our services are so great that we are 
now in the midst of a 10 year expansion program which 
anticipates the practical doubling of our business with- 
n that period. We invite you to GROW WITH US! 



See our representative when he visits your campus 

WISCONSIN ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY SYSTEM 



Wisconsin Electric Power Co. 

MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN 



Wisconsin Michigan Power Co. 

APPIETON, WISCONSIN 



Wisconsin Natural Gas Co. 

RACINE, WISCONSIN 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



JOB FACTS FROM DU PONT 



miPDNr 



BETTER THINGS FOR BETTER LIVING 



. THROUGH CHEMISTRY 



YOUR INTERESTS, SPECIAL ABILITIES ARE IMPORTANT 
WHEN DU PONT MAKES YOUR FIRST JOB ASSIGNMENT 



ROOM TO GROW 

There's plenty of room to p,row 
at DiiPont. One reason is that 
the 2'erv diversity of our products 
and processes requires specialists 
in almost every area of science 
and engineering:. Another reason 
is that Du Pont continues to ex- 
pand in many new directions. 

For example, in 1957 sales 
reached $2 billion. Four new 
plants were being built. Neir re- 
search projects were launched, 
neic jiroducts marketed. 

In 1957. too. new technical 
men joined DuPont in chemical, 
civil, mechanical, metallurgical, 
electrical, industrial, petroleum 



by 

H. J. Hollberg 

Du Pont 
Representative 






and mining engineering: in 
atomic energy, instrumentation, 
chemistrr. physics, mathematics 
and many other fields. 

All this activity points to as 
bright a future today as ever be- 
fore in our long history. There's 
a place for the good graduate in 
this picture. If you would like 
more specific information on op- 
portunities at Du Pont, we invite 
you to sign up for a Du Pont 
interview with your placement 
director. 



L. 



DU PONT SUMMER JOB 
GIVES YOU A CHANCE 
TO EARN AND LEARN 



Du Pont oflers college juniors and 
qualified sophomores in technical 
fields the op[)ortunity to earn college 
expense money this summer while 
they learn more about the kind of 
work that will be open to them when 
they graduate. 

The Company has 75 plants and 98 
laboratories located across 26 states 
—a spread that often gives the student 
a chance to work in or near his own 
section of the country. Some of these 
locations have openings for summer 
emploNnient in 195u. 



Students work side by side with 
l>racti(ing engineers and scientists. In 
this way they gain valuable experience 
to supplement classroom theory. 

Last year, 407 students from 113 
colleges took advantage of this pro- 
gram. Du Pont pays round-trip trans- 
])ortation expenses from home or 
school to place of employment. Stu- 
dents are not obligated to continue 
with the Company after graduation. 

For complete details on this pro- 
gram, check with your college place- 
ment director. 

SEND FOR INFORMATION BOOKLET 

Booklets on jobs at Du Pont are yours 
for the asking. Subjcets include: me- 
chnniral, civil, metallurgical, chemical, 
electrical, instrumentation and indus- 
trial engineers ; atomic energy, technical 
sales, business administration, research 
and development. Name the subject that 
interests you in letter to Du Pont, 2494-E 
Nemours Building, Wilmington 98, Del. 



Personalized Training 
Relates to Policy of 
Promotion from Within 



Where do your interests lie? What 
courses have you taken? What are 
vour special abilities? DuPont tries 
to match these factors with available 
jobs to determine your first job as- 
signment within the Company. 

Once the assignment is made, the 
Company helps you apply your knowl- 
edge to a problem right away. You 
learn by doing— in consultation with 
your supervisor and others working 
on various phases of the same project. 
Your performance on the job is evalu- 
ated periodically, so you always know 
where you stand in the eyes of your 
management. 

As you might guess, Du Pout's ])er- 
sonalized training is closely related 
to its promotion policy. Almost all 
advancement is made from within the 
Company, so if your supervision has 
indicated that you are ready for pro- 
motion, and an opening occurs for 
which your training has prepared 
vou, you are sure to be considered. 

Although Du Pont employs about 
90. ()()() people, management authority 
is decentralized through many depart- 
ments into small groups— small enough 
so that the new man's capabilities can 
be recognized quickly. This type of 
organization, plus the Company's 
steady growth, produces many oppor- 
tunities for the new man. 



Du Pont, over the past 25 years, has 
spent $1 on research for every |3 on 
production facilities. 



FEBRUARY, 1958 




"What next, young man?" 



J.t's a proud moment for a man when he gets his 
college diploma. And the sheepskin ran be tlie spring- 
board to a successful business career, provided the 
graduate has given careful consideration to the ques- 
tion: "What next, young man?" 

If you're planning a career in Mechanical Engineer- 
ing, the "next" in your life could be Westinghouse Air 
Brake Company— the world's leading manufacturer of 
railway brake systems and one of the nation's oldest 
and most reliable companies. 

At AVestinghouse Air Brake, you'll be a trainee and 
learn about air brakes and railroading. You'll take air 
brakes apart. Put them together. Test them. Help de- 
sign and improve them. Operate them in the labora- 
tor)- and on prototy|)e trains. You'll visit railroad shops 
and observe the maintenance of Westinghouse Air 
Brake Equipment. 



After a year and a half of training, you'll be tapped 
for the job that is best for you. It will be in design, 
development, researcli, sales or staff engineering. Your 
salary, during training and afterward, will be on a par 
with other top-fliglit engineering companies. And there 
will be no ceiling on your chances for advancement. 

For more information on ^\^estinghouse Air Brake 
Company, get in touch with your College Placement 
Director, or write to Mr. D. F. McConnell, Supervisor 
of Training, Engineering Department. 

Westinghouse Air Brake 

COM PANY 

AIR BRAKE DIVISION 



PENNSYlVANrA 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




THE LOCKHEED MISSILE SYSTEMS 

Advanced Study Program for 

M.S. and Ph.D. DEGREES 

in science and engineering 

University of California at Los Angeles • Uiiixcrsity of Southern California 
University of California at Berkeley • Stanford University 

The Graduate Study Council offers an Advanced Study Program to enable 
qualified individuals to obtain M.S. or Ph.D. degrees. Under this program the 
participants are employed in their chosen fields of research and development 
at Lockheed Missile Systems while concurrently pursuing graduate study. 

Eligible students must be U.S. citizens holding M.S. or B.S. degrees 
in fields of Engineering, Mathematics and Science applicable to missile 
systems research and development. 

Students are invited to contact their Placement Officer for additional information 
or write: 



C 



COLLEGE RELATIONS DIRECTOR 

MISSILE SYSTEMS 



A DIVISION OF LOCKHEED AIHCBAFT CORPORATION 
PALO AI.TO . SUNNYVALE • VAN NUYS • CALIFORNIA 



fpr 






BREAKING BARRIERS in friclion research, CM engineer-in-training DonaKl Hamilton (r.) works 
closely with Rohert Hellniann, M.E. '41, and O. K. Kelley (c.). One of the nation's leading automatic 
transmission authorities, Mr. Kelley holds 24 patents, directed Transmission Development Section of 
GM's Engineering Staff before his recent promotion to Chief Engineer of GM's Buick Motor Division. 



Because engineering is di profession at GM- 
your accomplishments are accorded added attention 



Inu've picked your profession — engineering. 

\ ou plan to practice with the company of your choice. 

But will the company you join recognize you as a pro- 
fessional man? Will it give you professional responsibili- 
ties? Will you be given cliallenging assignments? 

If you pick General Motors — and General Motors picks 
you for one of the many different kinds of engineering work 
involved in producing our hundreds of different products— 
we have reason to think you will. 

For to us, engineering is a profession. 

Not only at our General Motors Technical Center— but in 
every one of our 35 divisions and 126 plants in 71 cities 
and 19 states— it is recognized as such. 

This professional recognition is shown in minor ways — 
like putting you on an annual salary, not an hourly rate. 
And — like giving you vacations with pay. 

It is shown in major ways, too. 

It is shown in the fabulous GM Technical Center near 
Detroit, dedicated to the advancement of engineering and 
science, equipped with every conceivable research facility. 
Shown in the encouragement given you in pursuing 



10 



advanced degrees. Shown by the fact that so inany key men 
throughout General Motors are engineers. 

How far can an engineer go in General Motors? There is 
no limit— literally. For example, 14 out of 33 Vice-Presidents 
are engineers, 23 of 42 Division General Managers are 
engineers. These men were in your shoes not so many 
years ago. 

Today. General Motors is looking for young engineers who 
may fill these executive positions in the years to come. If 
you're the kind of man we're looking for— the kind of man 
who wishes to practice his engineering profession — let us 
hear from you. It could be the most important letter of 

your life. 

• • • 

GM positions now available in these fields; 

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING • ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING • METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 

AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING ■ CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 

CERAMIC ENGINEERING • MATHEMATICS • INDUSTRIAL DESIGN 

PHYSICS • CHEMISTRY 

Geneml Mo roHS Corporation 

Personnel Staff, Detroit 2, Michigan 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 






neot* 




This could be the most valuable reading you've ever done! 



JUST PUBLISHED— YOURS FREEI An interest- 
ing, comprehensive, 16-page brochure that will answer 
your questions about how to use your training and 
talents to your best advantage in the job you select. 
The story is too big, too diverse and too detailed to tell 
here— that's why we ask you to let us send it to you. 

Get this preview of a whole range of exceptionally 
promising futures for the price of a postage stamp. 
Find out how a fast-growing company encourages 
engineers and scientists to develop their potentialities 
to the fullest. 

HIGHLIGHTS FROM THIS HELPFUL BOOK: 

Raytheon's Record — review of pace-setting activities in 
electronics that widen horizons for you. 
Research Program— suggestions for your future in either 
"pure" or applied research. 

Development and Design Program — prospects for you in 
the practical application of research to the manufac- 
ture of new electronic products and components. 
Manufacturing Techniques Program — latest production 
processes outlined for you who are inclined toward 
supervision and management positions. 



Application and Sales Program — advantages to you in 
world-wide field engineering activities; rewarding 
opportunities in electronic sales. 

AND — important facts you want to know about indi- 
vidualized training, your advancement opportunities, 
chances for advanced study; company policies and bene- 
fits; plant locations; living and recreational prospects. 

For Your FREE Copy — Mall This CouponI 



RAYTHEON MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

WILLIAM J. HOWELLS JR., COLLEGE RELATIONS DEPT. 

WALTHAM 54, MASSACHUSETTS 

Pease send me, without cost or obligation. Your Life and 
Your Future at Raytheon. 



Address- 
City 



Name of College or University. 



, n^ ^^ 




1 .>"•.<•■ •■• — ■". "' •• !;>.-< ..Ki. .u.,1 Ik >t-l..pn.i:-Hl Centernow 

uiuliT construction in Wilmington, Massachusetts. Scheduled for 
completion in early 1958, this ultramodern laboratory will house 
the scientific and technical staff of the Avco Research and 
Advanced Development Division. 



Avco's new research division now offers unusual and exciting 
career o[)portunities for exceptionally qualified and forward- 
looking scientists and engineers in such fields as: 



CREATIVITY 



If there is a single word that can best describe the aim and 
purpose of AVCO's Research and Advanced Development 
Division, it is creativity. We at AVCO have assembled those 
elements and that atmosphere which we believe are most 
conducive to true creative effort. 

Our future progress depends on an early recognition of the dif- 
ference between an important new idea and just a new idea. It 
is mere quibbling with words whether we call these things new 
discoveries, breakthroughs, or basic research. They are, in fact, 
merely the signposts of our future. The world in 1980 and the 
year 2000 will, in its technological aspects, be vastly different 
from what we know today. Yet locked somewhere on our present 
scientific frontiers is the knowledge that will spell out this 
difference. It is our purpose to help in the unlocking of that 
knowledge and to contribute our part to the over-all progress. 

The most important ingredients of creativity are curiosity and 
a real will to work hard. Of only slightly lesser importance is 
the feedback, or close working relationship between theore- 
tician and observing experimentalist. We at AVCO also realize 
that a single creative effort is the output of a man, or, at the 
most, of a small group of men at any one time. It is, therefore, 
continuously subject to the criticism of other men and some 
even more stultifying forces. Some of these are economic or 
organizational and others are of a more subtle variety. We of 
the AVCO management consider it our responsibility to be 
alert to both positive and negative factors affecting creativity. 
We consider the ability of our men to create for the future, 
the most important function of the AVCO Research and 
Advanced Development Division. 




J. W. Marchetti, 
Director, Avco Electronics Research Laboratory 



Science: 

Aerodynamics • Eleclronics • Mathematics • Metallurgy 

Physical Chemistry ■ Physics • Thermodynamics 

Engineering: 

Aeronautical • Applied Mechanics • Chemical ■ Electrical 

Heal Transfer • Mechanical • Reliability • Flight Test 

Wrile lu Dr. li. W. Johiisloi, Si-i,„li,lii- aiul Technical Relations, 
Avco Research and Adi^anced Oevelopment Division, 
iO South Union Street, Lawrence, Massachusetts. 






Harvey Graves (Darlmouth, BA '50, MSEE '51) discusses a reactor experiment at the Westinghouse Reactor Evaluation Center, in Waltz Mil 
of the Nuclear Design Section, Mr. Groves works with Dr. Wilfried Bergmonn (Vienna, PhD '51), on right, and other young scientists who op 

At 30, Harvey Graves directs nuclear design 
of two major Westinghouse reactors 



a. As manager 
jte the facility. 



After completing the Westinghouse Student Training 
Course in 1951, Harvey Graves attended the West- 
inghouse Advanced Design Course* and was sent by 
Westinghouse to the Oak Ridge School of Reactor 
Technology for one year. Back at Westinghouse again 
in 1953, Engineer Graves did advanced work on nuclear 
reactor development. 

In 1955, he was promoted to supervisory engineer 
on the Belgian reactor project. In 1956, he was again 
promoted to Manager, Westinghouse Nuclear Design 
Section. Today, Mr. Graves' 24-man section is develop- 
ing and designing the nuclear portion of commercial 
reactors for the Yankee Atomic Electric Company and 
the Center d'Etude de I'Energie Nucleaire in Belgium. 

•Fully accredited graduate school 

FEBRUARY, 1958 



Progress? Certainly. And if you have ability and 
ambition, you'll find Westinghouse offers equal engi- 
neering opportunities in automation, jet age metals, 
radar, semiconductors, electronics, large power equip- 
ment, guided missile controls and dozens of other 
fascinating fields. 

For more information on professional opportuni- 
ties at Westinghouse, write to Mr. J. H. Savage, West- 
inghouse Electric Corporation, 3 Gateway Center 
Pittsburgh 30, Pa. 

^^stinghouse 

FIRST IN ATOMIC POWER 



13 




Inriflrofls do it evrry day, willioiit ever leaving; tlie 
company. Confined I)y an uniniai;inativc management, 
they sink to the level of pencil pushers ... or slip-stick 
artists, losing the value of their intensive academic 
traininp. But the youthful engineer does not have to 
euffcr this fate. Selecting the right company . . . with 
thought to its reputation for leadership, initiative, and 
atmosphere . . . makes the difference. 

Linde (Company is world renowned for its progressive 
development in manv fields ... in atmospheric gases 
and acetylene, welding and flame ])roccsses and cipiip- 
lucnt, synthetic crystals and adsorhcuts to name a few. 



A LEADER FOR SO YEARS 

The term. "I. in. I.-" and "l ni..n tiarbi.lc" are registered trademark^ uf ICC. 



This leadership has only been won through the creative 
powers and initiati\c of LlIVDE engineers and scientists. 
And, these men have received individual recognition 
of their achievements. 

^ou can find out more ahout career opportunities at 
Linde, in research, development, production, sales, and 
staff positions, from your Placement Officer. A booklet, 
"Look to LiNDE for your future," is available by address- 
ing Mr. P. I. Emch, Central Recruiting Office. Linde 
Company, Division of Union Carbide Corporation, 
30 East 42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



UNION 
CARBIDE 




£n//e 



14 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



ENGINEERING- 

a KEY Factor 
at Bendix 




11 you arc an engineer of promise, a 
]jromising future may await \ou in one 
of twenty-six divisions in one of the 
nation's largest and most diversified 
enterprises — Bendix A\iation ('orpora- 
tion. For engineering is a ke\' factor at 
l^cndix. That is wliy Bendix has a con- 
tinuous need for the best engineering 
talent a\'ailal)lc. And that is why you 
should investigate Bendix career oppor- 
tunities now, without further delay. 

Opportunities await qualihed engi- 
neers in such fields as electronics, 
electromechanics, ultrasonics, systems, 
computers, automation and controls, 
radar, nucleonics, combustion, air navi- 
gation, hydraulics, instrumentation, 
propulsion, metallurgy, communica- 
tions, carburetion, solid-state physics, 
aerophysics and structures. 

C'hcck with your Placement Direc- 
tor for information regarding Bendix 
opportunities and interview dates, 
or write to Dr. Gerald A. Rosselot, 
Director of University and Scientific 
Relations, Bendix Aviation Corpo- 
ration, 1108 Fisher Building, Detroit 
2, Michigan. 



A thousand products 




a million ideas 



FEBRUARY, 1958 



15 




Henri Poincare, 



on 



disinterested lools 



But scicnfists Ijclicvo llial llicrc is a liicrarcliy of facts, 
niid tliat we may iii.iKc .i jii<Iicious dioicc among lliem. 
riiry arc riglil, for olliorw isc llicrc would be no science, 
and science does exist. One lias only lo open one's eyes 
to see tliat llie triumphs of industry, which have enriched 
so many practical men. would never have seen the light 
if only these practical men had existed, and if liiey iiad 
not been preceded by disinterested fools who died poor. 



who never thought of the useful, and wiio were not 
guided by their own caprice. 

\\ lial ihese fools did. as Ma< h has said, was lo save their 
suciessors the trouble of ihinlving. If they had worked 
solely with a view lo immediate application, they would 
have hfl nolliing behind them, and in face of a new 
rcc(uireiiicnl. all would have had to be done again. 
'^Science el melhode, 1912. 



THE RAMD CORPORATION, SANTA MONICA. CALIFORNIA 

A nonprnfil oro.m iziilion rn.i!..s;p(l in rcsr.inh on prohlrnis rrl,itc<l lo ni.lionai scrnrity nntt llio puliiir inlcrcst 



16 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



From the Editor's Desk . 



Engineering Open House 

Every year the Open House of the College of Engineering at the 
University of Illinois grows in size and complexity. As these splendid 
exhibits expand, they become more and more spectacular, straining 
both the imaginations and the budgets of the departments involved. 
The onlooker pushes a button and lights flash, wheels spin, sparks 
fly, and needles quiver on fancy instruments. He hears loud noises, 
watches huge pieces of equipment rip things apart, and sees radio- 
controlled cockroaches scurry oorund over the floor. In the midst of 
all this glitter and confusion, the average high school spectator wan- 
ders about, looking only for more flashy displays, and never wonder- 
ing, or knowing, why the things he's looking at perform as they do. 

This year marks a refreshing trend in the procession of super- 
science and super-brilliance, for the emphasis is being again placed 
on the educational aspects of the Open House. To be sure, the allure 
will remain, not only to hold the interest of the spectators, but also 
to attract them to science as an interesting field for future study and 
their life's work. The main appeal, however, will be of a more aca- 
demic nature. Displays are planned not only to illustrate the basic 
laws and aspects of engineering, but also to explain the newest of 
scientific developments. In this way, the Open House will do much to 
further engineering, both os a field of interest and as a career. 

-DEL 



FEBRUARY, 1958 17 



What Lies Ahead in Space 
for This Country . . . 



AFTER PROJECT 



by George Carruthers 



iicmge (jarriillurs . author of this 
nrtii/c is a fnshintin in Acroiiauticcd En- 
(/intiriiKj. A gradimtc of Euglcuood 
High Sihool in (Aiicatjo. he intends to 
m'akf the field of roeketry and spaee 
fliyht his life iiork. In this he has an 
exeellent start, for he is also a nieinher 
of the Chieago Rneket Soeiety, and un- 
dertook the original work on this paper 
in eonneetion uiih a paper for the 
A nieriean Roeket Society. 

After Project Vanguard . . . 

This country can conquer space faster, 
more easily, and at lower cost by usin;; 
new high-energy propellants, new ma- 
terials, and new construction tech- 
niques. Startling? Yes, but quite true, 
and well within the range ot present 
technique. 

With the aid of new fuels, it is pos- 
sible to produce higher exhaust veloci- 
ties than the conventional liquid oxygen 
and alcohol or kerosene combinations 
now being used. A satellite rocket would 
then reqinre onK two stages instead of 
three. 

The present three-stage Vanguaid 
satellites will be 20 inches in diameter 
and carry several lightweight instru- 
ments, the total weight being some 21.^ 
pounds. These satellites will do much 
for the cause of space flight, however 
because of weight restrictions, they will 
be imable to carry such heavy equip- 



ment as rV cameras and animals, nor 
will they be able to return to earth with- 
out melting. 

After project V'anguard, we will have 
learned enough to attempt to launch 
more complicated satellites. These will 
weigh far more than their \'anguard 
counterparts — from Kill to 2(1(1 pounds. 
Launching these larger satellites will re- 
quire more powerful rockets, although 
a rocket designed to launch a 2(l()-potmd 
satellite need weigh no more than the 
Vanguard's 22, (^(^(^ pounds. 

Rocket Propellants 

The rocket designed for launching 
the larger satellites will burn a com- 
bination of Hydrazine and Liquid 
( )z.one, for there are numerous advan- 
tages to these propellants, as well as 
the apparent disadvantages. 

The hydrazine-ozone system produces 
a very high exhaust velocity of about 
'J, 000 ft. /sec. at sea level, and over 10,- 
000 ft. /sec. in a vacuum, assuming 500 
psi operating pressure. The density of 
the propellants is high, for hydrazine is 
slightly denser than water, and the spe- 
cific gravity of liquid ozone is 1.45. 
Hytlrazine is a good regenerative cool- 
ant with a specific heat of .75, as com- 
pared to .62 for alcohol, and has ,i 
lower flame temperature than gasoline. 
It is also better as a rocket fuel than the 



high-energ\ boron and metallic com- 
pounds. 

.Although they give a great deal of 
energj- when burned, the boron hydrides 
produce combustion products of very 
high molecidar weight. The exhaust 
velocity depends on two things: the heat 
of combustion, and the molecular weight 
of the molecules in the exhaust. As 
boron oxide has a molecular weight of 
68, as compared to 18 for water mole- 
cules, the exhaust velocity of diborane 
would be less than that of hydrazine, 
despite the high energy content of the 
diborane. 

Ozone is a better rocket propellant 
than other high-energy oxidants, such as 
fluorine and fluorine compounds, in that 
the exhaust products are not poisonous 
and corrosive as they are with the lat- 
ter. 

The main combustion products ot 
fluorine reactions is hydrogen fluoride. 
At the high temperature of combustion 
(almost 8,000° F) most of the common 
metals would either corrode or melt. 
The only metals that are not corroded 
by hydrogen fluoride are the metals be- 
low hydrogen in the electrochemical 
series. Xone of these, except the metals 
in the platinum family, have melting 
points high enough to be of any use in 
the construction of a rocket motor. The 
metals of the platinum family are nut 
onlv ver\- hea\v (some almost twice as 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



VANGUARD 



• • • 



heavy as lead), but are far too expen- 
sive to consider for this use. 

Another suggested solution is to use 
fluorides as ceramic walls in the rocket 
motor. This suggestion almost immedi- 
ately fails, for none of the fluorides 
have melting points even as high as the 
low - melting - point metallic oxides. 
Therefore, although the fluorine-hydra- 
zine propellant s\stem has a higher jet 
velocity than the ozone-hydra/.ine sys- 
tem, the latter is the only one posisble 
with the present technology. 

Another advantage of ozone, the tri- 
atomic oxygen molecule, is that it is 
cheaper than fluorine. The raw mater- 
ial for ozone being oxygen, ozone can 
be made from air, and the electric 
power needed to convert one pound 
costs less than five cents. 

The disadavantage of using liquid 
ozone is its extreme instabilit\'. This 
can be overcome in two ways : by cool- 
ing ozone almost to its freezing point, 
and by removing catalytic agents by the 
use of fluorine. 

The method of supercooling consists 
of surrounding the ozone storage tanks, 
the fueling trucks, and the rocket tanks 
with a layer of liquid nitrogen. In this 
way, the temperatiM'e of the ozone never 
rises above the boiling point of nitro- 
gen. In the rocket tanks, the nitrogen 
is allowed to boil, but the ozone can- 
not get an\ waiiner until all the nitro- 



gen has evaporated. This boiling away 
of nitrogen would take much longer 
than the initial powered flight of the 
rocket, and would be vuineeded in the 
cold of outer space. 

The purification method takes ad- 
vantage of the fact that the main agents 
in the decomposition of ozone are or- 
ganic materials, water, and metallic ox- 
ides. Hy adding traces of fluorine to the 
ozone, three birds are killed with one 
stone: the organic materials are changed 
to fluorides, the metallic oxides are 
changed to fluorides, and water is turned 
to hydrogen fluoride and oxygen. In 
fact, the oxygen that is displaced is often 
liberated in the form of ozone. 

To prepare storage and rocket tanks 
for ozone, they are first treated with 
fluorine. This converts the oxide film 
on the tank walls to fluorides. At the 
same time, organic impurities and water 
are converted to hydrogen fluoride and 
carbon tetrafluoride, both of which are 
gaseous and are easily flushed out with 
dry nitrogen. At the same time, the 
fluorine is flushed out by the nitrogen, 
and the tank is ready for the ozone. 
The outer nitrogen jacket of the tank 
is always filled first, so that the tank 
will be pre-cooled when the ozone is 
put in. 

To insiu'e safet\- in the manufacture 
of ozone, it is made directl\ ficjiu liquid 
oxygen. (See diagram.) The oxygen is 



allowed to boil in a tank, and the 
vapors produced are passed through an 
ozonizer cooled with liquid oxygen. The 
ozone liquefies as fast as it is formed, 
and travels into a tank surrounded by 
liquid oxygen. The low temperature, 
coupled with the fact that the ozone 
liquefies as fast as itis formed, pro- 
motes a very high efficiency in the ozon- 
izer (about 95%). It also insures safe- 
ty, as at no time does the temperature 
of the liquid ozone rise above -183° C. 
(the boiling point of liquid oxygen.) 

By using these methods of supercool- 
ing and purification, it is reasonably 
certain that liquid ozone can be made 
and used in large quantities at a cost 
little greater than that of liquid oxy- 
gen. 

The Satellite Rocket 

Tile complete locket for launclung 
the larger satellites will have a takeoff 
weight of 25,625 pounds anil will be 
65 feet long. The first stage is 4 ft. in 
diameter and 40 ft. long. The second 
stage is 2 ft. in diameter and 25 feet 
long. (See diagram). 

The rocket is constructeil of mag- 
nesium alloy (90% Mg, ]0';« Al), 
which is stronger and more heat resist- 
ant than either magnesium or aliuiiin- 
um. The hydiazine tanks are integral 
(Cuntiniinl nn Page 2j) 



FEBRUARY, 1958 



19 




DELTA FINS 



NOZ E CON E_- 



ASCLNT TRAJECTORY 



COT ePF ISO Ml. 
, 18,000 M.P H. 




The above sketch shews the rocket and trajectory to 
place a manned satellite in orbit for a short time. 
This satellite is provided with wings and will glide 
back to the surface. Its purpose is the study of the 
human factors involved in building a manned satel- 
lite or space vehicle. 



Below is a representation of a rocket to circle the 
moon and return. Propulsion of this third stage will 
be a combination solid-liquid fuel rocket motor, as 
shown. This motor will boost the vehicle from 18,000 
to 25,000 mph., earth's escape velocity. The paylood 
will be research instruments and cameras. 



AROUND -MOON ROCKET 



3/^ stage: 




BATT|RICS 

TRANSMtTIERl''"'"" 




AMTLNHA 



-SPIN TA61.L 



20 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Fueling operations involving rock- 
et propellants are extremely dan- 
gerous and must be carried out 
with great care as all of the high- 
velocity fuel components have 
nasty dispositions. The fluorine 
and acid fuels, aside from their 
tendency to eat through most ma- 
terials with frightening rapidity, 
are highly explosive. The dangers 
of the low-temperature fluids, such 
as liquid oxygen, ozone, and hy- 
drogen, are self explanatory. 
Ozone has the additional disad- 
vantage of being violently un- 
stable at any temperature much 
in excess of its freezing point, and 
all of these argue with impurities 
present in their surroundings. For 
these reasons the handling meth- 
ods and protective measures used 
with them, such as the protective 
clothing worn by the men in the 
picture on the right, are as thor- 
ough as possible. One slip can 
mean violent death, 

(Photo courtesy Martin Co.) 




Shown below is a sketch of the satellite, showing interior arrangement. The satellite will carry food and water 
for one week, and will retuin to earth at the end of that time. The thick cermet nose-cone will protect the inter- 
ior from extreme temperatures, as such metal-ceramic compounds have excellent heat-resistant characteristics. 

SATELLITE 





SATCLklTE * ROCKt 



FEBRUARY, 1958 



21 





> 

o 
h- 
u 

u 

< 

q: 



1- 



uJ 
U 

CO 

< 




■^ C O ii 



Jul 



^ X 



^ E 



2 E 



=9 E 



O -£ O 



^ E 



- ^ ^ ^ 



i 3 -5 
^ < -c 



22 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



( I 'annual d (.'rjiitiiiiK tl ) 

with the skin, as are the nitrogen jack- 
ets of the ozone tanks. There is a 1" 
space between the inner and outer walls 
of the ozone tanks to hold the hquid 
nitrogen for cooling the fuel. Fuels are 
pressurized by the evaporation of liquid 
helium in a pressure cylinder. 

The first stage rocket motor would 
have a thru.st of 50,000 lb, and that of 
the second stage of 5.000 lb. The fuels 
woidd be fed to the motors by turbo- 
pumps driven by hot gas generated in a 
steam generator by catalytic decomposi- 
tion of ozone. Hydrazine in excess 
would be burned in the oxygen pro- 
duced. The excess serves to keep the 
temperature down and to produce a 
greater \()lume of gas. 

The motors themselves would be 
hung in gimbal mounts, operated h\ 
servo-mechanisms running on c o m - 
pressed helium. The motors woidd prob- 
ably be made of a titanium-mohbden- 
um' alloy (W,l Mo, 10' ,' Ti ) that is 
\ery heat-resistant, and coated with a 
\ery thin layer of magnesium or /iron- 
ium oxide to protect the metal trom 
oxidation. The motor is regenerati\el\ 
and film cooled by the hydrazine fuel. 

The rocket guidance mechanism 
which is located in the second stage, 
would be of the radio-inertial guidance 
type. The first stage ascent is prepro- 
grammed, but is still under radio con- 
trol. The second stage ascent is com- 
pletely under radio control. 

The Satellite 

The satellite in this project has been 

specially designed such that it may be 

recovered intact after its flight through 

space. The satellite makes up the top 

( (',<intinucd on Page 42) 





A Martin research vehicle blasts off. Several types of these 
vehicles were used to test the developments used in the Van- 
guard. As far as the science of rocketry has come in the past 
two decades, it is still in its infancy, and each new idea has to 
be thoroughly tested. It seems to be an inherent characteristic 
of rocket motors and their accessories that they function per- 
fectly or not at all, and total failure is almost invariably dis- 
astrous. Such research rockets as the one pictured above, though 
very expensive, ore absolutely necessary to the development 
of a successful satellite rocket. 



FEBRUARY, 1958 



23 



A Preview of. . , 



OPEN HOUSE 



It si"\cii is a liick\' iiumbci-, then this 
>ear's Knjjiiipcriri}; Open House iniglit 
well turn out to be an exceptionalh 
great success. This year's open house 
will mark the seventh \ear it has been 
presented as an annual event. From its 
small beginning; in 1906 when it w.is 
presented as the Physics Open House. 
.ill-Kngineeriiif; Open House has mush- 
roomed into an event that takes the ef- 
forts of over a thousand students. The 
IHectrical En<jineerin<; department or- 
i:ani/.ed a show similar to the Physics 
( )pen House in the spring; of 1QI)7 as a 
tund raising campaign for a memorial 
in memory of Robert Fulton. As with 
the physics display, the electrical exhibits 
met with surprising popularit\. Encour- 
aged, the department hehl further shows, 
each more elaborate than its predeces- 
sor. The 1915 show, marked by the first 
commercial exhibits from outside com- 
parn'es, found the exhibits in se\er;ii 
other buildings besides the now too small 
K. K. F/aboratory. Ry 1924, the )'early 
displa\- demanded the efforts of some 
5(10 students and a budget of $4,000 
that still allowed its planners to finish 
the project with a profit. Many large 



concerns, well aware of the national 
prominence (^pen House commanded, 
eagerly offered their products for ex- 
hibition. The use of such commercial 
talent led to many unusual and spec- 
t;icular demonstrations, and this condi- 
tion existed until the period extending; 
from 19,^8 to 1942 when emphasi> was 
removed from commercial work and 
more effort was made to spotlight stu- 
dent action. 

Productions by other departments be- 
tween !')()() and 192S included nian\' 
small "open houses," most noteworthy 
among these being a display by the De- 
partment of Mechanical Engineering 
that produced four shows between the 
\ears of 1914 and 1919 and an all-engi- 
neering (^pen Hovise held for the first 
time in 1920 commemorating the cen- 
tenni.il of the birth of James Watt. 

In 192S, a program was established 
v\ hereby the all-engineering Open House 
would be held on the alternate years 
with the E. E. program, thereby avoid- 
ing conflict in schedule. Both programs 
were disbanded during the war years. 
In 194,S the E. E. program and the 



ne\\l\ formed Engineering Open House 
were merged in an open house that was 
produced biennialh. Working on an ex- 
perimental basis, the program was tried 
annuall\- in 19S2 and 1953 and met \vith 
such success that it was left as an an- 
nu.'d affau'. 

The first physics Open House in 1906 
featured the then startling displays of 
heat, light, and sovmd devices that are 
now standard text in high school science 
courses. This year the emphasis of Open 
House will shift from demonstration to 
education. The Engineering departments 
will attempt to interest the visitors in 
scientific de\elopment, procedures, re- 
search here at the university and in the 
industrial field, and primarily in the 
basic sciences. Eor the high school stu- 
dents, who yearly are excused from 
school to attend the open house, the 
main objective is to interest them in 
engineering by showing them what an 
engineer is, what he does and how the 
student personally can become one. Also, 
Open House give these students a chance 
to get a good look at a imiversity cam- 
pus. 




24 



A typical display constructed by one department for Engineering Open House 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 




A faculty member points out to an interested visitor several features of the subsonic wind tunnel in the Aeronaut! 
cal Engineering department. It is one of four tunnels which will be displayed during the Open House, and wil 
be operated at that time with an actual test model. 



AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING 



Xew for this year in the Aeronauti- 
cal Engineering department will be sev- 
eral recent developments and improve- 
ments in the L niversity wind tunnel fa- 
cilities. Speeds and altitudes hav^- risen 
steadily within the past decade, necessi- 
tating complete reexamination and fur- 
ther refinement and expansion of aero- 
d\namic and structural theory. One ot 
the most vital tools of the aircraft in- 
dustry is the wind tunnel, and new and 
faster tunnels have had to be built to 
test new aircraft and research models. 
The Aeronautical Engineering depart- 
ment here on the Illinois campus has 
four wind tunnels, two of which most 
people would not think of as tunnels. 
All of these are either new, recently 
improved or in process of improvement. 
These tunnels will be running, where 



possible, during the Engineering Open 
House. Due to the difficulty of operat- 
ing the new hypersonic tunnel, or plas- 
ma-jet generator, on schedule for audi- 
ences, it will probabh be displayed and 
explained, with photographs of its use. 
The shock tube is at present being im- 
proved to bring its speed up to Mach 
20, or twenty times the speed of sound, 
so it likewise will not be in operation, 
but will be open for examination, and 
there will be a number of highly inter- 
esting pictures and slides, in color, of 
shock wa\es in action and what the\ 
do. The sub- and supersonic wind tun- 
nels are in operating condition and will 
be open to the public. An actual test 
model will be run during Open House 
to demonstrate some of the uses of the 
wind tunnel. 



There will also be various displays 
and operating exhibits of the other aero- 
nautical fields. The structures group will 
have exhibits of various types of air- 
craft structures and testing facilities, 
and there will be examples and demon- 
strations of the aircraft engines in use 
today. Add to these exhibits a number 
of other displays and expositions of the 
problems, and their .solutions, encoun- 
tered in the design and use of modern 
aircraft, and the result is very definite- 
ly worth seeing. Much of what is plan- 
ned b\ the Aeronautical Engineering de- 
partment for this \ear's Engineering 
Open House is new, and this year's 
visitors are sure to find much that will 
interest them. 



FEBRUARY, 1958 



25 




Shown above in the Physics Department are Dr. John Bardeen, professor of Electrical Engi- 
neering and of Physics, and several assistants in advanced research. Dr. Bardeen won the 
Nobel Prize for his work in developing the transistor, and is continuing his experiments in 
solid state physics here at the university. This is typical of the work in basic and applied re- 
search for the department. 



PHYSICS 



Did you ever have a sneaking sus- 
picion that perhaps /•" was not equal to 
ma? If you have, make sure that \ou 
visit the Physics Department's display' 
during Engineering Open Hou.se. There 
you will be treated to a demonstration 
that will verify, beyond any reasonable 
doubt, Newton's Laws of Motion, the 
principle of the conservation of momen- 
tum. The apparatus used in this demon- 
stration consi.sts merely of an aluminum 
slab, milled to 1 1000 of an inch 
smoothness, and a cake of dry ice. When 
the dry ice is placed on the slab, it 
starts to vaporize and literally floats on 
a thin layer of carbon dio.xide gas, pro- 
ducing a coefficient of friction between 
the dry ice and the aluminum slab of 
3 X 10'. Professor J. L. Koester of 
the Physics Department illustrated the 
significance of this coefficient of friction 
by pointing out that if a similar appar- 



atus of sufficient size could be produced, 
a man running the 100-yard dash in 
ten seconds could jump on a cake of 
dry ice at the end of the dash and 
coast for nearly ten miles. 

The application of liquid metal cool- 
ants to use in nuclear reactors has led 
the Physics Department to the develop- 
ment of an ingenious liquid metal pump 
which works with no moving parts. 
This punip, which will be on display 
during Open House, operates under the 
principle that a current-carrying ele- 
ment in a magnetic field is acted upon 
by a magnetic force. The force acts to 
move the liquiil through its cooling 
cycle. 

If you prefer the Physics of Light to 
mechanics or electricity, there will also 
be displays showing the use of a spec- 
troscope in the anlysis of ga-ses, lit by 
an electric discharge. Perhaps equalK in- 
teresting will be a demonstration of 



how light can be "bent" to follow a 
stream of water or to flow through the 
contours of clear plastics like Lucite. 

To satisfy a need for substances to 
produce low temperatures in certain ex- 
periments, the Physics Department 
makes its own liquid nitrogen, which 
exhibit showing the properties of liquid 
boils at — 195. 8°C. There will be an 
nitrogen and its effects on certain ma- 
terials. One of the demonstrations, for 
instance, shows that an ordinary rubber 
ball, frozen with liquid nitrogen, shat- 
ters instead of bouncing when dropped. 

Describing all of the Physics Depart- 
ment's displays for Open House in di- 
tail would be impossible in this short 
space, but the displa\s can best be des- 
cribed in one word — "fascinating." Call 
the word "trite" if you like, but after 
you visit the displays, we're certain \()u 
will change yo\n- mind. 



26 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



CERAMIC ENGINEERING 



Exhibited this year among the varied 
displays from the Ceramic Engineering 
Department will be a selection ranging 
from the manufacture of bricks to the 
uses of ceramic materials in the field 
of rockets. Examples of each of the di- 
visions of Ceramic Engineering will be 
revealed to the \isitor through the 
media of motion pictures, free samples 
of students' handiwork, working dis- 
plays and actual laboratory procedmTs. 
To the right an instructor is demonstrat- 
ing a phase of procedure in the white- 
wares division. 

The display cases found on each 
Hoor of the biulding bear examples of 
the man)' aspects of Ceramic Engineer- 
ing not usually associated with the de- 
partment by the casual observe!'. 

Because of the small size of this de- 
partment, it affords a more intimate re- 
lationship between department and stu- 
dent which larger departments cannot 
handle. There will be facult\' members 
on hand to discuss the many and varied 
opportunities in Ceramic Engineering. 




GENERAL ENGINEERING 




visitors above ore being show hovv to operate an air brush in last 
year's Open House. Similar do-it-yourself illustration exhibits will be part 
of the General Engineering display on March 14 and 15. 



According to Professor Springer in 
General Engineering, the department 
will completely take over the Trans- 
portation Building during Engineering 
(Open House to display drawing equip- 
ment and its use. Methods of making 
and shading pictorial drawings will be 
demonstrated, and the audience will be 
invited to try its hand at the various 
methods. Those who make a picture 
using Zip-a-tone, Double-tone, or air 
brush, ma\ take it with them as a soii- 
veiu'r of the open house. 

Among the other exhibits in the build- 
ing will be drawings made in drawing 
courses at the university, a demonstra- 
tion of the use of specialized types of 
drawing equipment, graphical computa- 
tion methods, and aircraft drafting and 
lofting. 

There will also be displays of all 
course material and methods of repro- 
ducing drawings, such as blueprints, the 
Ozalid process, Thermofax, photostat- 
ing, and the Verifax process. Further 
displays will include Engineering Hist- 
ory and Law, and career opporturu'ties 
in Engineering Journalism. Sales, Ge- 
ology, and Management. 

Professor Shick is in charge of the 
pl.'ins in the department of (ieneral En- 
gineering. 



FEBRUARY, 1958 



27 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Tlu- Mechanical luifjiiu'eriiij; ilcpait- 
iiifiit has in store a niiinber ot tascinar- 
ing displays tor this gear's Open House. 
One ot particular interest should be the 
missile displax obtained from (Jeneral 
lllectric. This demonstration is designed 
to emphasize the propulsion ot the mis- 
sile and promises to be an interesting 
as well as timely displa\. 

The Mechanical I'.ngineermg labora- 
tory plans to demonstrate turbines, tans, 
pumps, steam engines and air condition- 
ing SNStenis showing all the test proceii- 
ures the> incorporate. The Foundry lab 
will have demonstrations of molding 
proceilures with continuous pouring 
operations. The castings, including Lin- 
coln heads and ashtrays, will be given 
as samples. 



The Design section wjll shou the 
phases in designing gears, linkages and 
other machine units. .Also, the Machine 
Shop will demonstrate the machining 
operations of these and other units, such 
as small engines and vises. 

.A miniature power plant will be on 
displa\ showing the operation ot a steam 
generated power imit. 

The Industrial Kngineering depart- 
ment will also include a display in the 
Mechanical Engineering group and 
should be of special interest to those who 
plan on entering this field. 

In all, the Mechanical Engineering 
department plans to cover most of its 
general phases and attempt to give an 
idea of what types of projects a me- 
chanical engineer might undertake. 



At the right, visitors ure exam- 
ing the Internal Combustion 
Laboratory of the Mechanical 
Engineering department. In this 
room, tests are run of all types 
of internal combustion ma- 
chines. On display are gas tur- 
bines, diesels, and standard 
gasoline engines, including sev- 
eral modern automobile engines 
on complete test benches. 




Above is a section of the welding laboratory in the Mechanical Engineering Building. In this room will be a 
complete display of all types of arc and gas welding, including several of the lesser-known methods. Students 
will operate and explain the equipment. 



28 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




CIVIL 
ENGINEERING 



The civil engineers will put some of 
their well learned facts and figures into 
use during open house this year. With 
the aid of a prestressed L' beam and 
a slippery slide ride, the C.E.'s will 
endeavor to calculate your strength or 
your weight. 

Along a more serious vein, the Civil 
Engineers will have, among others, dis- 
plays of developments in the construc- 
tion of highways. On the west side of 
the building will be parked roadwork- 
ing equipment that will include a sem- 
per and grader. Inside, Chicagoans will 
see a model of their new Halsted St. 
cloverleaf interchange. 

Out near the Power Plant the Illi- 
nois Central will have on display a 
diesel locomoti\e. modern passenger car, 
caboose, dynamotor and broken rail de- 
tection car. 

Featured at the Talbot Laboratory 
will be examples of structural research 
in the civil engineering department. Of 
interest to the space minded set, will be 
examples of structural engineering in 
the aircraft and missile industry. 

Sanitary engineers will be out in 
force trying to purify the creek water 
that flows through north campus and 
offering it tii ;in\' tbirst\- \isitors. 



NROTC 

Witli emphasis on the "Modern" 
X.ivN', the engineering branch of the 
Naval ROTC has prepared an enter- 
taining, as well as educational, exhibit 
for Engineering Open House. 

To show that the Navy has kept up 
with the Space Age, the ROTC utut 
will have on display one of the latest 
issues of "(j" suits and a mock-up of a 
guided missile. 

Getting back to the ground, but none 
the less staying in the Space Age, you 
will also find a scale model of the Mark 
I nuclear powerplant, which is now pro- 
pelling the Nautilus. Under sinudnted 
conditions, this powerplant crossed the 
entire Atlantic Ocean before it was in- 
stalled in the Nautilus. 

For those of us who have a hard time 
grasping the fact that the Navy now 
uses atoms and missiles, there will be a 
scale model of a modern cruiser, a Mark 
\'I contact nuiie, and several types of 
turbines used to propel ships to remind 
us that the Navy is still in the ship- 
sailing business. 

As for entertaiiunent, who can beat 
films of the "Victory at Sea" variety 
being shown continuously? 

If, after reading this, i,ou are so 
moved that you want to rush out and 
join the Navy, go ahead, but whate\er 
you do, visit their display at the Open 
House first. 



MINING 

and 

METALLURGICAL 

ENGINEERING 



At the Mining and Metallurgical En- 
gineering Building, visitors may see the 
c.isfing of .-ishtrays from an aluminum 
mI1c)\, and ma\' take these ashtrays with 
them as souvenirs. In the heat-treating 
lab will be high-frequency induction 
heating for melting alloys, and a demon- 
stration of heat treatment. In this ex- 
hibit the properties of steel will be 
changed b\ heating it to 1500°F. and 
(|uenchi]ig it in water. .After such treat- 
ment, flexible steel wire will become 
hard .uid brittle. 

( )thei- exhibits include corrosion in 
action, gahanic cells, electroplating, 
thermocouples, and metallography, that 
is, the structure of metals and alloys as 
seen under high magnificatmn. 



FEBRUARY, 1958 



29 



THEORETICAL AND APPLIED 
MECHANICS 



Till' T c^ AM Department is one nl 
tile few which can make the elaini tliat 
it has a "smashing;" success e\er\ \eai 
tor Open House. The machine to winch 
the department owes at least part ot its 
"smashing" success, both literalh and 
/igurativeh- speakiiij;, is the .?, 00(1, (10(1 
pound testing machine, one of the larg- 
est in the Midwest. Lonj; a fa\orite of 
visitors to Open House, the testing ma- 
chine will compress ten concrete c\liri 
ders, at regidar intervals, until thc\ 
hreak. As in the past, the c\linders will 
either be given names of girls or names 
of the heads of the engineering depart- 
ments. 

A wind storm led to the development 
ot one of the most interesting exhibits 
in the department. Upon waking one 
morning, a T & AM profes.sor found 
that the roof of his house had been 
blown oft during the night. L ndaunted 
by the near disaster, he set about to find 
out why the roof blew off and how to 
keep it from blowing off again. He built 
a model of his home and set manometers 
at various points on it to measure the 
different pressures that developed when 
a strong wind blew over it. Placing the 
model in a portable wind tunnel, owned 
by the department, he was able to cal- 
culate the various forces acting on the 
house. This same experiment will be 
IHuformed during Open House for ;dl 
\ isitors. 

Also in the fluids section of the 
T & AM Department will be demon- 
strations of the hydraulic jump and the 
hydro-electric plant. The water used in 
many of the demonstrations with fluids 
is pumped into reservoirs on the roof of 
Talbot Lab. From there it falls through 
pipes to the first floor with sufficient 
force to operate the hydro-electric plant. 

Some of the other displays at the 
T iS: A\l Department will be tests on 
the fatigue of metals, tests on vibrating 
bodies, and a demonstration and explana- 
tion of strain gages, some of which 
measure to one-millionth of an inch. 

If you're a high school student, you 
may like to .see a T & AM class in ses- 
sion. Regular classes in the Resistance 
of Materials Lab course will be held 
so that you can see theni as they actual- 
ly are. 

Whether you come to watch metals 
and concrete being squashed or to set- 
one of the classes in session, you can 
be sure that your visit will be both in- 
formative and enjoyable. 




Shown above is the huge three-million pound testing machine. 
Capable of exerting this tremendous force in either tension or 
compression, it is an invaluable aid to the checking of large 
beams, columns, and joints for loading and type of failure. 
Without such a machine as this, the knowledge of behavior of 
large or complex forms under load would be strictly theoretical, 
as projected from tests of models or small sections. With this, 
however, empirical results can be balanced against calculated 
behavior. 



30 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




AGRICULTURAL 

ENGINEERING 




Above is a display in the Agricultural Engineering department of a smal 
industrial or general use farm engine being tested as to its power and 
other operational characteristics. It is one of many exhibits in the depart- 
ment keyed to mechanization on the modern farm. 



Shown at the left is the hydrau- 
lic jump, a fluid phenomenon 
displayed by the TAM depart- 
ment. It illustrates the violent 
turbulence encountered well be- 
low a smooth, fast fall of water. 
It is believed that this action 
has been responsible in the past 
for numerous failures of dams, 
bridges, and other structures 
near or in water, by tearing 
away the foundations under 
them. 



Perhaps only thost- who have lived 
on a farm reahze the importance of 
Agricultural Engineering in our every- 
day lite, but a visit to their display 
during Open House would certainly be 
enlightening to citv folk and counrrv 
folk alike. 

If you want to get an idea of what 
goes on inside an internal combustion 
engine, all you'll have to do at one of 
the exhibits is watch an oscillioscope. 
^ c)u will be able to see how the pres- 
sure within a cylinder \aries with each 
stroke of the piston. 

Fariiv.'rs who want to know if their 
tractor is putting out the horse-power 
that it should be can find out with a 
M 1^' W Dynamometer, simply by con- 
necting the power take-off shaft of their 
tractor to it. The Ag Engineering De- 
partment will demonstrate the d\ria- 
mometer and its uses at another of the 
displays. 

.Main farmers who previously kept 
corn on the cobs for storage now face 
the problem of converting their corn 
bins for shelled corn. Techniques de- 
\eloped b\' the University to handle this 
problem will be discussed and illustrated 
during Open House. 

Moving grain is another of the not- 
too-few problems which face the mod- 
ern farmer. A striking demonstration of 
how grain can be moved through pipes 
or hoses with air pressure might give 
comfort to those who know what it is 
like to shovel wagonloads of grain 
through a window in the barn. 

Tile drainage techniques and the use 
of heat pv'.nips for crop drying are only 
a few of the other interesting displays 
at the Agricultural Engineering Depart- 
ment's displa\' for Open House. Stop in 
and see them all. 



FEBRUARY, 1958 



31 



Skimming 

Industrial 

Headlines 




Edited by James Gi 



Atomic Power Plant 

Huilding the nation's first utility nu- 
ilear generating station at Shippingport, 
Pa., has presented many new problems 
— some that have been solved by rather 
unorthodox methods, reports Entjincer- 
ing Nnis-Record, McGraw-Hill pub- 
lication. 

As a prime example, the roof or top 
slab of the vapor container enclosure is 
concrete, five feet thick. This slab is 
some 60 feet above the base and could 
not be supported by the vapor container 
itself. To support the freshly placed 
concrete of these slabs on conventional 
forms would have reqviired massive false- 
work. Instead precast roof sections, two 
feet thick and weighing 10 to 20 tons 
were constructed. After curing, they 
were hoisted into place, with a maximum 
clearance of one inch when placed on 
the previously poured wall and haunch 
sections. After grouting into place, these 
precast slabs became, in effect, forms 
for the additional three feet of concrete 
necessary to make up the total thick- 
ness. 

A second unusual feature of the Ship- 
pingport Atomic Power Station is the 
large amount of reinforcing steel that 
lias gone into it. So much was used 
throughout, and to such an extent, that 
the average slab will show approximate- 
ly 200 pounds of steel per cubic yard 
of concrete, as compared with the nor- 
mal ratio of 80-% pounds per cubic 
vard. The total concrete estimated for 
the complete plant is 50.000 cubic yards 
with about 5,000 tons of reinforcing 
steel to be used, the magazine states. 
.An extremely tight schedvde was set 



32 



up and has been followed from the start 
of construction. To maintain progress, 
concreting proceeded throughout the 
winter. To prevent freezing and to pro- 
vide adequate curing, a low-pressure 
boiler was brought in, and saturated 
steam was piped under the canvas en- 
closures over all the fresh pours. 

Water presented another problem. Ex- 
cavation for the turbine room founda- 
tion uncovered a 15-foot blanket of wet 
clay. It was excavated and some 25,000 
cubic yards of gravel were used to back- 
fill, providing adequate support for the 
12-foot-thick turbine room mat. 

The plant's capacity is 60,000 kw, ob- 
tained by operating three of the four 
steam generators. The plant's single tur- 
bine-generator has a maximum capabil- 
ity of 100,000 kw, to allow for possible 
improvement in heat energy output, the 
magazine states. 




Center of operation for the power 
plant is in the master control room. 
All "instructions" to the nuclear re- 
octoi, the turbine generator, and 
the power distribution system orig- 
inate here. 



For The Man Who Goofs 

To err has ah\a\.s been human, hut 
now it is also insurable — at least b\ 
architects and engineers — reports F.Iec- 
trical World. A new type of insurance, 
which covers "errors and omi.ssions" 
made by the architect or engineer, is 
getting support from a mimber of pro- 
fessional societies. 

Clips 

Jet fuel consumption increased seven 
times in the last five years, against a 40 
per cent increase for aviation gasoline, 
reports National Petroleum News. Jet 
fuel demand is now lO^-million barrels 
a year, against 102-million barrels for 
a\iation gas. 

A New York firm is marketing a 
solar cigarette lighter, reports Product 
Engineering. A four - and - a - half - inch 
polished, shaped aluminum disk with a 
coiled \\-ire mounted in the center lo 
hold the cigarette and keep the fingeis 
from getting burned. Simple, b\it effec- 
tive — if the sun is shining. 

Salem County, N. J., soon should 
have the "bounciest" roads in the cn\ui- 
try, reports Engineering News-Recorl. 
Some 8.000 gallons of synthetic rubber, 
neoprene, will be used as an experi- 
mental road seal to reduce hot-weather 
expansion. 

Specification: A collection of loop- 
holes loosely held together by wistful 
verbiage, says Electronics magazine. 

A new t^vist in fiber research is being 
taken bv University of Illinois .scientists, 
reports 'Chemical Week. They're feed- 
ing raw sulfur to sheep— a technique 
that prevents shrinkage of the sheep's 
wool. Apparently, the sulfur finds its 
way into the wool fibers to form a type 
of molecular bridge. 

The Army is seeking a general utility 
aircraft with the versatility of a ground 
jeep maneuverability of a helicopter, re- 
ports Product Engineering. The Armv 
has awarded three contracts, and will 
pick one. Next the\ probably will have 
a flying truck. With fins, perhaps? 

"Why is it that out of more than 
120,000' women who received degrees in 
19=16, only 62 were graduated in engi- 
neering?" Miss Emma C. Rarth of 
Westinghouse asked. "It is obvious thac 
there are still prejudices and misunder- 
standings keeping girls out of a profes- 
sion that is labeled as 'masculine'." Any 
one around here have objections to wom- 
en in engineering? 

Southern Comfort 

A Texan is alwa\s honest, suh — even 
the truck rustlers, as one local man can 
testifv, reports Fleet Ouncr. McGraw- 
Hill publication. When his pickup truck 
was stolen, a note, left in its place, told 
him ju.st where the truck could be 
found. Sure enough, there it sat wait- 
ing. 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



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Vulcan T-212 30mm machine gun 



Vulcan T212 

Thf tamed X'ulian machine gun has 
a new and more powerful brother — a 
30 millimeter version that can gi\e mod- 
ern high speed jet aircraft three times 
the striking power of the earlier 20 
millimeter gun. 

The earlier V^iilcan gun now is used 
on the Air Force's supersonic Lock- 
heed F-104A Starfighter. The new gun 
weighs the same as the earlier Vulcan, 
also has a high rate of fire but is 8 
inches shorter. 

Designated the Vulcan T212, the 30 
nullimeter gun employs the same firing 
method as the 20 millimeter, mounting 
six rotating barrels from a central feed 
and firing housing. 

The new Vulcan, which also weighs 
about 300 pounds, has a barrel weigh- 
ing approximately 22 pounds, compared 
to the 20 millimeter barrel which weighs 
18 pounds. Weight was minimized on 
the T212 by use of shorter barrels. 

Both versions of the Vulcan can be 
electrically or hydraulically operated. 

Though it fires shells only 50 per 
cent larger than the earlier gun, the 
new gun can inflict far more damage. 
Actual rate of fire on both Vulcan 
guns is classified. 

Leakage in Color 

A newly discovered yellow paint, 
when brushed over the exterior of a 
tank that holds ammonia, will turn pur- 
ple when an>- ammonia seeps through, 
reports Chemical Engineering. The leak 
detector is extremely sensitive, economi- 
cal and, like so many little-known things 
viewed with hindsight, remarkably sim- 
ple. 

SWEET SMELL OF SUCCESS 

Leaifing producers of instant coffee 
are now pla\ing up to the consumers 
nose, reports Food Engineering. The 
aromatic factor is remoxed before ex- 
traction, then added to the finished 
product. 



Firebird II 

rhe General Motors experimental gas 
turbine automobile has been termed b\ 
GM president H. H. Curtiss as a roll- 
ing laborator\. Although experimental, 
the Firebird II was designed and test- 
ed as a four passenger family car with 
substantially the same econom\ as pres- 
ent day piston engines. 

The chief iiiechanical improvement 
over the Firebird I is the virtual elimi- 
nation of high temperature exhaust. A 
regenerator or heat exchanger, when 
coupled with the GT-04 or "Tm-bf) 
Titan," 200 horsepower gas turbine, re- 
duces the exhaust heat by 80*^; and uses 
this heat to warm incoming air. 

Among the features of this car is its 
adaptability to the proposed electroiu'c 
highways of the future, air condition- 
ing, air and oil suspension and a small 
refrigerator for bexerages and food. 

Sonic Soldering 

Aluminum and its fast-oxidizing al- 
loys now can be soldered as readily as 
copper by using an ultrasonic soldering 
iron, reports Electronics magazine. 

Light metals such as aluminum or 
magnesium oxidize instantaneously after 
casting, and solder, although molten, 
cannot adhere to oxide film. 

The electrically heated tip of the 
new ultrasonic soldering iron removes 
this oxide layer. The tip of the heated 
iron, vibrating at an ultrasonic frequen- 
cy, abrades the svirface of the metal. 
At the same moment, the molten solder 
flows directly onto the abraded metal 
surface, forming a firm alloy before 
further oxidation can take place. 

Any metal now may be soldered to 
this tinned surface in the conventional 
manner and two pieces of aluminum 
may be soldered together convention- 
ally by first ultrasonically tinning each 
surface. 

( ('iintiiiiti'd (in \cxt Pncjc) 



Imported CASTEIL 

"BLACK GOLD" 

adds skill to your hand 



Horizontal opportunities are 
plentiful for graduate engineers 
— but how about verti- 
cal opportunities? How 
high will you grow in 
5 years? 



That will depend on 
your native talent, hard 
work and such profes- 
sional habits as the use 
of imported A.W.Faber 
Castell. "black gold" 
graphite — the best na- 
tural graphite testing 
out at more than 99% 
pure carbon — makes 
Castell the world's 
finest drawing pencil. It 
will add skill to your 
hand as it does to sea- 
soned Pros the world 
over. Color-graded for 
instant identification in 
most of the 20 scienti- 
fically-accurate degrees, 
8B to lOH. 

If you prefer a 
Holder, try Locktite 
Tel-A-Grade 9800 
which shows your de- 
gree in a flash — plus 
imported "black gold" 
Castell 9030 Lead. 
Shop in your college 
store and insist on 
Castell across the 
board, 




A.W.FABER-Cil5rm 

PENCIL CO , INC. NEWARK 3, N. J, 



FEBRUARY, 1958 



33 




FIRST with 



OVER-THE-SEAS 

TV. FTL 



Another major "first" has been scored 
by Federal Telecommunication Labo- 
ratories . . . broad -band over -horizon 
microwave . . . for television (and tele- 
phone) between Florida and Cuba . . . 
the world's firsf over-the-seas live TV! 

Here is a typical example of the out- 
standing projects continually under de- 
velopment at FTL— principal research 
center of the world-wide ITSsT System 
in the United States. 

Equally inspiring, challenging, and 
high-level are the diversified assign- 
ments under FTL's long-range program 
. . . providing unlimited opportunities 
for young engineers of unusual ability, 
initiative, and imagination. 

When the time comes to start build- 
ing your professional career — get in 
touch with FTL- first! 

FTL's DYNAMIC RESEARCH PROGRAM 
INCLUDES THESE FIELDS: 

Rodio Communicotion Systems 

Traveling Wave Tubes 

Electronic Countermeosures 

Air Navigation Systems 

Antennos • Missile Guidance 

Transistors and other Semiconductor Devices 

Computers and Data Processing 

Wire Communication Systems 

Excellent graduate schools are easy lo 
teach from FTL locations in these east and 
west coast cities : 
NUTLEY, N. J 500 WASHINGTON AVE. 

San Fernando, Cal. 1S1S1 Bledsoe St. 

Palo Alto, Cal. .937 Commercial St. 



FTI 



Federal Telecommunication 
Laboratories 

A Division of International Telepho 
end Telegraph Corporation .n' 




( Si'ini mi III/ (^o it tin mil) 

Flameout 

lliiiiiiic tlami'out — .-i problem peculiar 
to tuibine po\viMc<t airplanes — may he 
eliminated by a simple automatic rei(;- 
niter made by the Charles Engelhard, 
Inc., East Newark, N. j. 

Intake of excessive amounts ot uatci 
or ice can quench the flame in a turbine 
eii<;ine. This has normally required the 
pilot to pertorm a series of operations 
to restart the engine, which could prove 
difficult. 

The New Jer.sey manufa.-turers ex- 
plained that the platinum-rhodium alloy 
is a catahst for fuel combustion. The 
tube also has hi;ih heat retentivity. Kept 
at temperatures up to 2()n()°F by the 
enjiine's normal operation, its catalytic 
action and retained heat enable it to re- 
stait the flame after flameout occurs. 

Cheap Roads 

Mountains of usele.ss slag and fly ash 
■It power plants may become miles of 
excellent cost-sa\ing roads through co- 
operative research b\- the University of 
Illinois an<l the Illinois Division of 
Highways. 

(ie(nge W. Hollon, civil engineering 
instructor, has been studying and test- 
ing the material for more than a year. 
.■\ trial section of 1200 feet of highway 
shoulder was laid reccnth' near chicago 
on Harlem Avenue south from Slst 
Street between Summit and Worth. 

Lime is vised as the cementing agent 
with the slag — fly a.sh. Besides low cost, 
the mixture has other advantages. It is 
not affected by outdoor temperature 
changes, an important cause of damage 
to present roads. It can be worked for 
up to If") hours after mixing. This 
would elinunate mixers at the road 
building site. Ordinary dump trucks 
can havd the material from ,i central 
continuous mixer. 

Because the slag — fly ash — lime mix- 
ture wears away easily, it nuist be sur- 
faced with black-top. Many present 
black-top roads are on a portland ce- 
ment base. This is where the new m.-'.- 
terial has its promise. 

Hollen says that waste lime, which 
has been used to make acetylene gas, 
is as good for making the inix as other 
lime costing twice as much. Fom- per 
cent of lime is used with 36 per cent 
fly ash and 60 per cent slag. The most 
critical item is watci . which must be 
controlled within 1 per cent. 

Interestingly, the material is almost 
identical with that used by the Romans 
to build roads hundreds of years ago. 
Many of these still arc in good shape. 
The Romans used lime with volcanic 
ash, which has chemical and physical 
liroperties almost identical with the slag 
and fly ash from modern power plants 
burning soft coal. 

(Cnntiniicd mi Piii/r 36) 



Why Vought Projects 

Bring Out The Best 

In An Engineer 

At Vought, the engineer doesn't often 
forget past assignments. Like all big 
events, they leave vivid memories. 
And it's no wonder 

For here the engineer contributes to 
history-making projects — among 
them the record-breaking Crusader 
fighter; the Regulus II missile, chosen 
to arm our newest nuclear subs; and 
the new fast-developing 1,500-plus- 
mph fighter, details of which are still 
classified. 

The Vought engineer watches such 
weapons take shape. He supervises 
critical tests, and he introduces the 
weapons to the men with whom they 
will serve. 

Engineers with many specialties share 
these experiences. Today, for exam- 
ple, Vought is at work on important 
projects involving: 

electronics dcsiy:n and nuunijacturc 

incrlial luivigalion 

invciligation oj advanced propulsion 

methods 

Much 5 configuratiuns 

Vought's excellent R&D facilities 
help the engineer through unexplored 
areas. And by teaming up with other 
specialists against mutual challenges, 
the Vought engineer learns new fields 
while advancing in his own. 

*•• 
Would you like to know what men 
with your training are doing at 
Vought . . . what you can expect of a 
Vought career? 

For full information, see our repre- 
sentative during his next campus visit. 
**• 
Or write directly to: 

C. A. Besio 

Supervisor, Engineering Personnel 

Dcpt. CM-5 



^uGfrr AiRCjrtJiFr 



34 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



A 

Vo light 
Yignette 

ONE OF A SERIES 




The structures engineer who 
found a fast detour 



"Advise and assist on structural problems. 
Do what you can to keep the program moving . . ." 
With this outline of his liaison duties. Stress Analyst 
Ed Clay accompanied Vought's Regulus II missile to 
its desert test site. 

On the desert, Ed found a dearth of structural 
problems. Regulus II reliability gave the flight test 
program tremendous momentum. In quick succession 
the missile notched 10 flights. When time came for a 
critical high-speed test, the program was three 
months ahead of schedule! 

Then, the very fact that things had moved so 
fast threatened to rob the program of the time it 
had gained. 

As Vought had planned, a wind tunnel flutter test 
had to precede the upcoming high-speed flight. 
But Vought's prearranged date at a government 
tunnel was over a month away. The facility was 
booked solidly up to the appointed day. And Vought's 
own Mach 5 tunnel was under construction. 

Then Ed revealed the scope of his liaison. It had 
ranged to the rocket test track at nearby Edwards Air 
Force Base. There, with the help of a cooperative 
track project engineer, Ed had spotted a rusting 
rocket sled, left behind from a radome test. Now, if 
the sled could be rigged to carry that spare Regu- 



lus fin, Ed figured, they might get flutter data before 
the tunnel test. 

That changed Ed's state of liaison. All Vought 
was suddenly at his service. Shopmen reworked the 
sled to mount the fin. Instrumentation technicians 
fitted the fin with gages and transducers. Vought's top 
flutter men double-checked, raised their eyebrows, 
then endorsed the whole thing. 

At the track, moments before the rockets exploded, 
Ed had a twinge of doubt. His sled was a mon- 
ster, indeed. Air loads would be terrific . . . 

Then the sled shot off on the first of two success- 
ful trips that revealed all the data required. 



At Chance Voughl, llirrc's liaUon in spirit as well as 
in name. It allies engineers of many specialties and view- 
points against mutual problems. It builds channels 
instead of walls between diverse technical areas. 
It's another reason why top engineers are choosing 
Vought — lo keep abreast of all fieliU ivhile atlrancing 
in one. 



^\>EMG^MT JirJR.C:rtJ9.FT 



FEBRUARY, 1958 



35 



PICTURE YOUR 

FUTURE 

IN THIS 
GROWING COMPANY 



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Looking for a solid, satisfying career 
with a vigorous company in a grow- 
ing industry? American Air Filter 
Company, Louisville, Kentucky — 
world's largest manufacturer of air 
filters, dust control and heating and 
ventilating equipment — needs gradu- 
ate engineers to fill responsible jobs in 
sales, engineering and production in 
its 125 field offices and nine manu- 
facturing plants located in six cities. 

In July of 1958, AAF will inaugurate 
its next five-month technical training 
course for a select group of engineer- 
ing graduates. This full-time program 
combines classroom work, under the 
direction of competent instructors, with 
field trips to both company plants and 
large industrial users of AAF products. 

An American Air Filter representa- 
tive will be on your campus at an 
early date to interview interested sen- 
iors. For the exact date and time, 
contact your Placement Office, now. 

American Air Filter 
Company, Inc. 

Louisville, Kentucky 




Levitation 

.Man's newest "wonder" metals now 
arc being in\Tstigate(l by heatiiifi tlieni 
thousands of degrees above white he;it, 
while rhe\' Hoat, treeh' suspended in 
space. Called levitation nieltinj;, this 
unique and versatile technique was in- 
\ente(l by Westinghouse research sci- 
entists and brought to its pi'eseiit state 
of <je\cl(ipnieiir by the conibiiieil efforts 
of scientists at the \V\'stirighouse Re- 
search Laboratories ami tlic I ni\crsity 
of British Columbia. 

In levitation melting, compressed met- 
al powder is placed inside a copper coil 
wliich carries a high-freq\iency current 
of electricit\'. Reversing its liirection 
neari\' a million times a second, the elec- 
tric current generates a field ot force 
which Hoats the metal charge inside 
the coil. At the same time, it converts 
the metal into a white-hot molten mass 
in a matter of seconds. Temperatures 
of 4500 to 5000 degrees P'ahrenheit arc 
achieved in half a minute or less, melt- 
ing ail hut the most stubborn (}f metals. 

At white heat, metals such as niobium 
and titanium are among the most active 
chemicals known. The>' react chemically 
with any known vessel in wliich they 
are melted. The traces of impurities 
they pick up cannot be tolerated in 
research on the pure mer;il. 

Levitation ni citing eliminates this 




Levitation in process 

(Photo by Westinghouse) 

problem entireh, the Westinghouse sci- 
entists point nut. .\o containing vessel 
is required, since the molten metal floats 
freely in space, confined only within 
itself. The whole process is carried out 
inside a sealed vessel containing an inert 
gas such as helium or argon, thereby 
protecting the pure metal from contam- 
ination by the air. 



}^Un ifout ^ututa in the fast expanding 
REFRIGERATION and AIR CONDITIONING FIELD 



Engineers 
solve a wide 
range of lem- 
perature control 
problems. This 
"thermometer" 
suggests the 
great range of 
refrigeration 
temperatures that 
they meet. 







VIrWfi for 
information 

on available 

training 
courses 



FRICK COMPANY, Waynesboro, Penna. 



36 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Simplicity of apparatus, speed of 
melting and ease of handling a wide 
assortment of metals and alloys are other 
advantages of levitatioii melting. The 
Westinghouse scientists report that the 
molten metal even stirs itself, yielding 
unusually uniform alloys from mixtures 
of different metals. 

Although not \et '"graduated" from 
the lahorators, the Westinghouse sci- 
entists suggest that niobium — the latest 
"wonder" metal — may soon become an 
outstanding high-temperature, h i g h- 
strength structural metal. Levitation 
melting is one of the few methods 
known for the preparation of niobium 
and niobium-base alIo\s in the purit> 
required for fundamental research on 
the niftal. 

Flashlight 

Twelve tiny lamps, each smaller than 
a kingsize cigarette, have been developed 
to emit a light source equal to 36 mil- 
lion candlepower for night aerial pho- 
tography, reports Product Engineering. 
The lamps, housed in special reflectors, 
were tested recently in a patrol bomber 
flying at 2( ),()(•() feet. They provided 
enough illumination at night to cover 
16 square miles, enabling someone on 
the groimd to read a newspaper. 



UNEQUALED 
FACILITIES... 




INSTRUMENT 
BEARINGS 



Completely new facilities for manufacturing precision 
instrument bearings increase Fafnir's ability to meet 
growing demands and more exacting bearings specifica- 
tions. Latest type equipment, including ultrasonic clean- 
ing units and unique testing devices, assure new highs in 
instrument bearing quality. Fafnir's precision instrument 
bearing facilities are unequaled in the field today — 
another sound reason why industry looks to Fafnir for 
help with bearing problems. The Fafnir Bearing 
Company, New Britain, Connecticut. 



FAFNIR 

BALL BEARINGS 



1 The develop 


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appli- 


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nowl- 


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com- 


1 puters, and 


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START TODAY TO 
PLAN TOMORROW 

By knowing about some of the projects underway at the 
Babcock & Wilcox Company, an engineer may see his 
personal avenues of growth and advancement. For today 
B&W stands poised at a new era of e.xpansion and 
development. 

Here's an indication of what's going on at B&W, with 
the consequent opportunities that are opening up for 
engineers. The Boiler Division is building the world's 
largest steam generator. The Tubular Products Division 
recently introduced extruded seamless titanium tubing, 
one result of its metallurgical research. The Refractories 
Division developed the first refraaory concrete that will 
withstand temperatures up to 3200 F. The Atomic Energy 
Division is under contract by the AEC to design and 
build the propulsion unit of the world's first nuclear- 
powered cargo vessel. 

These are but a few of the projects — not in the plan- 
ning stage, but in the actual design and manufacturing 
phases — upon which B&W engineers are now engaged. 
The continuing, integrated growth of the company offers 
engineers an assured future of leadership. 
How is the company doing right now? Let's look at one 
line from the Annual Stockholders' Report. 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF INCOME 
(Statistics Section) 

(in thousands of dollars) 

1954 1955 1956— UNFILLED ORDERS 

(backlog) 
$129,464 $213,456 $427,288 

FEBRUARY, 1958 




Bc.S.\\ ciif;iiitcis discuss developments 
in the Universal Pressure Boiler. 



Ask your placement officer for a copy of "Opportunities 
with Babcock & Wilcox" when you arrange your inter- 
view with B&W representatives on your campus. Or 
write. The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Student Train- 
ing Department, 161 East 42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 




37 



Full-lime, off-the-job GRADUATE 




STUDY CENTER. New Yorks Colisoiim Tower houses one of Winston-Salem, N. C. I'roduet design principles are one of the mui 
three spoeial study centers set aside for W.E.'s Graduate Kn^i- technical subjects our euKniecrs cover in Introduction to Wc.tei 
neenng 1 raunng Program. Other centers are in Chicago and K/cc/ric K/if^iiiei ring, the first phase of the program 



ENGINEERING TRAINING 

helps speed careers at Western Electric 



Riglit now. Western Electric engineers are back "on campus" 
in a unique new Graduate Engineering Training Program. 
Tlie\''re attending courses at special stud\- centers established 
by the company in Chicago, New York and Winston-Salem, 
\. C. It's a rare chance to study advanced engineering and get 
lull pay at the same time. 

These "students" are guided b\- a teaching staff of top West- 
ern Electric engineers, outside experts and professors from 
leading universities. They're learning the latest technical devel- 
opments . . . boning up on everything from manufacturing proc- 
esses to computer applications. 

When the program reaches its peak, some 2,000 to 3,000 \\'est- 
em Electric engineers will attend each year . . . studying in an 
atmosphere as close to a uni\ersit\' graduate school as is prac- 
tical for industry. 

This engineering "uni\'ersity " was born because of the ever- 
increasing comple\it\- of Western Electrics job as the manu- 
tacturing and supply unit of the Bell Telephone System. Today 
W. E. engineers are right in the middle of exciting fields like 
microwave radio relay, electronic switching and automation. 
Graduate engineering training is designed to spur their devel- 
opment and advancement throughout their entire careers. 

How Graduate Engineering Training would work for you 

Tlie program gets imdLT way after approximately six month.s on-the-job 
cvperienee. First off: 

1. A nine-week Introduction to Western Electric Engineering helps you 
learn about your W.E. engineering field, sharpens your skills in getting 
ideas aeross. Technical subjects include communications systems, prod- 
uct design principles, niilitar\- electronic systems. 

2. .\nother nine-week program. General Development, starts after your 
first >ear with us, helps broaden and strengdien your engineering back- 
ground. Besides technical subjects like engineering statistics, measure- 
ments and instrumentation, and electronics, you receive grounding in 
liinnau relations and the socio-economic importance of engineering. 

3. To meet continuing needs for fonnalized technical training. Advanced 
Development offers four-week courses tailored to the individual needs 
of the engineers selected to attend. These courses are designed to help 
develop crratise engineering abilities. Computer applications, switching 
theor>', fcetlliack control systems, and semi-conductor devices and cir- 
cuits are sample topics covered in tliis phase. 

Besides taking part in the Graduate Engineering Training Pro- 
gram, engineers are eligible for our Tuition Refund Plan for 
after hours study at nearby colleges. 

In short, there's a unique opportunity at Western Electric to 
develop a professional career . . . and work in the exciting world 
of communications. 




Knowledge born ni tin classroom often sparks on-tlie- 
job ideas. These engmeers are working on transistor 
manufacturiu" problems. 



MANUFACTURING AND SUPPLY 



UNIT OF THE SELL SYSTEM 



OPPORTUNITIES FOR 
ENGINEERING GRADUATES 

(Su))ervisonj and udministratioe 
opportunities exist in each field) 

Analysis for manufacturing operations: 

Machine and tool requirements— M.E., E.E.; 
Space requirements— M.E., I.E.; Test facility 
requirements— E.E.; Personnel requirements— 
I.E.; Electric power, light and heat require- 
ments— E.E.; Raw material requirements— 
Chem. E., Mel. E.. Phy. Sc; Procedures and 
processes— M.E., I.E., Time and motion 
studies — I.E., Investigation of manufacturing 
difficulties-M.E.; Quality control-M.E., E.E. 

Planning telephone central offices: 

Equipment requirements — E.E.; Power and 
cable requirements— E.E. 

Development and design: 

New machines and tools— M.E., E.E.; Material 
liandling methods— M.E., I.E.; New equip- 
ment and processes— M.E., E.E.; Repair shop 
methods— M.E.; Testing facilities-E.E.; Test- 
ing methods- E.E.; Job evaluation studies— 
I.E.; \\';ige incentive .studies— I.E.; Production 
control studies— I.E.; Improved chemical proc- 
esses-Chem. E., Met. E., Phy. Sc; New appli- 
cation for metals and alloys— Chem. E., Met. E., 
Phy. Sc; Raw material test procedures— Chem. 
E., Met. E., Phy. Sc; Service to military on 
electronic devices- E.E. 



For further information write: Engineering 
Personnel, Room 1030, 195 Broadway, 
New York 7, N. Y. 



• Western Electric has major manufacturing plants at Chicago and Decatur, III.; Kearny, N. J.; Baltimore, Md.; Indianapolis, Ind.; Allentown and Laureldale, 
Pa.; Burlington, Greensboro and Winston-Salem, N. C; Buffalo, N. Y.; North Andover, Mass.; Lincoln and Omaha, Neb.; St. Paul and Duluth, Mmn. Distri- 
bution Centers in 32 cities. Installation headquarters in 16 cities. General headquarters: 195 Broadway, New York, N. Y. Also Teletype Corp., Chicago 14, III. 



f 



A£K, 




r 



Marquardt Means Opportunity 

Every day, young engineers are finding opportunity at Mar- 
quardt— and for good i-eason! Marquardt grew and still grows 
on a foundation of engineering skill— guided by an engineer- 
management with an engineer-philosophy. Engineers are key 
men at IMarquardt. And because engineers are key men, their 
work and accomplishments are readily recognized and rewarded. 

If you are an engineer, physicist, or mathematician with 
ability to meet and conquer supersonic and hypersonic propul- 
sion and controls projects, you'll want to investigate the oppor- 
tunities at Marquardt, the leader in ramjets— "Power plant of 
the Future". 

Meet the Marquardt representatives when they visit your 
campus. See your placement director for further information 
and exact dates, or write to Dock Black, Professional Personnel, 
Marquardt Aircraft, 16555 Saticoy Street, Van Nuys, Calif. 



NUMBER TWO IN A SERIES 

ON MARQUARDT MANAGEMENT 



Don Walter, B.S.M.S., achieved 
an outstanding academic record at 
Cat Tech, Class of 'iO, icliile earn- 
ing seven varsity letters. Today as 
Vice President in charge of Engi- 
neering and Van Nuys Operations, 
Don utilizes his technical and 
teamwork background to lead Mar- 
quardt's engineering and develop- 
ment manufacturing. 



marquar 



Van Nuys, California 
Ogden, Utah 

F/RSr IN RAMJETS 




40 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




How RCA brings a richer, wider range 
of musical sound to your home 



Before high fidelity, the 
sound of recorded music 
was limited — much as 
piano music would be if 
you could hear only the 
notes played on the center 
of the keyboard. No 
rich bass notes, no keen, 
vibrant highs. 
RCA achievements in the science of 
sound and acoustics changed all that. 
Today, with RCA Victor records and 
high fidelity "Victrolas," the /((// range 
of sound is reproduced so faithfully 




that you can enjoy music almost as 
though you were there. 

And now. Stereophonic Sound! A 
new and dramatic dimension in re- 
corded music is also yours to enjoy 
on RCA high fidelity instruments. 
Stereophonic units can be added to 
most "Victrola"* Hi-Fi systems any- 
time you choose. 

In this, as in almost every area of 
electronic progress in home entertain- 
ment, defense and industry, the leader- 
ship of RCA serves you. RCA means 
electronics at its best! 



WHERE TO, MR. ENGINEER? 

RCA ofTers careers in research, 
development, design, and man- 
ufacturing for engineers with 
Bachelor or advanced degrees 
in E.E., M.E. or Physics. For 
full information, write to: Mr. 
Robert Haklisch, Manager, 
College Relations, Radio 
Corporation of America, 
C^amden 2, N. J. 




RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA 



FEBRUARY, 1958 



41 



( I tliljiiiard (.nnliituiit) 

live fpct of the second stage, tormina 
the nose of the rocket, anil resemhles 
tlie «arhe,i(I of the Redstone niisM'le. It 
haN a hliint nose cone to en.ihh- it to 
reject most of the re-entr\ lieat to tlu- 
atmosphere, and is equipped with four 
small fins to guide its descent. 

The satellite is equipped with mo\ !•• 
cameras set to take hoth regular and 
time-l,ipse movies, TV cameras and 
transmitters, and an animal cage con- 
taining mice or a monkey. One television 
camera is trained on the animal cargo, 
the other on the scenery outside. I In- 
power suppK is a Hell silicon-wafer 
solar h;itter> connected with a storage 
batter\. This solar battery would ha\<- 
an area of two square yards, an ciutput 
of 2(1(1 watts and be integral with the 
skin of the satellite. The storage batterv 
is of the light\\eight sil\er-/.inc t\pe. 

The animal compartment consists ot 
the animal cage, a help-\()in-self fond 
and water dispenser, and an air sn[ipl\ 
with temperature controls, riic simrcr 
of oxygen is lithium peroxide, wliicli 
gi\es off oxygen and, at the same time 
absorbs water \apor and carbon diox- 
ide. There will be instruments attached 
to the animal to record its reactions to 
weightlessness, cosmic rays, and tiic 
other effects of space. 

The satellite itselt will he ot special 
construction to allow it to return safe- 
l\ to earth with the animals. The skin 
will consist of several layers, the two 
inner layers to be of metal with insid- 
atinn between them. The outer layer, 
which is separated from the inner layers 
h\ a 1" airspace, is not metal, but a 
mixture of metal and ceramics, called a 
II rim t. There are no lightweight metals 
that could stand re-entry temperatures 
up to .?,()()()C. without melting. 

Metals which can stand high temper- 
ature, such as tantalum and tungsten, 
are not only heavier than lead, but also 
burn in air in the same maiuier as mag- 
nesium, at temperatuies far below their 
melting points. 

Ceramics, unlike metals, ha\e ver\ 
high melting points but at the same 
time are oxidation resistant and light 

THE SATELLITE 

Length S feet 

i'ayload 100 lb. 

I )iameter 2 feet 

I'in Length 4 inches 

Fin .Area 16 sq. in. each 

Weight Empty 100 lb. 

Orbit .Altitude 150-200 miles 

Orbit Lifetime I dav to 1 week 



SATELLITE AND AROUND-THE-MOON ROCKET INFORMATION 

ht SlllKi lllil Slllt/i jr,l SlflRC 



1,1 \(i III 




411 leet 


20 feet 


6 feet 


Dl.A.MKTKR 




4 fc<'t 


2 feet 


1 foot 


WKICHT I'MPTV 




211(1(1 lb. 


,?ll(l lb. 


M) Ih. 


V.XWA ).\|) 




.U2S lb. 


2(10 lb. 


4(1 Ih. 


TOT.AI. FMl'T't \VI l( 


,II'F 


SI2S lb. 


5110 lb. 


7(1 lb. 


I-TKl. WF.IOH r 




20,S(I0 lb. 


2/i2'-> lb. 


14(1 Ih. 


W IK HIT Fl Fl.Fl) 




25,62=) lb. 


.11 2S lb. 


21(1 lb. 


.MA.SS RA'FIO 




5-1 


(..25-1 


.M 


jF'F VFL()(.l 1^ 




0,000 ft sec. 


1(1,(1(1(1 ft sei 


1 1,5(111 ft 'sec. 


(.T'F-OFF VF1.(K"I'F\' 




S.OOO mph 


IS,( 1(1(1 nipli 


2 \( 1(111 mph 


ROCKF'F 'FllRUST 




50,000 lb. 


5,000 lb. 


500 lb. 



weight. Magnesium oxide, tor example, 
cannot oxidize becau.se it has alread\ 
assumed the maximum po.sitive valence. 
However, the grave disadvantage of cer- 
amics is that the\ are susceptible to 
thcriiiiil shoci-. for when suddenh heat- 
ed or cooled, they crack and bieak. 
'Fhey ,ilso are easily fracture<l b\ im- 
pact, as they are \-er\ brittle. 

(."ermets, which are mixtures of metal 
and ceraiiuc, combine the best proper- 
ties of both. They are shock resistant 
and have high melting points. They con- 
duct heat, but are o.xidation .esistant. 
(^lood examples of cermets are TiC-Ti, 
Mo-ZrC, and Al-Mgo. The metal acts 
to bind together the ceramic particles. 

The material to be used for the shell 
of the satellite is 60'^ titanium and 
4(Kr' magnesium oxide. This is over- 
coated with a very thin flame-coating of 
MgO. The magnesium oxide reliects 
the Sim's heat when the satellite is in 
space, helping to keep the interior cool, 
and radiates heat very rapi<lly during 
the satellite's descent. 

During the descent of the satellite, 
the blunt nose cone reaches a tempera- 
ture of almost 3000°C, and where the 
heat is greatest, the material will slow- 
ly melt away. Therefore, the nose is 
made three to four inches thick at the 
maximum and the main shell ]^ to 1 
inch thick. The four fins on the satel- 
lite, which are made of solid tungsten 
metal overcoated with magnesium oxide, 
act to make sure the satellite always 
travels nose-first thru the atmosphere 
and does not tumble end over end. 

Launching The Satellite Rocket 

The launching of the large satellite 
would be done in much the same way 
as the Vanguard satellite, with minor 
differences. 

The rocket takes off in a southeaster- 



l\ direction firmi Cape Canaveral, like 
the Vanguard rockets. The first stage 
boosts the second stage to a speed of al- 
most <S,0()0 mph. before it drops awa\' 
at an altitude of 40 miles. The rocket 
is then traveling at a 45*^ angle to the 
horizcjiital. 

The second stage (as well as the de- 
tached first stage) coast upward to an 
altitude of 200 miles. Then, the second 
stage rocket motors are fired horizontal- 
ly, bringing the speed up to an orbital 
velocitv of 18,000 mph. Now, explosive 
bolts separate the satellite from the sec- 
ond stage rocket, and the sitellite is in 
orbit. 

At ,111 altitude of 200 miles, the satel- 
lite will orbit for one week. This is as 
long as is required, as longer stays would 
require more food and oxygen for the 
animals, thereby increasing dead weight. 
When the week is up, slight air friction 
will have caused the satellite to drop 
into the 120-mile atmospheric limit. 
Once below this limit, the satellite can 
no longer orbit, and will slowly des- 
cend to earth. 

As the satellite enters the atmosphere 
at a slight angle, the heating period 
would be spread out over a lengthy time, 
allowing the heat produced to radiate 
away. This, coupled with the special 
design, should allow the animals to be 
returned to earth without heavy cooling 
equipment, while still maintaining a 
comfortable temperature inside. When 
the satellite has slowed down to a safe 
speed, a parachute is released to lower 
the satellite gently to the ground or 
ocean. 

A Rocket Around The Moon 

The logicil step ;itrer the large satel- 
lite rocket is to send a telvision rocket 
around the far side of the moon. This 
can be done relariveh easily by replac- 



42 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



ing: the satellite with a third-stage rock- 
et of the same weight. 

The third-stage rocket would he 
[lowered by a solid-liquid combination 
fuel. The oxidizer is liquid ozone, the 
fuel is beryllium hydride (ReH^, ) and 
the jet velocity obtained is over 11,500 
ft sec. Although the ber\lliiim is ex- 
pensive, the fueled weight of the top 
step is only 200 lb. so it would be worth 
while in terms of payload capacity im- 
provement. 

In order to break away from the 
earth's gravitational pull after being 
placed in the orbit by the second stage 
rocket, the third stage need add onh' 
7,000 mph. to the orbital velocity of 
18,000 mph in order to reach the 25,- 
000 mph escape velocit\'. 

The mass ratio of the rocket, that is, 
the weight fueled di\ided by the weight 
empty, is 3-1, so of the total weight 
of the rocket, 140 lbs. is propellant and 
70 pounds is rocket and equipment, (^f 
the 70 pounds for rocket and equip- 
ment, .^0 pounds would be rocket and 
40 pounds TV camera, transmitter, and 
assorted instruments. The third stage 
does not need to be streamlined, for it 
rides in the nose of the second stage 
rocket. 

When the orbit attained h\' the second 
stage has been accuratel\ determined, 
the third stage is fired according to an 
orbit which intersects the moon and is 
determined by ground-based radar. The 
third stage is now headed for the moon, 
and man is well on his wa\' toward the 
exploration of space. 



MARS outstanding design SERIES 



The engineer and his girl were cud- 
duled on the sofa, the lights were low. 
He pressed his lips to her ear and whis- 
pered, "What were you thinking about 
just then, darling?" 

"The same thing you were, honey," 
she answered timidly. 

"Then I'll race you to the ice box! " 
he shouted gaily. 

There are a lot of couples who don't 
neck in parked cars. The woods are full 
of them. 

» s » 

Prof: "W'ho split the atom?" 
No answer. 

Prof: "Who split the atom?" 
Student: "Don't jump on me. I ain't 
touched the damn thing." 

Prof. "A fool can ask more questions 
than a wise man can answer." 

Student: "Xo wonder so many of 
us flunk our exams." 



Joe Engineer decided to reform. He 
cut out smoking the first week. The 
second week he cut out drinking. He 
cut out women the third. The fourth 

week he cut out paper dolls. 




chef-less restaurant 



This concept of Sue Vandcrbilt, Pratt industrial- 
design graduate ]iow designing GM auto interiors, 
would assemble a whole meal and cook it b\- nucrowave 
in a few seconds. Customer would merely cheek pic- 
ture menu, insert money, push buttons. By the time 
he reached the far end of the counter the meal would 
be waiting, piping hot. All components already exist. 

Many designs that will make news tomorrow are 
still in the "bright idea" stage today. No one knows 
which will flower into reality. But it will be important 
in the future, as it is now, to use the best of tools when 
pencil and paper translate a dream into a project. And 
then, as now, there will be no finer tool than Mars — 
sketch to working drawing. 

Mars has long been the standard of professionals. 
To the famous line of Mars-Technieo push-button 
holders and leads, Mars-Lumograph pencils, and 
Tradition-Aquarell painting pencils, have recently been 
added these new products: the Mars Pockct-Teehnico 
for field use; the eflfieient Mars lead sharpener and 
"Draftsman's" Pencil Sharpener with the adjustable 
point-length feature; and — last but not least — the 
Mars-Lumoehrom, the new colored drafting pencil 
which offers revolutionary drafting advantages. The 
fact that it blueprints perfectly is just one of its many 
important features. 



The 2886 Mors-lumogroph drawing pencil, 19 
degrees. EXEXB to 9H, The lOOt Mors-Technico 
push-bullon iead holder. 1904 Mars-ljmogroph 
Imported leads, 18 degrees, EXB lo 9H. Mars- 
lumochrom colored drolling pencil, 24 colors. 



J.S. 



Ic 




^p 



TAEDTLER,INC. 

HACKENSACK, NEW JERSEY 

at all good engineering and drawing maferial suppliers 



FEBRUARY, 1958 



43 



$ $ $ 

2-=^25 Awards 



Two cash awards of $25 each will be awarded to 
the author of the best TECHNOGRAPH staff arti- 
cle and the best non-staff article submitted to the 
ILLINOIS TECHNOGRAPH. 

Rules: 

1. Articles must be submitted by the author not later than April 1, 1958. 

2. It must not have been previously published. 

3. It must pertain to engineering in some v^'oy. 

4. All articles must be doublespaced typewritten. 

5. Technogroph staff members ore eligible for only one of the prizes. 

6. Some articles will be printed in the TECHNOGRAPH. 

7. None will be returned, but they will be kept on file and may be printed 
later. 

8. Please include pictures, if possible, and permission for us to use them. 

9. Any number of articles may be submitted by the same author. 

10. The Technogroph editorial staff will be judges for the non-staff articles. 

Nofes; 

1. Ten typewritten pages with pictures makes three pages in the magazine. 

2. Use rhetoric department punctuation and capitalization. 

3. Many national companies will be glad to send you photographs and in- 
formation. 

4. Get started now and get several articles written and submitted by 
April 1, 1958. 



$ $ $ 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



We ^ant engineers ^ho like to 




We have plenty of it to be done. We have problems to be licked, and questions 
to be answered. 

Want to roll up your sleeves and tackle the fascinating world of petrochemicals? 
Union Carbide makes almost 500 of them — it's a world leader. 

Want to grab the atom by the tail and put it to useful work? Union Carbide's 
been in nuclear energy since the earliest days of the Manhattan Project. It 
operates three AEC plants plus Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and is building 
a private nuclear research center near New York. 

Want to dig in and really get down to the basics? Union Carbide is as basic 
as an industry can get. It's been called "chemist to the chemicals industry and 
metallurgist to the metals industry." 

Representatives of Divisions of Union Carbide Corporation, listed below, 
will be interviewing on many campuses. Check your placement director, or 
write to the Division representative. For general information, write to V. 0. 
Davis, 30 East 42nd Street, New York 17, New York. 



BAKELITE COMPANY Plasties, including 
polyethylene, epoxy, fluorothene, vinyl, phenolic, 
and polystyrene. J. C. Older, River Road, Bound 
Brook, N. J. 



SILICONES DIVISION Silicones for elec- 
trical insulation, release agents, water repellents, 
etc.; silicone rubber. P. I. Emch, 30 East 42nd 
Street, New York 17. N. Y. 



GENERAL OFFICES — NEW YORK 

Accounting, Electronic Data Processing, Operations 
Research, Industrial Engineering, Purchasing. E. R. 
Brown, 30 East 42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



ELECTRO METALLURGICAL COMPANY 

Over 100 ferro alloys and alloying metals; titanium, 
calcium carbide, acetylene. C. R. Keeney, 137— 
47th St, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 



HAYNES STELLITE COMPANY Special 

alloys to resist heat, abrasion, and corrosion; cast 
and wrought. L. E. Denny, 725 South Lindsay Street, 
Kokomo, Ind. 



LINDE COMPANY Industrial gases, metal- 
working and treating equipment, synthetic gems, 
molecular sieve adsorbents. P. I. Emch, 30 East 
42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



UNION CARBIDE CHEMICALS COMPANY 

Synthetic organic chemicals, resins, and fibers 
from natural gas, petroleum, and coal. W. C. 
Heidenreich, 30 East 42nd St., New York 17, N. Y. 



UNION CARBIDE INTERNATIONAL COM- 
PANY Markets Union Carbide products and 
operates plants overseas. C. C. Scharf, 30 East 42nd 
Street, New York 17, N. Y. 



UNION CARBIDE NUCLEAR COMPANY 

Operates Atomic Energy Commission facilities at 
Oak Ridge, Tenn.. and Paducah, Ky. W. V. Hamilton, 
P. 0. Box "P", Oak Ridge, Tenn. 




NATIONAL CARBON COMPANY Indus- 
trial carbon and graphite products. Prestone 
anti-freeze, Eveready flashlights and batteries. 
S W. Orne. P. 0. Box 6087. Cleveland. Ohio. 



VISKING COMPANY A pioneer in packaging 
— producer of synthetic food casings and poly- 
ethylene film. Dr. A. L Strand, 6733 West 65th 
Street. Chicaeo. III. 



FEBRUARY, 1958 



45 



IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS AT JPL 




The Jet Pruputsion Labora- 
tory is a slahle research anil 
development center located 
north of Pasadena in the 
foothills of the San Gabriel 
mountains. Covering an 80 
acre area and employing 
2000 people, it is close to 
attractive residential areas. 

The Laboratory is staffed by 
the Cali/ornia Institute of 
Technology and develops its 
many projects in basic re- 
search under contract with 
the U.S. Government. 

Opportunities open to quali- 
fied engineers of U.S. citizen- 
ship. Inquiries now invited. 



JOB OffOttTUNiriES 
IN THeSC FIELDS NOW 



Weapons Systems Responsibility 



In the development of guided missile 
systems, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
maintains a complete and broad respon- 
sibility. From the earliest conception to 
production engineering— from research 
and development in electronics, guidance, 
aerodynamics, structures and propulsion, 
through field testing problems and actual 
troop use, full technical responsibility rests 
with JPL engineers and scientists. 

The Laboratory is not only responsible for 
the missile system itself, including guid- 
ance, propulsion and airframe, but for all 
ground handling equipment necessary to 
insure a complete tactical weapons system. 



One outstanding product of this type of 
systems responsibility is the "Corporal," 
a highly accurate surface-to-surface ballis- 
tic missile. This weapon, developed by JPL, 
and now in production elsewhere, can be 
found "on active service" wherever needed 
in the American defense pattern. 

A prime attraction for scientists and 
engineers at JPL is the exceptional oppor- 
tunity provided for original research 
afforded by close integration with vital and 
forward-looking programs. The Laboratory 
now has important positions open for 
qualified applicants for such interesting 
and challenging activities. 




46 



SYSTEMS ANALYSIS • INERTIAL GUIDANCE • COMPUTER EQUIPMENT 

INSTRUMENTATION • TELEMETERING • FLUID MECHANICS 

HEAT TRANSFER • AERODYNAMICS • APPLIED PHYSICS • PROPELLANTS 

MATERIALS RESEARCH 



JET PROPULSION LABORATORY 

A DIVISION OF CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOIOOY 
PASADENA • CALIFORNIA 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Q 



uestion: 

What makes 

a company a good 

place to work? 



wer: 







This record tells why-musically 

CKyeliL Sikhsu t? Xe>aX OMK. a ^hiolWt^ 



There are a lot of things to consider in 
selecting the organization with which you 
will stake your future. For example, how is 
the company rated in its field? Is it known 
as a "quality" company? Is it growing? Is it 
aggressive? Is it big enough to offer you the 
opportunities you want? Is it too big — to 
the point where, of necessity, it deals with 
numbers instead of individuals? 



. . .We think that last factor is mighty 
important. We call it the "human touch" ele- 
ment and it's pretty well explained, music- 
ally, in a theme song we had recorded for a 
recent national sales conference. The Ray 
Porter singers do some rather unusual vocal- 
izing you'll probably enjoy. Chp the coupon 
and let us send you a record. It's good listen- 
ing with a little food for thought thrown in. 



mail this coupon for your 
"Human Touch " record 



Square D Company, Dept. EM 

6060 Rivard Street, Detroit 11, Michigan 

I'd like a "Human Touch" record and a copy of Square D's brochure, 
"your engineering career" 

r am primarily interested in D Research, Design & Development 
Engineering D Manufacturing Engineering □ Sales Application and 
Field Engineering 




FEBRUARY, 1958 



47 




Where young men work on big jobs 



It takes a lot more than electronic calculators 
and i^ush buttons to run a big refinery like ours 
at VVliiting. It takes scientifically trained and 
skilled men. Take, for example, Bill Nemec.who 
shares in the responsibilities of our Refinery 
Economics Division Technical Service group. 
A chemical engineer. Bill came to us from 
the University of Michigan. He and his associ- 
ates work on problems involving chemical 
engineering, economics, cost control and sound 



advance planning. Facing new situations daily, 
they work with many people in the Research 
Center and in the refinery. As a result, they 
gain an ever-widening knowledge of refinery 
operations. 

Sound interesting? Bill Nemec is one of hun- 
dreds of young men with widely varied back- 
grounds, talents and responsibilities building 
careers at Standard Oil's progressive Whiting, 
Indiana, laboratories. 



Standard Oil Company 



910 Soulh Michigan Av 



e, Chicago 80, lllinoi; 




48 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Steel nest that hatched a smoother transmissioii 



YOU'RE looking at a ring 
gear "nesting" three small- 
er gears. It's part of one of the 
smoothest shifting transmis- 
sions ever put in a car. But it was 
almost too expensive to build. 
Getting this extra smoothness 
called for squeezing more gears 
into the same size transmission 
case. Nesting was necessary to 
save space. And the big ring 
gear had to be extra tough. The 
problem was to make it eco- 
nomically. 



The manufacturer turned to 
Timken Company metallurgists 
— acknowledged experts in fine 
alloy steels. They showed how 
to save the cost of boring out 
each gear — by starting with 
Timken" seamless steel tubing. 
The hole's already there. And 
the Timken steel has all 
the toughness a transmission 
needs. It's another example 
of how Timken Company 
metallurgists solve tough steel 
problems. 



WANT TO LEARN MORE ABOUT 
STEEL OR JOB OPPORTUNITIES? 

For information about fine 
steel, send for "The Story 
of Timken Alloy Steel Qual- 
ity". And for help in plan- 
ning your future, write for 
"Better-ness and Your Career 
at the Timken Company". 
Just drop a 
card to The 
Timken Roll- 
er Bearing 
Company, 
Canton 6, O. 




o 



TIMKEN STEEL 



TRADEMARK REG. US PAT OFF 



SPECIALISTS IN FINE ALLOY STEELS, GRAPHITIC TOOL STEELS AND SEAMLESS STEEL TUBING 



FEBRUARY, 1958 



49 





^ DIVISION OF GENERAU DYNAMICS CORPORATION 

FORT WO^H 




Lilt lu right; Lou Bernardi, Solrc Dame, 'S-l; \orman Lorinson, Mich. St., "SS; Ernest Schiirmann, MIT.. '53. Dick Siccnson. Purdue, '50. 



imCm &Mmy ^lik/ jaA ' CONVAIR 

U ■ -' ' ' • FORT WORTH 






50 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 





Pump'turblne design is now the work . . . 
hydraulics, the field ... of John Jandovitz, 
BSME graduate of College of City of New 
York, '52. 



Water conditioning chemical, service, ond 
equipment specialist in Houston is new 
ossignment of Arthur Brunn, BS Chem. E., 
University of Tennessee, '56. 




Recent 
Training Course Graduates 

select wide choice of 
careers at Allis-Chalmers 



Field sates engineering of America's 
widest range of industrial products is choice 
of Roy Goodwill, BSME, Michigan State 
College, "54. 




'pHERE'S variety at Allis-Chalmers. Whether 
•■• you're thinking in terms of types of industries, 
kinds of equipment, types of jobs, or fields of work, 
the diversification of Allis-Chalmers provides un- 
surpassed variety. For example: 




Starting up a cement plant in Mexico 
after coordinating all work on it Is lotest 
job of John Gibson, BS Met. E., University 
of California, '54. 



Nucleonics Is chosen field of R. A. Hart- 
field, BME, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 
'53. Currently he is working on design and 
development of new nuclear power plant. 



Types of jobs 


Industries 


Equipment 


Fields 


Research 

Design 

Manufacturing 

Application 

Sales 


Agriculture 
Cement 
Chemical 
Construction 
Electric Power 


Tractors 
Kilns 
Screens 
Earth Movers 
Transformers 


Metallurgy 
Process Engineering 
Mechanical Design 
High Voltage Phenomenon 
Stress Analysis 




Mining 

Nuclear Power 
Paper 
Petroleum 


Crushers 

Reactors 

Control 

Pumps 

Motors 

Steam Turbines 


Nucleonics 

Electronics 

Hydraulics 

Acoustics 

Thermodynamics 



An outstanding training program, started in 1904, 
is designed to help you find the activity within 
these groupings for which you are best suited. Up 
to two years of theoretical and practical training 
are offered. Direct employment at Allis-Chalmers 



is available for those with sufficient background. 
Learn more about Allis-Chalmers and its train- 
ing program. Ask the A-C district ofifice manager in 
your area or write Allis-Chalmers, Graduate Train- 
ing Section, Milwaukee 1, Wisconsin. 



ALLIS-CHALMERS <M 



FEBRUARY, 1958 



51 




If you want to draft a more 

successful engineering career... 



MANY DOUGLAS ASSIGNMENTS LET YOU 

FOLLOW THROUGH FROM DESIGN TO DELIVERY 

Frequently, it's important that you have the chance to 
apply theories you've helped to develop. Douglas is anxious that engineers 
expand their knowledge of a problem in practical ways. This is 

accomplished by keeping your assignments varied... by often 

letting you follow the job through to completion. There are 
many exceptional opportunities to start your career at Douglas. 



For important career opportunities 
in your field, write : 

C. C. LaVENE 

DOUGLAS AIRCRAFT COMPANY 

BOX 6101-Q 

SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA 



v>^ 



^^\.Vver wifj^ 







ffOi/GlffS 



FIRST IN AVIATION 



52 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



''-and 
as evidence of our 
good intent,./' 



It was considered a bold stroke, in Nathaniel Jenkins' day, to fix one's 
mark or name to the product of his invention. In 1864, product quality 
control was largely a matter of good intent and determination on the 
part of the maker. Nathaniel Jenkins had that determination and, as evi- 
dence of it, put his Diamond mark aad signature on every Jenkins Valve. 
Over the years, many new and different types of valves have joined the 
Jenkins Valve family. And because the rigid, quality specifications set 
by the founder have never been compromised, the Jenkins Diamond 
trade-mark has steadily gained in value. / 

Indeed, to buyers and specifiers of valves everywhere, this mark has 
become a trusted symbol of efficient, economical valve performance. 
Jenkins Bros., 100 Park Avenue, New York 17. 



FEBRUARY, 1958 



53 



Now you can ^^ why onlj 
leads & pencils give you perfectly 



-T!mSi"-:-:z'r^ 






GRAPHITE LIKE THIS 



,H T0»a"O'** 



100% "ELECTRONIC" GRAPHITE ^U SUPERFINE CLAY 




MAKES THIS LEAD STRUCTURE 



YOU ALWAYS GET PROVEN QUALITY FROM TURQUOISE DRAWING LEADS AND PENCIL! 

PROVEN GRADING — 17 different formulae make sure you get exactly the line you expect- 
from every pencil, every time. 
PROVEN DURABILITY— Because compact lead structure gives off no chunks of useless "dust" 
to blow away, Turquoise wears down more slowly. 
PROVEN NEEDLE-POINT STRENGTH— as electron photomicrograph shows. Turquoise lead struc- 
ture is finer — and therefore stronger. It holds a needle point under 
drawing pressures for long lines of unchanging width. 



EAGLE PENCIL COMPANY . NEW YORK • LONDON • TORONTO • MEXICO • SYDNEY • BOGOTA 



Eagle Turquoise 
sharp drawings 




AND MARKS LIKE THIS 







This Electron Microscope takes per- 
fect pictures 7,500 times actual size 
— lets you $68 the startling difference 
between Eagle's "Electronic" Tur- 
quoise Lead and the lead in the 
usual quality drafting pencil. 



Relatively large, irregular particles 
of graphite make a rough-edged 
line. Drawings will be inferior. 



AND MARKS LIKE THIS 



Tiny, more uniform particles deposit as 
a clean-edged, solid line. Drawings 
will be perfectly sharp, clearly defined. 

WRITE FOR FREE SAMPLE DEMONSTRATION KIT 

(including Turquoise wood pencil, Turquoise lead, and 
Turquoise "skeleton" lead! naming this magazine. Eagle 
Pencil Company, 703 East 13th Street, New York. N. Y. 




^iSSiS EAGLE "CH£mi*SlflLED" TURQUOISE DRflUlinG 



• TURQUOISE DRAWING PENCILS; " "Electronic" graphite, 17 grades, 6B through 9H. 



• TUBQUOIS 

CLEANTEX 

ERASER: 

Super-soft, 

non-abrasive 

rubber. 




• TURQUOISE DRAWING LEADS: 

Fit any standard lead holder. Grades SB through 9H, 



' ISS;^:;^ EAGLE TURQUOISE3379 



EAGLE 
TURQUOISE 

PENCILS AND LEADS 

are the largest-selling 
in the United States! 



• TURQUOISE LEAD HOLDERS: Hold any grade ol Turquoise lead. 




OPPORTUNITY 




for ^.^^ 

^^^ of 





D0 YSU have an affinity for the infinite? An urge 
to reach beyond our present limits of knowledge . . . and our current 
frontiers of development? There is a tremendously intriguing pro- 
gram underway at Hamilton Standard in the fields of missile, 
rocket, atomic engine . . . and advanced aircraft equipment develop- 
ment. You owe yourself the complete details. 

b% WRITE TO MR. T. K. BYE % 

DIVISION OF UNITED AIRCRAFT CORPORATION 

- — 00 B odiey F e d Rd W ndsor Locks, Conn. ^— ^ 



AC 




56 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Engineering ieaderstiip—a bencit marii at Aicoa 



In exciting new architectural developments ... in the automotive in- 
dustry's drive for the all-aluminum engine ... in super conductors to 
meet the nation's insatiable power demands, you'll find Aluminum 
Company of America in the forefront of technological advances. 
Alcoa produces and sells nearly one-half of the nation's aluminum 
. . . conducts about three-quarters of all basic research on aluminum 
applications . . . maintains the world's largest and most completely 
equipped light metals research center at New Kensington. Pennsyl- 
vania. 

To maintain this type of leadership, wc need outstanding men. 
men with top backgrounds in both academics and extra-curricular 
activities. Men who are trained in the nation's top schools . . . who 
understand and glory in the challenge of engineering . . . who know 
that therein lies the basis of a better tomorrow. Today, aluminum 
serves virtually every area of our industrial, commercial and day-to- 
day lives. Yet its uses have only just begun to be exploited. Your 
challenge as an engineer lies in finding new applications, in bringing 
aluminum to its full potential as a servant of mankind. 

Whatever your specialty — metallurgical, mechanical, electrical, 
industrial, or any other type of engineering — whatever your interest 
— engineering, production, research, development or sales — there's 
a clear-cut future for you at Alcoa. Write us today — just fill out the 



coupon — for your copy of A Career For You With Alcoa. Or 
contact your campus placement director. 



Your Guide to the Best in Aluminu 



"ALCOA THEATRE" 

Eiciting Advenrure, Alternate Mnndsy Eventngs 



Please send a copy of A Career For You With Alcoa. 



Aluminum Company of America 
1825 Alcoa Building 
Pittsburgh 19, Pennsylvania 
NAIVIE 



STREET ADDRESS. 
CITY AND STATE_ 
COLLEGE _ 



DATE OF GRADUATION,. 




FEBRUARY, 1958 



57 



YOUR LEADERSHIP CAREER 

with INGERSOLL-RAND 




i-R automatic assembly ma- 
ctiine for automotive engine 
blocks. Proceeding from left to 
rigfit, bearing tialves, previ- 
ously assembled for a machin- 
ing operation, are automatic- 
ally disassembled, bearing 
liners and cranksfiafts are in- 
serted manually and bearing 
caps are automatically tight- 
ened to the correct torque. 



If you are interested in automation 



Here's what Air-Tool Engineering at Ingersoll - Rand 
can mean to you 



AUTOMATION, today, is the magic word 
' that is opening new horizons for cost- 
saving economy in practically every industry. 
Things that used to be done by hand are now 
being done automatically. Here is a rapidly 
growing field which offers fine opportunities 
for you as a mechanically minded engineer. 
Many interesting engineering problems 
arise in the design, development and experi- 
mental work on such machinery, and creative 
engmeermg is necessary to solve them. Prac- 
tical engineering ability is also needed for 
installation and initial operation of such 
equipment. The early studies of customers' 
needs and automation equipment sales are 
also challenging jobs. 

Ingersoll-Rand is a recognized leader in 
designmg and building these labor-saving air 
and electric tools, and is also one of the 



country's leading manufacturers of air com- 
pressors, pumps, rock drills, gas and diesel 
engines, vacuum equipment. All of these 
products depend heavily on advanced engi- 
neering in their design, manufacture and field 
application. 

Then there are the advantages of living in 
Athens, Pa., where Ingersoll-Rand builds auto- 
mation equipment. The picturesque Pennsyl- 
vania hills provide many recreational advan- 
tages that are particularly appealing to the 
outdoor man. 

If you are looking for a leadership career 
with long-range job security and excellent 
opportunities for advancement, you'll find it 
at Ingersoll-Rand. 

For further details, contact your Place- 
ment Office, or write to Ingersoll-Rand, 1 1 
Broadway, New York 4. 



OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENGINEERS NOW AVAILABLE: 

• Sales Engineering • Production Engineering 

• Design Engineering • Business Engineering 

bigensoll-Rand 

8-733 ^r 1 1 Broadway, New York 4, N. Y. 




also means 
LEADERSHIP 




Compressors and Blowers 




Steam Condensers 




58 



Diesel & Gas Engines 
THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Sherman Francisco tells what it's 
like to be . . . and why he likes 
being . . . o Computer Systems 
Engineer with IBM. 



♦SOLUTION 

If X and y be the number of bulbs A and B respectively, 
the profit ( P ) for a day can be represented by 

P = 2x + 5y 
subject to the restrictions 

X S 20, y = 15 
mid also subject to the restriction that there are only 
8 hours in a production day, i.e., 

0.2x + 0.4y s 8 or X + 2y s 40 



FIGURING OUT A CAREER? 



Selecting a career can be puzzling, too. Here's how Sherman 
Francisco found the solution to his career problem — at IBM: 
"Airborne computers present a special challenge to an engineer, 
because systems must be planned and designed with flight in mind. 
Through simulation studies, we test computer systems right in our 
own labs — simulating both the dynamics of the aircraft and the 
environmental conditions encountered. My biggest thrill? To see 
my first simulated bombing mission, achieved after a year and a 
half of planning and designing!" 



k^ 








































'^ -^ ^""^^^^5:^^^ 


^■-^"i 


"^- ""^ 


<<^% ^ 


"^--. 


^^^^?i^^ 




-i»>5 " 



Since x ^ and y ^ 0, the values of x and y must fall 
on the boundary or within the polygon enclosed by the 
lines X = 0, y = 0, X = 20, y = 15 and x + 2y = 40, 
as shown. The optimal solution occurs at the comer 
where P = $95. Thus the maximum possible profit is 
P = S9.5 at X = 10, y = 15, i.e., when the machine pro- 
duces 10 of A and 15 of B each day. 

Note: This simple graph method is too cumbersome for more 
than 2 \ariables. Modem computers use numerical techniques 
to liandic many more variables — a technique called Linear 
Programming. 



There are many excellent opportunities for well-qualified engi- 
neers, physicists and mathematicians in IBM Research, Develop- 
ment and Manufacturing Engineering. Why not ask your College 
Placement Director when IBM will ne.\t interview on your cam- 
pus? Or, for information about how your degree will fit )ou for 
an IBM career. 



JUST WRITE TO: 



Mr. R. A. Whitehorne 
IBM Corp., Dept. 853 
590 MacJIson Avenue 
New York 22, N. Y. 



IBM 



INTERNATIONAL 
BUSINESS MACHINES 
CORPORATION 



FEBRUARY, 1958 



59 




WEI ARE LOOK.IMG F'OfZ. AO/^ PT^e»LE:. 
•R^E^OURCEIFUZ. (MDl \/IDUv\z_5 — NOT lo^T 



Oiz_Vs/e/_/_ 



GCAD(JATe5 (N EEI- 

wrtM Good \ OEi 

KMOWLEOGE OF < PETf?OLEUM F/MGINFe^ING 

ELECTRIC iTy / Geo PMys'c<5 

VOorMcJ /VVEN , Sif^Gi-E AND (M 



e>o>C Zly'^-MOc; 5'To M — ~r E x./^, 3 - 



60 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



(,(, 



They all agree... 



"Since the day we decided to get married, I've been 
doing a lot of thinking about our fxUtire. It's time I 
made a choice on a career. I've talked to the Dean of 
Engineering, most of my professors, and to some of the 
fellows who have graduated, and you know, they all 
said the same thing. 

"They all agree that the aircraft and missile industry 
holds the best opyortunities and the brightest future for 
an engineer these days. Wltat they said nmkes sense, 
too, because developments in this field today really give 
a fellow an opportunity to make important contribu- 
tions on vital projects. 

"Not only that, but the aircraft industry is noted for 
its good salaries. Generous benefits, too. And advance- 
ment in both salary and position is limited only by how 
far I want to go." 

LT nlimited opportunities, high salaries, company-paid 
' benefits unheard of until a few years ago — these 
are only a few of the reasons why so many young engi- 
neers with a keen eye to the future are choosing the 
aircraft industry. 

It is only natural that many engineering graduates 
should consider joining Northrop Aircraft, Inc., be- 
cause the company shares its many successes with every 
member of its engineering and scientific team. Ad- 
vanced projects at Northrop are now in production, and 
active top-priority projects mean rapid advancement 
and success for the individual engineer. 

Such projects include the famous Snark SM-62, 
world's first intercontinental guided missile, now being 
activated in the first United States Air Force missile 
squadron; the USAF T-38 supersonic twin-jet ad- 
vanced trainer; and other important missile and 
manned aircraft weapon systems and components. 

Engineers in more than thirty categories contribute 
to Northrop's success in an ideal environment with the 
latest tools of science, in its new Engineering Science 
Center. Here you will work with leading scientists and 
engineers who resf)ect, acknowledge, and reward your 
individual ideas and abilities. 

Why not write us now . . . regardless of your class at 
college. Ask us how you might best gain a career with 
Northrop. Write to Manager of Engineering Industrial 
Relations, Northrop Division, Northrop Aircraft, Inc., 
1033 East Broadway, Hawthorne, California. 



© 



NORTHROP 

A Division of Northrop Aircraft, Inc. 

BUILDERSOFTHEFIRSTINTERCONTINENTALCUIUED MISSILE 




FEBRUARY, 1958 



61 




Look 
around you . . . 

makes big things happen 
in paints and 
industrial finishes 





You're living in a world of color. Man takes a brush, dips it into paint, 
cloaks the drab with new cheerfulness, converts the dreary into com- 
pelling beauty. But paint means so much more than mere color. 

In addition to soft, pastel hues, home owners in Miami want a house 
paint that stands up to constant salt air breezes, the blazing rays of a 
tropic sun, intermittent heavy rainfall. Building superintendents in Gary 
want a surface coating unalTected by chemically active industrial gases 
and fumes, extremes in humidity, frequent changes in wind direction. 
]"ishing fleet operators around Puget Sound want an exterior boat finish 
that resists biting winds, blizzards and protracted cold. The production 
engineer in a large Atlanta cannery wants a food container coating 
impervious to chemical reaction, yet taste-free. Yes, there's more — 
much more — to paint than mere color. 

The search for new and even better paints and industrial finishes is 
carried on every day at Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. Each day 
brings new challenges to its laboratories . . . challenges quickly trans- 
lated into improved products. 

Seeking a career that requires creative thinking, utilizes all your skills 
and talents, oilers the chance to learn the latest techniques? Then look 
into your career possibilities with Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. 
Contact your Placement Officer now or write to the Manager of College 
Relations, Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company, One Gateway Center, 
Pittsburgh 22, Pennsylvania. 



SYMBOL OF SERVICE FOR SEVENTY-FIVE YEARS 




THE TECHNOGRAPH 



IF 



your urge to knovif more 



I 




Your formula for advancement in 
present day technological industry is 
growth in knowledge and ability. 

Applying this principle at Garrett, 
engineers are achieving outstanding 
reputations for excellence in the 
following aircraft, missile and indus- 
trial fields: air conditioning and 
pressurization ; heat transfer; cryo- 



Slick-force reversal, a problem oj reverse elevator response occurring 
at sonic speeds, was solved by this sensitive AiKesearch air data system 
incorporating transducer, computer and actuator. Engineers taking part 
in its development included mathematicians and specialists in analog 
computation, preliminary design, fractional hp motors and gears. 

genie and nuclear systems; pneu- engineering activities to aid you in 
malic valves; controls and air selecting your field of interest. With 



motors; system electronics; com- 
puters and (light instruments; gas 
turbine engines and turbine motors; 
|)rime engine development and 
industrial turbochargers. 

Upon em|)loyment, you may 
choose either a direct assignment or 
enter a 9 month orientation program 
which |)ermits vou to survey Garrett 



company financial assistance you can 
continue your education at neighbor- 
ing universities. 

Typical project work is done in 
small groups where opportunities 
for learning, added responsibility 
and advancement are enhanced. To 
receive full information write to 
Mr. G. D. Bradley 



THE 



CARRETY 



985 r S. SEPUUVEOA BLVD.. LOS ANGELES IB. CALIFORNIA 

DIVISIONS: AIRESEARCH MANUFACTURING. LOS ANGELES ' AIRESEARCH MANUFACTURING. PHOENIX ' AIRSUPPLY 
AIRESEARCH INDUSTRIAL • REX • AERO ENGINEERING • AIR CRUISERS ' AIRESEARCH AVIATION SERVICE 



FEBRUARY, 1958 



63 



OPPORTUNITIBS FOR YOUNG PROFESSIONAL. MEN WITH KEL.i_OGG 



ChE's, ME's, Chemists (inor- or mechanical equipment design and engineering; technical service: plant com- 



R&D 

ganic and physical) -BS, MS, PhD- for 
theoretical chemical and mechanical re- 
search; petroleum and chemical process 
development, catalysis, computer appli- 
cations; client process consultation; 



development. 

ENCINEERINC ChE's, ME's, CE's 
•BS, MS- for petroleum and chemical pro- 
cessing; customer process planning and 
economics; plant equipment and systems 



CONSTRUCTION CE's, ME's, -BS- 

for all phases of refinery and chemical 
plant erection, site planning, construc- 
tion administration. 




Orihoflow? fluid catalytic cracl<er, designed 
and constructed by The M. W. Kellogg Co. 

^regietered trademiiTk of The M. If. KcUoyg Co. 



For a career serving basic 

industry technologies, 

make an appointment 

through your college 

Placement Officer to talk 

with the Kellogg 

representative. Or write to: 

R. L. Stacom 



Engineering 

lias a Dynamic Quality 

at KELLOGG 

- That Is Friendly to Individual Achievement 

This is because no two projects undertaken by the company 
are ever exactly alike. 

Kellogg is the pre-eminent leader — on an international as 
well as national scale — in the design and construction of 
modern refineries and chemical plants. 

It has gained and maintained this position through continu- 
ous laboratory research and engineering development. 

Professional staffs here are constantly at work developing 
new and improved processing methods, engineering stand- 
ards, mechanical equipment and on-site as well as lab and 
shop testing techniques. 

Young men who join this company work with associates 
responsible for such achievements as: 

. . . engineering GC/c of the world's fluid catalytic cracking 
.. .designing and building the U-235 gaseous diffusion 

plant at Oak Ridge 
. . . perfecting fluid hydroforming process 
. . . designing and constructing production facilities for 

ethylene, phthalic anhydride, ammonia, phenol and 

acetone, penicillin, edible glycerides. 

Diversity and accomplishment are the rule at Kellogg, as 
engineers and scientists work together toward modernizing 
and improving the productivity of basic petroleum and 
chemical facilities and processing, as well as in the develop- 
ment of new industrial products from petro-chemical 
research. 

The young professional man gains variety of experience 
here, and the opportunity to make a name in any given field, 
or to broaden into technical administrative work. Other 
stimuli to ])rofessional development at Kellogg are in-plant 
courses, the Tuition Refund Plan for graduate study and 
unusual encouragement to participate in the activities of 
professional societies. 



KELLOGG The M.Vir. KELLOGG company 



711 TiiuiD Avenue • New York 17, N. Y. 



64 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



PHOTOGRAPHY AT WORK- No. 25 in a Kodak Series 



Nuclear reactor vessel for 
Shippiiigport, Pa. power plant 
designed b>- Westinghovise 
Electric Co. under contract witl 
the A. E.G. for operation by 
Duquesne Light Company. 




Where atoms turn into horsepower 




Photograph showing patterns of 

stress concentration. It was taken 
of a plastic model of a reactor 
\essel loaded to simulate the strains 
a real reactor \ essel would undergo. 




Radiographs of the reactor vessel 

welds were made with a 15.000,000- 
volt betatron. E\ er\- bit of the 
special steel, e\cr\ weld had to be 
pro\ed sound and flawless. 



(]onil>ii.stion Engineering tlesigned and built this "couldu't- 
l)e-d()ne" reactor vessel for America's first full-scale 
nuclear power station. And photography shared the job of 
testing metals, revealing stresses and proving soundness. 



COUNTLESS unusual— even unique— 
prol^lems faced Combustion 
Engineering in creating this nuclear 
reactor vessel. Nine feet in diameter 
with walls 8''2 in. thick, it is 235 tons 
of steel that had to be flawless, 
seamed with welds that had to be 
perfect. And the inner, ultrasmooth 
surface was machined to dimension 
with tolerances that vie with those 
in modern aircraft engines. 

As in all its construction, Combus- 
tion Engineering made use of 
photograph}' all along the wa>-. Pho- 



tography saved time in the drafting 
rooms. It revealed where stresses 
and strains woidd be concentrated. 
It checked the molecular structure 
of the steel, showed its chemical 
make-up. And with gamma rays it 
probed for flaws in the metal, imper- 
fections in the welds. 

Any business, large or small, can 
use photography in many ways to 
save time and money. It can go to 
work in every department— design, 
research, production, personnel, 
sales, and accounting. 



CAREERS WITH KODAK 

With photograph)- and photographic processes becoming increasingly 
important in the business and industr\- of tomorrow, there are new 
and challenging opportunities at Kodak in research, engineer- 
ing, electronics, design and production. 

If you are looking for such an interesting opportimity, write 
for information about careers with Kodak. Address: Business 
and Technical Personnel Dept., Eastman Kodak Company, 
Rochester 1. \. Y. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, Rochester 4, N.Y. 




One of a series 




Although many surveys show that salary 
is not the prime factor contributing to job 
satisfaction, it is of great importance to 
students weighing career opportunities. 
Here, Mr. Gouldthorpe answers some 
questions frequently asked by college 
engineering students. 

Q. Mr. Gouldthorpe, how do you deter- 
mine the starting salaries you offer 
graduating engineers? 

A. Well, we try to evaluate the 
man's potential worth to General 
Electric. This depends on his quali- 
fications and our need for those 
qualifications. 
Q. How do you evaluate this potential? 

A. We do it on the basis of demon- 
strated scholarship and extra-curric- 
ular performance, work e.xperience, 
and personal qualities as appraised 
by interviewers, faculty, and other 
references. 

Of course, we're not the only com- 
pany looking for highly qualified 
men. We're alert to competition and 
pay competitive salaries to get the 
promising engineers we need. 
Q. When could I expect my first raise 
at General Electric? 

A. Our primary training programs 
for engineers, the Engineering Pro- 
gram, Manufacturing Program, and 
Technical Marketing Program, gen- 
erally grant raises after you've been 
with the Company about a year. 

Q. Is it an automatic raise? 

A. It's automatic only in the sense 
that your salary is reviewed at that 
time. Its amount, however, is not 
the same for everyone. This depends 
first and foremost on how well you 
have performed your assignments, 
but pay changes do reflect trends in 
over-all salary structure brought on 
by changes in the cost of living or 
other factors. 



Interview with General Electric's 
Hubert W. Gouldthorpe 
Manager — Engineering Personnel 

Your Salary 



Q. How much is your benefit program 
worth, as an addition to salary? 

A. A great deal. Company benefits 
can be a surprisingly large part of 
employee compensation. We figure 
our total benefit program can be 
worth as much as 1 6 of your 
salary, depending on the extent to 
which you participate in the many 
programs available at G.E. 

Q. Participation in the programs, then, 
is voluntary? 

A. Oh, yes. The medical and life 
insurance plan, pension plan, and 
savings and stock bonus plan are all 
operated on a mutual contribution 
basis, and you're not obligated to 
join any of them. But they are such 
good values that most of our people 
do participate. They're an excellent 
way to save and provide personal 
and family protection. 

Q. After you've been with a company 
like G.E. for a few years, who decides 
when a raise is given and how much it 
will be? How high up does this decision 
have to go? 

A. We review professional salaries 
at least once a year. Under our 
philosophy of delegating such re- 
sponsibilities, the decision regarding 
your raise will be made by one man 
— the man you report to; subject to 
the approval of only one other man 
— his manager. 

Q. At present, what salaries do engi- 
neers with ten years' experience make? 

A. According to a 1956 Survey of 
the Engineers Joint Council*, engi- 
neers with 10 years in the electrical 
machinery manufacturing industry 
were earning a median salary of 
$8100, with salaries ranging up to 
and beyond $15,000. At General 
Electric more than two thirds of our 
10 -year, technical college graduates 
are earning above this industry 



median. This is because we provide 
opportunity for the competent man 
to develop rapidly toward the bigger 
job that fits his interests and makes 
full use of his capabilities. As a 
natural consequence, more men have 
reached the higher salaried positions 
faster, and they are there because of 
the high value of their contribution. 
I hope this answers the question 
you asked, but I want to emphasize 
again that the salary you will be 
earning depends on the value of 
your contribution. The effect of such 
considerations as years of service, 
industry median salaries, etc., will be 
insignificant by comparison. It is 
most important for you to pick a job 
that will let you make the most of 
your capabilities. 

Q. Do you have one salary plan for 
professional people in engineering and 
a different one for those in managerial 
work? 

A. No, we don't make cuch a 
distinction between these two im- 
portant kinds of work. We have an 
integrated salary structure which 
covers both kinds of jobs, all the way 
up to the President's. It assures pay 
in accordance with actual individual 
contribution, whichever avenue a 
man may choose to follow. 

* We have a limited number of copies of 
the Engineers Joint Council report en- 
titled "Professional Income of Engi- 
neers — 1956." If you would like a 
copy, write to Engineering Personnel, 
BIdg. 36, 5th Floor, General Electric 
Company, Schenectady 5, N. Y. .J59.7 



LOOK FOR other interviews dis- 
cussing: • Advancement in Large 
Companies • Qualities We Look For 
in Young Engineers • Personal De- 
velopment. 




GENERALB ELECTRIC 



LIBRARY OF TUB 

JUN 101958 

yNIVLRSITY OE ILilSOiS 




The structure of a coal molecule is 
believed to be of the type shown 
here. Atoms of oxygen, carbon, nitro- 
gen, hydrogen, and sulfur are repre- 
sented by the variously shaded balls. 



Here's the alma mater 
of 200,000 successful grads 



More than 1900 chemicals have 
been found in ti>al. and over 200,000 
different products are made from 
them— products like plastics, syn- 
thetic rubber, synthetic fibers, and 
resins. There's still more to come. 
Only a fraction of the 1900 chemicals 
in coal are currently used commer- 
cially. 

Today, United States Steel and 
other producers of coal chemicals 
continue to study coal, its structure, 
and its future potential as a .source 
of basic chemicals. 

Why, you may ask, are we .so in- 
terested in chemicals when our prin- 
cipal business is steel? The reason is 
that it's just good business. In pro- 
ducing coke for our steel-making 



operations, we also produce chemi- 
cals. Thus we are always interested 
in anything, and anybody, that will 
help to advance the technology of 
these related products, improve their 
quality, and in general reduce the 
over-all cost of manufacture and pro- 
vide better products and better serv- 
ice for our customers. 

It's a big job and we need a lot of 
good people to do it— physicists, 
chemists, geologists, all kinds of en- 



gineers—people with your training. 
If you want to explore the earth's 
surface for ore, delve into the com- 
mercial use of coal chemicals, help 
rocket designers solve new problems 
with new steels, there might well be 
a place for you at United States 
Steel. Write for our booklet, "Paths 
of Opportunity"— United States 
Steel, Personnel Division, Room 
2801. 525 William Penn Place, Pitts- 
burgh 30, Pa. 



(Q) United States Steel 



Editor 

T. Patrick Gaganidze 

Business Manager 

Roger Harrison 

Circulation Director 

Sue Barnetl 



THE ILLINOIS 

TECHNOGRAPH 



Volume 73, Number 6 



March, 1958 



Editorial Staff 

Lowell Burgin 

James Gill 

Donna Zverow 

Al Soloman 

George Carruthers 

Ernest Yap 



Table of Contents 



Production Staff 

Ronald Berry 

Fred Foreman 

Robert Hilgenberg 

Lawrence Residori 

Donna Toika 

Paul Tyner 

Circulation Staff 

Jim Gerstle 
Bob Nakamura 



Editorial 17 



WILL-TV- 



.Ernest Yap 19 



Paper Martyr William Nesbit 24 



Pressure Vessels for Nuclear Reactors Dave Penniman 26 



Photo Staff 

George Knobloch 

Harry Levin 

Bob Dellert 

Contributors 

Richard E. Maxwell 
William Nesbit 



Engineers and Expression Richard E. Maxwell 28 



Skimming the Industrial Headlines edited by Jim Gill 30 



Technocutie by Dave Moore 37 



Faculty Advisers 

R. W. Bohl 
P. K. Hudson 
O. Livermore 



Brainteasers edited by Donna Zverow 57 



Begged, Borrowed, And . . . edited by Donna Zverow 62 



MEMBERS OF ENGINEERING 
COLLEGE MAGAZINES ASSOCIATED 
Chairman: Prof. R. W. Bohl, 
University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 
Arkansas Engineer, Cincinnati Coopera- 
tive Engineer, City College V^ector, Colorado 
Engineer, Cornell Engineer, Denver Engi- 
neer, Drexel Technical Journal, Georgia Tech 
Engineer, Illinois Technograph, Iowa En- 
gineer, Iowa Transit, Kansas Engineer, 
Kansas State Engineer, Kentucky Engineer, 
Louisiana State University Engineer. Louisi- 
ana Tech Engineer, Manhattan Engineer, 
Marquette Engineer, Michigan Technic, Min- 
nesota Technolog, Missouri Shamrock, Ne- 
braska Blueprint, New York University 
Quadrangle, Nortli Dakota Engineer, North- 
western Engineer, Notre Dame Technical 
Review, Ohio State Engineer, Oklahoma 
State Engineer, Oregon State Technical Tri- 
angle, Pittsburgh Skyscraper, Purdue Engi- 
neer, RPI Engineer, Rochester Indicator, 
SC Engineer, Rose Technic. Southern Engi- 
neer, Spartan Engineer, Texas A & M Engi- 
neer, Washington Engineer, WSC Tech- 
nometer, Wayne Engineer, and \Vi; 
Engineer. 



Cover 

This month's cover, created by Donna Toika, captures the 
spirit of today's communications industry, in the form of a tele- 
vision transmitter antenna. It is a symbol of the never-ending 
search for better means of communication. 



Copyright, 1958, by Illinl Publishing Co. Published eight times during the yeaj- (Octo- 
ber, November, Decembei, January, February, March, April and May) by the lUini 
Publishing Company. Entered as second class matter, October 30, 1920, at the post 
office at Urbana, Illinois, under the Act of March i. 1S79. Office 215 Engineering 
Hall, Urbana, Illinois. Subscriptions $1.50 per year. Single copy 25 ceitts. All" rights 
reserved by The Illinois Technograph. Publisher's Representative— Littell-Murray-Barn- 
hill, 605 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago 11, 111. .;69 Lexington Ave., New York 17. 
New York. 




o o o 

ffitit: 



m 



ENGINEERS and SCIENTISTS 



when 



parallels 



meet 



, . . as in advancement opportunities 
at Sylvania 



It remained for Nicholas Lobachcvsky to solve a riddle that bothered mathe- 
maticians for the better part of twenty-two centuries.* He was able to construct 
a rational geometry by denying Euclid's fifth postulate — by maintaining that 
parallels do meet. 

Here at Sylvania Electric we have a noneuclidean geometry of our own, in 
which parallels also meet. It's a geometry of professional development, though, 
and not just of points, lines, and planes. 




w 



>VHAT DO V/E MEAN? 



• WE MEAN NO OrSCREDIT TO BOLYAI 
OR GAUSS. LOBACHEVSKY MUST TAKE 
CHRONOLOGICAL PRIORITY. HOWEVER. 



THIS: At Sylvania a man advances by one of two parallel paths. 

If his interests and talents lie in the areas of engineering and scientific 
specialization, he advances as a specialist. 

If his forte is in the areas of organization and administration, he advances 
through 7>}anagement. 

These parallel paths meet in a common point: .\t Sylvania a man knows that 
he is given the fullest opportunity to develop and exercise his talents. He knows 
that a man goes as far and as fast as he is able in the path of his choice. Whether he 
chooses management or specialization, he finds equal rewards and compensation. 

Graduates and men with advanced degrees in science and engineering will discover 
Research, Development, Manufacturing and Marketing careers at Sylvania — in 
specialization or management — in: 

LIGHTING, RADIO, TV, HI-FI, ELECTRONICS, SEMICONDUCTORS, PHOTOGRAPHY, 
COMMUNICATIONS & NAVIGATION SYSTEMS, AIRBORNE DEFENSE, RADAR, ECM, 
MISSILES, COMPUTERS, CHEMICALS, PHOSPHORS, PLASTICS, METALS & WIRE. 

Contact your college placement officer for an interview, or write us and ask for a 
copy of "Today & Tomorrow with Sylvania". 

^' SYLVANIA^ 

SYLVANIA ELECTRIC PRODUCTS INC. 

1740 Broadway, New York 19, N. Y. 



LIGHTING . TELEVISION-RADIO . ELECTRONICS . PHOTOGRAPHY . ATOMIC ENERGY . CHEMISTRY-METALLURGY 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



BIG THINGS 
AFOOT 

FOR GOODYEAR ENGINEERS 




The "Foot Thumper" gives a pilot complete 

control over skids— and typifies the 
opportunities available at Aviation Products 



Once again, engineers of Goodyear's Avia- 
tion Products Division have come up with a 
vital contribution to flying safety. 

Called Skid Warning System,* it gives a 
pilot advance notice of an impending skid, 
in time to prevent it from happening. 

Here's how it works: The moment that 
rotation of any wheel begins to drop at an 
abnormal rate, a tiny sensing device in the 
axle actuates a pulsing button mounted on 
the brake pedal. This literally taps the pilot's 
foot and warns him to ease up on his brake 
pressui-e. The device keeps on thumping until 
the pilot releases sufficient brake pressure to 
allow the wheel to rotate again. 

This is the first system in which the pilot 



maintains complete control— and full "feel" 
-of his aircraft at all times, while enjoying 
full knowledge of what is going on in this 
heretofore "blind area" of trouble. 

Skid Warning is a good example of what 
engineering skill can do, given the atmos- 
phere that prevails at Goodyear. For here 
we make so many different things, for 
so many different purposes, we need and 
welcome young engineers of all types — 
mechanical, electrical, chemical, civil, 
industrial. 

What type of product interests you most? 
Tires, chemicals, plastics, aviation products, 
atomic energy— we can use your talent and 
training on all of them. 
If you're seeking a job and a lifetime of use- 
ful accomplishment, you'll very likely find 
both in the Goodyear organization. We'd 
like to hear from you. Write: Technical 
Personnel, Dept. 806-W, The Goodyear Tire 
& Rubber Company, Akron 16, Ohio. 



There's a World of 

Opportunity at 



GOODi^EAR 



•Pat«nt« pending 



T 



THE GREATEST NAME IN RUBBER 



MARCH, 1958 




WOliKI.NG WITH A MASTER- Vciunt; Metallurgical Entiiiu-tr James Hornaday, Jr.-Ii.S. ■54, 
M.S. '56— develops new high-temperature coatings under guidance of Dr. Robert E Thomson. 
Head of Metallurgical Engineering Department of GAEs Research Staff, Dr. Thomson is recog- 
nized as one of the nation's leading metallurgists— has pioneered many advancements in his field. 

Because engineering is di profession at GM- 
your professional stature grows year by year 



Here's something of si'lious importance to you as a 
voung graduate engineer: 

Are you taking just a job— or are you going out to really 
practice the respected profession for which you have been 
so fully trained? 

Here at General Motors we long ago recognized that engi- 
neering is a profession— and began treating our engineers 
who work on our hundreds of products as professional men. 

For example our engineers are used on assignments that 
give them an opportunity to use their training and educa- 
tion as they were meant to be used. To let them practice 
engineering. 

Or take the fact that GM encourages its engineers to gain 
professional recognition by presenting technical papers to 
engineering societies. 

Take. too. the encouragement our engineers receive in 
working for advanced degrees, in doing original research. 
The fact that over 179 of our engineers and scientists 
received over \€A patents for such work in a recent four- 
month period is one indication of the opportuiiily for 
creative work here at GM. 

And these are but a few examples of the fact that engineer- 
ing is a profession at General Motors. 

Why do we place engineering in this special category? 



Because we know that from the work of our engineers at 
our 35 divisions and 126 plants in 71 cities and 19 states— 
and at our huge Technical Center near Detroit— will come 
the products that will keep General Motors on its progres- 
sive path. 

Naturally, you get more than professional recognition. 
Your salary reflects your ability and progress. 
And. of course, there is opportunity without limit. For 14 
of the 33 GM Vice-Presidents are engineers, as are 23 of 
the 42 Division General Managers. 

Today we are looking for young men who may fill tomor- 
row's GM executive positions. Should you wish to join us 
and practice your profession as you build your career, let 
us hear from you. It could be the most important letter 
of your life. • • • 

GM positions now available in these fields: 

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING • ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING • METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 

AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING • CERAMIC ENGINEERING 

MATHEMATICS • INDUSTRIAL DESIGN 

PHYSICS • CHEMISTRY 

General Motors Corporation 

Personnel Staff, Detroit 2, Michigan 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 




Chemical progress is autoclaves, test tubes, distillation towers 
. . . hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds . . . processes, 
polymerizations, products. 

But mostly, chemical progress is thinking . . . men think- 
ing. Little men, big men, medium size men ... in lab coats, 
business suits, overalls ... all of them, always, thinking. 

Thinking up new products . . . new ways to make chem- 
icals and new ways to use them. Thinking up more comfort, 
more convenience, better health, for everyone. 

Always, the ol4 things have to be improved, and the new 



things have to be proved. It takes more thinking. The think- 
ing never stops. And so chemical progress never stops. It's 
that way at Koppers. 

You can be one of these men, think- 
ing. You can create some of the chem- 
ical progress that's made at Koppers. 
The products are many . . . the oppor- 
tunities myriad. Consider a career 
\\ ith Koppers; send the coupon today. L-J 





KOPRERS 
CHEMICALS 



j Kopper 
1 induslr 


5 Company, 
al Relations 


Manaqer 






















Dept. C 
Pittsbur 


38, Kopper 
gh 19, Penn 


i Building 
sylvania 






















1 Please 


end the 24 


page bro 


chi 


re 


en 


itied 


"Your 


Co 


reer 


ot Ke 


ppers." 


Name 


























1 School 




























! City . . 
















State 











MARCH, 1958 




one little... 

two little... 
three little... 



... indiOnS! Anyway you stack the totem pole, 
tlicres \(rv little creative work done by this row of 
en>;ineers. But how do you pick a job that allows a lit- 
tle freedom for initiative . . . where a creative spark 
can helji you advance? As the guy in the middle said 
. . .'"how?"' 

Vie"d like to suggest that you investigate a company's 
reputation for new products ... for being the leader in 
its field ... for a wiilingiKss to begin new and untried 
projects. This ajtproacii should locale a company that is 
aggressive, eager to have its engineers progress and be re- 
warded. Indeed, a company to iiave this reputation niiisl 
think of an engineer as more than just one of a crowd. 



Your professors and placement officer arc your best 
source for information about our reputation, ^e would, 
however, like to tell you about the varied products of 
LiNDE . . . from synthetic crystals (developed at LiNDE I 
to our famous IIeliarc welding. Yoird like to know, 
for example, that LliVDE engineers arc not required to 
do drafting, bench work . . . because they liavc special- 
ized technicians in these fields. And, there are many 
otiier things . . . but our booklet "Look to LiNDE for your 
future"' tells this story. Ask your placement officer for 
a copv or write Dcpt XX-00. Linde Company, Division 
of Union Carbide Corporation, 30 East 42nd Street, 
]\ew York 17, N. Y. 



A LEADER FOR SO YEARS 

The terms "Linde," "Heliarc" and "Union Carbi.le" are reRislered Iradcmarks of UCC. 




THE TECHNOGRAPH 



A good 

combination 
is hard to beat 




So is the future of the man who charts his 
course wisely. Choose a company that offers 
you the combination of opportunities so 
necessary to your professional growth. At 
Bendix you will find such a combination— a 
tradition of achievement and continued 
growth spanning more than three decades, a 
forward-thinking management team that is 
truly "engineering minded", unexcelled facil- 
ities, a diversity of products ser\'ing every 
Ijasic industry. Engineering is a key factor in 
the compan\'s operations. Bendix has a con- 
tinuous need for the best engineering talent 
a\ailal)le. 

Bendix has long adhered to a polic\- of 
adsancemcnt from within. Of the nine new 
divisions added during the past seven years, 
all have been staffed from within. \A'ith a 
di\ crsity of products and engineering oppor- 
tunities at hand, you may assure your future 
at one of twenty-four Bendix divisions located 
throughout the country, working in the fiield 
of your choice. 

Bendix has need of men of talent in such 
fields as Electronics, Electromechanics, Ultra- 
sonics, Systems, Computers, Automation and 
Controls, Radar, Nucleonics, Combustion, 
Air Navigation, Hydraulics, Instrumentation, 
Propulsion, Metallurgy, Communications, 
Carburetion, Solid State Physics, Aerophysics 
and Structures. 

Check with the placement director for 
information regarding Bendix opportunities 
and interview dates. Or write to Dr. Gerald 
A. Rosselot, Director of University and 
Scientific Relations, Bendix Aviation Corpo- 
ration, 1107 Fisher Building. Detroit 2, 
Michigan. 



A thousand products 




a million ideas 



MARCH, 1958 




\ -duty equipment. 



Ductile Iron... another Inco Research first 

Over five miles of ductile iron pipe 
going into many of today's supertankers 



A deep sea tanker takes many a heavy 
beatinjr when waves are lough. 

With each pitch and roll, she has to 
vrarc. And her five or more miles of 
pipinK have to weave with her. 

If it is ductile iron piping, every pipe 
hwiKth r/irr^ without break or leak. 
Bends without breaking 
Ductile iron is not only ductile, but also 
tough. And resistant to the corrosive 
action of sea water and sulfur laden 
crude oil. 

In some tankers, gra.v cast iron pipe 
resists corrosion for ten .vears or more. 
Sometimes, though, it's cracked and 
broken by the pounding of heavy seas 
that overtax its strength. 

In other tankers, steel pipe outrides 
such storms without damage. But it cor- 
rodes so badly it may have to be replaced 



every three or four years when han- 
dling sour crudes. 

Ductile iron pipe, tanker owners find, 
combines the low cost and demonstrated 
corrosion resistance of cast iron with 
the tough strength of carbon steel. 

So today, many of the newest tankers 
carry pipe and fittings of ductile iron. 

Ductile Iron also under city streets 

The properties that jirove ductile iron 
pipe suitable for tankers also commend 
it to municipal and utility engineers. So 
this shock-and-corrosion resisting pipe 

/\ 



is used for water and gas mains. It may 
soon be under the streets in your town. 

Ductile iron has many uses — from 
plowshares to jet plane parts. And cost- 
conscious industry is constantly finding 
new ways to use this versatile money- 
saving, Inco-developed material. 

For free booklet, "Engineering Prop- 
erties and Applications of Ductile 
Irons," write: Dept. 232G, Educational 
Service, Development and Research Div., 

The International Nickel Company, Inc. 
New York 5, N. Y. ©"=«■ '■■ '■ v. co..,„c. 



The Inlcrnational Nickel Company. Inc.. is the 
Canada, Limited < Inco-Canada ^ ~ producer of Inc 
and Platinum, Palladiu 



'. S. affiUatc of The International Nickel Company of 
Nickel. Copper. Cobalt. Iron Ore, Tellurium, Selenium 
n and Other Precious Metals 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Engineers^ Scientists, MatJieni((ficiaiis. . . 

Two important reasons for starting yonr Gareer 
with Lockheed Missile Systems 



■ Better Advancement Opportunities 

■ Higher Degree Educational Program 

As greater emphasis is put on missile's role in U.S. 
defense, our own missile projects will continue to expand. 
This growth potential — coupled with our youth as a 
division — means better opportunities for you to move 
rapidly ahead in a career with Lockheed Missile Systems. 

Under the Advanced Study Program, the Lockheed 
Graduate Study Council offers qualified students the 
opportunity to earn advanced degrees while employed 
in their chosen fields at Lockheed Missile Systems. 



Eligible students must be U. S. citizens holding B. S. or 
M.S. degrees in engineering, mathematics, or science 
applicable to missile systems research and development. 
Extensive laboratory facilities at Palo Alto and 
Sunnyvale, near Stanford University, provide an 
atmosphere to satisfy the most inquisitive scientific mind, 
yet pique the desire for further knowledge and 
achievement. Both locations arc less than an hour's 
drive from San Francisco. 

For further information, contact your Placement Ofiicer, 
or write College Relations Office, Lockheed Missile 
Systems, 325 1 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, California. 




MISSILE SYSTEMS 



A DIVISION OF LOCKHEED AIRCRAFT CORPORATION 

PALO ALTO • SUNNYVALE • VAN NUYS 
CALIFORNIA 



i^llP 






<. ■' 



Advanced Study Program physics students Way land 
Marlow III, left, and Jerry Kennedy examine new 
44-foot shock tube being used for advanced design 
work on PoUiris missile. Both are employed at the 
Lockheed research and development laboratory. 
Palo Alto, while earning advanced degrees. 
Kennedy. Oklahoma '56. is earning his nuister's 
degree at the University of California, 
Berkeley, while Marlow. Miami '55, will 
attend Stanford University 
for his doctorate. 





OFFORTUmTY 



■ > -^iiiiN ^iiikS ^xi^ -^i^N ^ix^ '^ia);N -^iiN '2^N d^^ ^iiiiN ^iiitN ^iisit^ -^i 

f OP 

aisw sii@^iiissRs 

Sii^^^ of 




D0 Yt)t[ have an affinity for the infinite? An urge 
to reach beyond our present limits of knowledge . . . and our current 
frontiers of development? There is a tremendously intriguing pro- 
gram underway at Hamilton Standard in the fields of missile, 
rocket, atomic engine . . . and advanced aircraft equipment develop- 
ment. You owe yourself the complete details. 

." WRITE TO MR. T. K. BYE % 



III 







10 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



.ouMiJcvt... /vioro^^jiMecwv^s jetLontractboes Weslinghouse lo txpand Atomic fuel 

si.uui.iTop Wesfinahouse Sells To Weslinghouse 



".:. Tiirr Na\s 
Vr:.i- I'nt .•;.i .\l...v, 



r- I »A!i- r> II c. M. M Manufacturing Operations At Cheswii 

Eiglit-Milhon-Dollar ^'^Jf^°;\3^^^^^^^^ _^_ ^ *^ , , k^cccp-. 

Order To Austria ' -r "^"'i'''^^"^-- ^ ''"' - •' 

., ^,.„ , .... .SVcv I'}5S \ct l!:t;n!- 

\ Three Part Rail x'n.wn i ■ 

Car uesigned 

By Westinghouse ■ «-«., s 

\ .i^U.i.lrMio iht.-o ,,.-!., HONOI.I!.. « \V,-I,i,kIh..i.i- r..in.lriirlii 

!(M> \\ L (, ^ 



svv ririTi 



7\ssemt)/y L/ne /s Set 
for A-Power Equipme 



All this good news from _„ m ^ ^i 

Jet Contract Goes ; C^ 



Ooncrator Cciitr.-. • 
South's Biggest 



one company in one year 

Work For East Pittsburgh 

$9700000 Order 
Let For Turbines 



I Mi'/: on 
•ocr 



Vess 

■ Westinghouse 
Sales Up 22^0 
To New High 

K'^' Month 




From l-'irst ('(ininifrcidl I'lant 



I:. 1' .1 una «ili U |.|i 
,, .■ •!. ..„n|.„r,' !■ . 



■ I " n Westinghouse Bi 

Atomic Power TaHest Heat Trea 



Lights City 

SHIPPINGPORT SWINGS 
INTO OPERATION 



.h..,» 



ToioU '^ Viiliii^hinisc dels ( imlntct 



ighouse Builds Two Most 
;ul Hoisting Units in Notion 



K N 



-.- to Ix" insl.: 
^•f<'n order*'*! t- 
--.KVtrlv Torpor .i*.'-;. 
>i*e titt^iAent norfht'a-*! 
innounr^ml 
lo K" !" the 4.T1"(> fool 
fthafT of rhp AnatY>ridd 
Butt« Mont . will tM> 



/'/./,.■- 



W I jliiii;!H/iii( 
lll\riil<»r^ >< I 
N«-\« ii'icorfl 



Westinghouse Develops 
Ultra-Pure Silicon 



Westinghouse Renews Employe 

c, J I J Stock Purchasing Plan on June 1 

Sherwocd Joined ^ 



piTrsBunoii p». May i:i 



n 111 •• I Wfstmvhousc Elccinc Corp »i 

By Wescinghcuse ^^l zz,s^rjL'.Tr. 



"Tionuelear Work 



M«v- ™ employes ^ 

.■subhahnifiit of the forme: -... 

ploye .stock purchase pltui lMvSi> yiA:i 

ninji June 1. u waA nm^ounced uoii 

uiday uv G»ilym A Pn«. ch»li- and 



\ < .III inanufact 
;.itton. 

"ther compani 

J.icUire of the new i 

-tiui developments lej 

riated with a roinpai 

supplemented by ce 

lie by Westinghouse 

' ■ 'id Stales sil 

. Transistor: 

•..mlly siidde I 

1 . . n kn<.wn for s 

Kv,n would bn • 

:-.t.,rsdueloNe 

;.i:,- hllllls iind . 

Aut 



^^StinrflOUSe . . . first with the future I K t,^ 

O .. „r.,t 



Drillina Tenders to be Built bv We 



ici;>alip in Uit wnjirim Brr ne 
«■ 111 the lamp division pla'nla >.a! 
Bloomtl'ld, B<-llev!llr ,and sibil 




Pictured above is our new Research and Development Center 
now under construction in Wilmington, Massachusetts. Scheduled 
for completion this year, the ultramodern laboratory will house 
thi' scientific and technical staff of the Avco Research and 
Advanced Development Division. 



Avco's new re.search division now offers unusual and exciting 
career opportunities for exceptionally qualified and forward- 
looking scientists and engineers. 



Write to Dr. R. W. Johnston, Scientific and Technical ICilal ions, 
Avco Research and Advanced Development Division, 
20 South Union Street, Lawrence, Massachusetts. 



IDEALS AND 
PRACTICALITY 



"Science and Philosophtj mutually criiicize each other and provide 
imaginative material for each other.". . . Alfred North Whitehead. 

In the increasing preoccupation of science with material things 
and progress, the truth of this statement by one of our greatest 
philosophers is often overlooked and forgotten. The scientific 
philosopher is a rare being and is becoming rarer still, nor can 
he be adequately replaced by the group technique or the 
'brainstorm' session. 

It should be one of the noblest aspirations of all our sciences 
to provide for the true contemplation of the inner meaning of 
facts and to stimulate that interplay of mind on mind by 
which alone we may progress. 

In all these things, however, we cannot forget the problems 
peculiar to research and development in private industry. The 
obligation to work to otherwise-determined time-scales poses 
a nice problem in balancing ideals against the practicalities 
of everyday life. 

It is in this field that the test of management comes. Its success 
at meeting such continuously conflicting requirements deter- 
mines the character and ultimate success of the organization. 

With such thoughts as these in mind, we here at Research and 
Advanced Development Division of AVCO are seeking unique 
people. We wish to foster the creative minds and fundamental 
thinkers, while preserving an atmosphere of self-discipline, 
free from a rigid hierarchy of command and organization. 




Dennis W. Holdsworth, 

Manager, Computer and Electronic Systems Department 



Hesearch i Adyanced Hevelopmnt 




Modern chemistry is creating exciting new 

horizons that challenge the inventive 

.. ', • minds of both scientist and student. Prod- 

■'. •y.-v. net synthesis, by bold adaptation of natural 

^^^^|v^ resources to our way of life, has pushed 

; the frontiers of chemistry far beyond its 

early promises. 

As the chemical industry forges ahead, 
inventing new processes and producing 
new materials which assure the progress 
and comfort of our society, research and 
development soar to new heights. Imagina- 
tive exploration advances under chemists 
and chemical engineers. New and greater 
.J ;■•.•■,■' production facilities are created. Many 

^'^^^^jj^ more engineers of all kinds tackle the com- 

plex tasks of building new plants or de- 




signing new processes to expand and per- 
fect the many operations of this ever- 
growing industry. 

Yes, today's chemistry is a fascinating 
world. Filled with exciting accomplish- 
ments and possibilities, it attracts young 
men and women of vision who will give 
the industry the inspiring leadership of 
tomorrow. 

Write our Director of College Relations 
for a copy of our new booklet "Opportuni- 
ties For College Trained People With The 
Dow Chemical Company". And consult 
with your Placement Director as to when 
a Dow Representative will visit your 
campus. 




The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan 



Dow 



MARCH, 1958 



13 




MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS 
and SPACE TECHNOLOGY 



Magnetic fields, acting as a double piston, 
drive luminous ionized shock waves through 
transparent tube. One-tenth microsecond ex- 
posure in STL's Physical Research Laboratory. 



Magnetohydrodynamics provides one of the most promis- 
ing approaches for attaining the velocities and specific 
impulses that will be required for manned space flight to 
a planet, landing, and returning. 

The critical problem in attaining velocities of hundreds 
of thousands of miles per hour is the containment of tem- 
peratures comparable to those in the interior of stars. 
Because the temperature of the driving reaction will have 
to rise as the square of the exhaust velocity, temperatures 
greater than one million degrees will be encountered in 
reaction chambers. Magnetohydrodynamics offers a 
unique solution to the basic problem of containing the 
reaction without contact with the chamber walls. 

Briefly, the physical principles of magnetohydrody- 
namics are these. Since gas at such temperatures is com- 
pletely ionized and is an effective conductor of electricity, 
the introduction of currents in the gas (in this state 
called a plasma) creates an electromagnetic field. This 
field makes it possible to control the plasma by applying 
an external opposing magnetic field which creates a mag- 
netic bottle to contain the charged gas particles. Similarly, 



a magnetic-field piston can be used to accelerate the par- 
ticles. Such magnetohydrodynamic reactions are expected 
to develop exhaust velocities that are an order of magni- 
tude greater than those generated by present chemical 
rockets. 

At Space Technology Laboratories, both analytical and 
laboratory work are proceeding in the field of mag- 
netohydrodynamics. This work illustrates the advanced 
research in STL's Physical Research Laboratory, which 
emphasizes the application of basic physical principles to 
the requirements of space technology. 

In support of its over-all systems engineering respon- 
sibility for the Air Force Ballistic Missile programs, and 
in anticipation of future system requirements, STL is 
engaged in a wide variety of research and experimental 
development activity. Projects are in progress in elec- 
tronics, aerodynamics, propulsion, and structures. 

The scope of work at Space Technology Laboratories 
requires a staff of uniistial technical breadth and compe- 
tence. Inquiries regarding the many opportunities on the 
Technical Staff are invited. 



Space Technology Laboratories 

A Division of Ttie Rama - Wooldridge Corporation 



B730 ARBOF 



•JTAE STREET • LOS ANOELES dS, CALIFORNIA 



14 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



^Tm in the business 
and I know...'' 



"Not too long ago I was hi the same situation you 
fellows are in 7tou\ Senior year and the big de- 
cisions. What am I going to do with my education? 
What am I going to do for a living? 

"Well, 1 talked to a number of people and did as 
much letter writing and looking around as I could. 
The way I figured it, I wanted opportunity . . .a fair 
chance to put my capabilities to work and to be 
recognized for what I could do. Of course, I wanted 
to be well paid, too. It all seemed to add tip to the 
aircraft industry . . . and to me it still does. 

"In the space of just a few years I've worked on 
quite a few projects, important projects that some 
day may mean a great deal to this country. They 
sure meant a lot to me. And 1 wasn't standing still 
either. My salary and my responsibilities hax'e in- 
creased with each promotion. That means lots of 
challenges, new and tough problems that we have to 
solve, but that's the way I like it. So, if you want 
some advice from this "old grad," choose the aircraft 
industry. It's the wisest choice, Z w in the busities^ 
and I know." , i' 

Probably no other industry in America has grown"^- 
so fast and advanced so far in a short time as has 
the aircraft industry. And yet there is no limit to 
how far man's inventiveness and imagination can 
push the boundaries. Radical new concepts that 
would have been unthought of just a few years ago 
are the drawing-board problems of today. 

Truly aviation is still in the pioneering stage, and 
one of the leaders is Northrop Aircraft, which has 
been making successful contributions to our \ ^'' 
nation's defense for o\er 18 years. Projects such as \',\''^ '\ 
the Snark SM-62, world's first intercontinental 
guided missile, have identified Northrop as a suc- 
cessful pioneer. And new aircraft such as the super- 
sonic, twin-jet T-38 advanced trainer are maintain- 
ing this reputation. 

Let us tell you more about what Northrop can 
offer )ou. Write now, regardless of your class, to 
Manager of Engineering Industrial Relations, 
Northrop Division, Northrop Aircraft, Inc., 1034/ 
East Broadway, Hawthorne, California. 




h m t im f 



1 1 l.rT'^tl 



© 



NORTHROP 



A Division of N orthrop Aircraft, Inc. 

BUILDERS OFTHE FIRST INTERCONTINENTAL GUIDED MISSILE 




MARCH, 1958 



15 




Henri Ber|^son...oii making ^ods 



H[inianily is groaning, linlf-cruslied unclor the 
vveiglil of the progress it lias made. Men do not 
sufficiently realize llial llicir fiilure depends on 
themselves. They must hrst decide whether they 
wish to continue to live. They must then ask 



whether they want merely to live, or to make the 
further effort necessary to fulfill, even on our 
uinnanageable planet, the essential function of 
the universe, which is a machine for making gods. 
Les aeux sources cle la morale et cle la religion, 1952 



THE KAND CORPORATION, SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA 

A nonprofit orguiiiiutioii ciigugcd in rcscartli on problcnis rclak-cl to national security and the public interest 



16 



THE TECHNOGRAPH i 



From the Editor's Desk 



The Dangers of Authority , . . 

The last six months have been a period of anxiety and doubts for Americans. The launch- 
ing of the first satellite by Russia shook the American public out of an attitude of complacency 
which had grown to frightening proportions. This self-satisfaction was an outgrowth of the 
very real technical superiority of the United States over Russia which existed ten years ago. 
Unfortunately, that situation no longer exists. But perhaps it is not so unfortunate at that. 

It is an oft-repeated historical fact that a nation which is allowed to develop without the 
disturbing influences of territorial war, revolution or similar upheaval will gradually become 
rigid and authoritarian in its reaction to change. This rigidity is detrimental to the continued 
vitality and technological growth of the nation. The most serious result of entrenched authori- 
tarianism is mental. As soon as a strong group of "authorities" arises in any field of endeavor, 
the flow of new ideas in that field diminishes, for two reasons. 

First, anything new will be distrusted by the authorities, who are of necessity conserva- 
tive. They are the defenders of the status quo, and good defenders they are. Such inertia is, to 
a certain extent, necessary to the mointenanca of order in the accrued knowledge of the 
field. But it can also be a deterrent to real progress. 

The second and most dangerous effect of authoritarianism is a large tendency on the 
part of newcomers to the field to accept blindly the "facts" of the current level of development 
as the final and unshakable fortress of knowledge. Less original thinking is done. 

Such a decrease in original thought is ths problem facing the United States today. We 
hove not had a territorial war or other internal upheaval for close to a hundred years. It is, of 
course, not to our advantage to start a war, but the fact of our very peaceful home front has 
brought us to a situation in which we are faced with Soviet Russia, a new and very vital 
nation without precedents to deter its scientific development, while we are cast in the role of 
the rigid, authoritarian nation. It is long past time for us to reassess the situation, to realize 
that no country can keep pace with the world at large unless its people are willing to change 
their ideas when a new development arises. Ws will remain a strong and vital nation only as 
long as we apply ourselves to the problems ws face and maintain an attitude of honest ap- 
praisal of new ideas and new developments o^ their own merits. 

The engineers and scientists have an important function to fulfill, that of raising their 
country's level of technology in any way they can. This function will not be fulfilled by sitting 
back and preparing ourselves to rearrange someone else's developments. It is true that inde- 
pendent thinking is a slightly painful process. It is also true that it is a beneficial one. And it 
is in our years of formal study that this faculty for independent thought must be developed. 
The man who, when provided with the ideal conditions for experimentation, does not use 
them accomplishes nothing. 

The engineering schools in this country are organized for the development of useful scien- 
tists and engineers. It is the duty of the student to make use of these conditions, to learn what 
is offered with the understanding that what he learns is by no means all he will ever learn, 
that what is offered is not all that there is to know, and finally that there is always a need for 
reappraisal of what he does know in the light of new developments. He must prepare to take 
part himself in the advancement of his field of knowledge. 

-TPG. 



MARCH, 1958 17 



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18 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




BRIGHTLY LIGHTED STUDIO silhouettes members of working crew 



Part One of a Special Report 



WILL-TV 



Rapid developments in the use of edu- 
cational TV have caused special notice of 
the potentials of this communications 
media. Already in use, TV promises to 
solve present and future problems plagu- 
ing our schools and colleges. The Techno- 
graph, in this and the following issue, v\^ill 
report on the work done at this univer- 
sity to incorporate the use of TV in instruc- 
tion, communications, and entertainment. 
Included in this coverage will be WILL 
radio and television. University courses 



now being televised, and the Shipley Re- 
port. Without the complete and friendly 
cooperation of the entire staff of WILL, 
this report would not be possible. 

Anticipating the rapid pace in the 
adaptation of electronics to higher educa- 
tion, Photo-journalist Ernest Yap requested 
that he cover the University of Illinois facil- 
ities for radio and television broadcasting. 
The credit for the photographs and in- 
formation belongs entirely to him. Earlier 
this month, Ernie joined the navy, leaving 
the College of Engineering. 



MARCH, 1958 



19 




KITCHEN, part of studio, is busy work area during rehearsal of Your 
Home and Mine home economics program. 



Hard Work and Odd Hours 
Make TV Work Interesting 

I he ji)h ol prrM'ntijit; a show to a 
viewing aiuiicnfc involves hard work 
M-Kloin reali/.fd ami iii'vcr seen by the 
\ii-\vcr. WILL-TV broadcasts over 20 
hours of air time during the week, half 
of which is live and involves studio 
production. The crews are fulh' paid 
students and members of the faculty. 
rhe\ work strange and irregular hours. 
At times, usually when shooting on lo- 
cation, they work close to midnight and 
wake up at sunrise the next day. 

WILly-TV started operations on Au- 
gust 1, 1955. With the permission of 
the Athletic Association, they set up 
their studios inside Memorial Stadium. 
An SS foot tower w^a-s built atop the 
studios to mount the antenna. A 5 kilo- 
watt transmitter was installed with a 
transmitting power of 45 kilowatts 
gained through the antenna. Programs 
were restricted to 2 hours a day, for a 
total of ten hours a week. Most of 
will's TV equipment is still in use 
today, however air time has been con- 
siderably expanded. Nobody will def- 
initely sa\ what the station's future 
plans are, but with increased use of TV 
in education, we might conclude that 
it looks bright. 





GIVING DIRECTIONS to cameraman, 
Jessie Heathman, producer and host 
of Your Home and Mine, and guest 
go through final paces of rehearsal. 



MARTIN COBIN takes unusual position, so camera can 
get birds-eye view. 



20 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




SURROUNDED BY TAPE RE- 
corders and control panel, 
Rod Prummel, audio engi- 
neer, waits for cue to set 
turn table (not seen here) 
operating on Olive Lives 
Here program. 



KINESCOPE ROOM, where programs are recorded on 
film, shows modified motion picture camera (center), TV 
screen (hooded, left). 



DIRECTORS ROOM, restricted to all personnel during 
show, houses camera monitors (marked one, two, 
three), control box with which director does tricks 
with picture (inverting, reversing, superimposing, 
etc.). Master is regular TV set. 





TELE-CINE ROOM, manned 
by Gene Stuck, shows pro- 
jectors for motion picture 
and slides and unit (cen- 
ter) which transmit pic- 
tures to TV sets. 



CATCHING UP ON STUDIES 
before air time, chief Engi- 
neer Rob Beldon warms up 
transmitter. 



MARCH, 1958 



21 





PLAYBOY EDITOR Hugh Hefner tries to maneuver out of touchy question asked by Marlowe Froke. 




CHIEF AUDIO ENGINEER 
Charles Kelly manipulates 
control board with jour- 
nalism student Delores 
Kennedy, who will receive 
credit hours instead of pay 
for working. 



22 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



The Menial Task of Keeping 
The Pitbli: Informed 

In :i c<Jiint]"\ wlu-n- iicoplt- are tlif 
best intni-nicil in tlie world, the news- 
man i> an Inipiirtant person whom the 
puhh'c (U-|ien(ls on. I'lectronics, while 
it has increased the effectiveness ot mass 
communication, has also made the pro- 
duction of the T\' news program moie 
complex. 1 he hurilen is further in- 
creased when the job is carried out b\ 
a single person. .Marlowe F"roke, 
will's newscaster and head of the 
station's news department. actually 
makes up the entire news staff. 

Work on the news program starts 
about fi\e hours before air time. Prep- 
arations include editing of news bulle- 
tins received over AP and LP wire 
services, CHS news films, and other 
news sources such as local telephone 
interviews. Almost all this work is done 
in the journalism newsroom in Gregory 
Hall, where the AP and UP teletypes 
operate. At 5 p.m., Froke has a confer- 
ence with his program director, then 
proceeds to the studio where he scans 
the latest weather reports, and fills in 
the market reports on the board. Cjuests, 
a regular feature on the half-hour news 
program, are briefed. Finally, what the 
viewer sees on his screen is only a minor 
portion of the work that went into the 
production ot the program. 

( (UinlniiK il nn /'rit/c 44) 




INVISIBLE WRITINGS on green board is done with blue chalk. TV camera 
cannot distinguish blue from green, and even Technograph photographer 
Ernie Yap's camera fails to record it. 



SPORTS DESK features Tommy O'Connell who predicted Illinois' chances 
of winning Big-Ten championship. 




MARCH, 1958 



23 




PAPER MARTYR 



A SHORT STORY 



by William Nesbit 



Wiiliani Nesbit, a junior in the Aero- 
nautical Engineering Department of the 
I niversit)' ot Illinois, transferred here- 
from Western Illinois State College last 
tall. He wrote "Paper Martxr" while 
attending Western Illinois, and the stor> 
won him first place in a Iiterar\ com- 
petition there. It is our great pleasure 
to publish this story here, in the belief 
that our readers will enjoy it as much 
as we did. 



Arross the iniirt/cnt of the world I fled 

And troubled the gold gateiLtiy to the 

stnrs. — Francis Thompson 

I he colunui of warm air slid swiftly 
along the corrugated sand dunes, in 



and out of corroded rock formations, 
licking up masses of dry yellow dust 
and sending it spiraling skyward. Some- 
where above the boiling cloud forma- 
tions, somewhere between here and 
"home," the unconcerned orange star 
played its role as center of the system, 
expending its energy squanderoush in 
every direction. 

Cable leaned against the leeward side 
of a Hat rock, spat, and readjusted his 
goggles. 

He watched the raising mist of tine 
sand join the dense upper atmosphere of 
Venus and take part in a kaliedoscopic 
exhibition of color and dimension. The 
landscape of scattered rocks and rolling 
dunes seemed to fuse with distance into 
the opaque sky. On Venus the word 
horizon \\'as meaningless. 



Earth's twin planet? Perhaps in size 
and mass. Cable thought, but never in 
personality. No two spheres having such 
conflicting characteristics could ha\e 
possibly shared the same womb. 

No, not twins. But inuch less distant- 
ly related than the most liberal specu- 
lation had suggested. Step sisters, per- 
haps. And Cable knew better than any 
other living person just how much 
\'enus was like Earth — and how much 
unlike F'arth. 

Since the ill-fated landing attempt 
that had placed him without compan- 
ion on the alien world, daylight had 
come and gone onh' twice. Yet, while 
the gray planet had revolved two times, 
the distant Earth had spun on its axis 
well over a hundred. This, Cable found, 
ga\e him far more than enough time to 



24 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



hury wliat lie could find of the shat- 
tered bodies of his comrades, and sohe, 
at least temporarily, the problem of sur- 
vival. 

He remembered little of what had 
happened directly after the explosion, 
but as the initial shock dissipated itself 
into short lived panic — then fear — then 
sudden acceptance of reality, he had re- 
sponded with reactions peculiar to spe- 
cies Homo sapiens. 

Evolved scientific curiosity had 
shown itself to be on a par with intui- 
tive survival instinct. Much time had 
been spent observing, recording, reflect- 
ing. 

Cable was not a person to resign him- 
self to contemplation of his navel — 
Nirvana was not for him. The mvsteries 
of another world were his for the ef- 
fort. Venus was his exclusive ovster. 

Dr. T. O. Cable found himself in 
the position of being the world's fore- 
most authority on the subject of the 
planet Venus. This was meager con- 
solation to Cable. 

He wanted to go home. 



Col. Bagley gingerly replaced the 
phone on the cradle, half expecting to 
see blue clouds of smoke rise from it. 
He lifted himself from the swivel chair, 
put on his sternest military expression 
and tramped from his Pentagon office 
into the adjoining conference room, 
deftly waving down his subordinates as 
they attempted to rise. 

Placing himself at the head of the 
table he remained standing as he looked 
down the row of assembled and assorted 
dignitaries, military and civilian, \".I.P., 
and engineer. 

"The Chief," he said slowlv, his gaze 
intently fixed on a spot at the far end 
of the table, "is not happy concerning 
this committee's progress. As a matter 
of fact," he continued, his words delib- 
erate, his eyes now accusing each man 
in turn, "he is damned unhappy!" 

"Project Rescue has been on the 
boards for sixty days, in a semi-dormant 
state. Ten of our countrymen, ten bra\e 
scientists, ha\e been stranded for 120 
days on an island more than 50-million 
miles from Earth, their water, their sup- 
ply of the ver\- oxygen they breathe run- 
ning low. If any of these men still live, 
we know for certain that they do not 
have the facilities at their command to 
return to Earth." 

"We, gentlemen, hold the future of 
these men. Maximum effort tnll be 
made. The deadline is thirty days. Any 
launching date later than the deadline is 
out of the question. 

"The ship ivill be launched," he said 
in a tone of finality, "on schedule. An\ 
comment or questions?" 

There were none. 



Cable's /irst scientific observation was 
a result of a no-choice situation. Blown 
clear of the ship by the blast, he found 
himself prone on the warm sand of 
Venus without an oxygen bottle, with- 
out an S-suit, and without any clothes. 
It was breathe, or hold his breath until 
he turned blue. He chose the former, 
more out of habit than reason, and to 
his great surprise suffered no apparent 
ill effects. 

First note book entry: "Constituents 
of lower atmosphere not poisonous to 
man. Oxygen present. Will support 
life." 

Just how long it would support life, 
Cable hoped he would never find out. 

Anxious to explore the immediate \i- 
cinity, Cable knew that the daylight 
and the uncomfortably warm tempera- 
ture might suddenly vanish without 
warning, resulting in sub-zero condi- 
tions. The omni-present clouds that 
blanketed the planet prevented the tele- 
scopes of Earth from getting more than 
an occasional glimpse of the sphere, and 
nothing was known as to the length of 
its day. Some scientists doubted that the 
planet revolved at all, but always 
showed the same veiled face to the sun. 
Salvage, then, not exploration, be- 
came Cable's first concern. The nose of 
the ship, he found, was virtually un- 
damaged, and would provide, without 
extensive alteration, an excellent source 
of shelter. Atomic batteries to supply un- 
limited power for heat, and enough con- 
centrated food to last one man for man>- 
\ears. Water? Enovigh for less than 
three hundred days. 

The radio receiver appeared undam- 
aged, but would require adaptation to 
the atomic battery pack. The transmit- 
ter, of course, would be useless for such 
range as separated Venus and Earth. 
Only the enormous transmitting anten- 
nae, parabolic for a directed signal, on 
the equatorial belt of Earth could span 
such distances, and then only at a tre- 
mendous expenditure of power. 

But communication was secondary, at 
least for the present. 

It was time to explore. 

Second notebook entry: "Period of 
rotation believed to be approximateh 
6f)(l Hrs." 

Convinced now that the day-night 
transition was a gradual one, Cable felt 
safe to leave the shelter of the ship. \ot 
willing to trust a magnetic compass, he 
decided his first expedition would not 
take him be\ond eye-sight range of the 
camp. This would give him an area of 
not more than one square mile to ex- 
plore. 

One square mile, he found, was more 
than enough for his iirst venture. 

Third notebook entry: "Cucurbitace- 
ous plant life present, but not abundant 
at particular locale." 



Very much like a watermelon, he 
thought, complete with Hat, eliptical 
seeds, thick green rind, and insides about 
93''^ water. Seasonal, perhaps, but pres- 
ent in quantit\- enough to provide a 
store of water for any possible lean sea- 
son. Indigenous plant life, then, did 
exist on the planet. Water was present. 

This fact alone would be responsible 
for many red faces in scientific circles. 
In all fairness, though, the spectroscope, 
not the scientists, had been fooled. Ab- 
sence of water vapor in the atmosphere 
surely seemed proof enough of a dry, 
barren surface. An explanation? Sub- 
terranean rivers, perhaps, or maybe it 
even rained. Cable decided the solution 
of this mystery could wait. 

He would ha\e a long time to think 
about it. 

The first broadcast that Cable picked 
up almost frightened him to death. He 
had not realized how quiet it had been 
since the daylight had reluctantly faded 
and the wind had expired. 

A news broadcast, transmitted "espe- 
cially for the gallant heroes on Venus, 
martyrs of a new era," was the first 
sound he heard from Earth. The fact 
that it was news of eminent war. re- 
bellion, unrest, was of no concern to 
him. This was another man's voice, 
spanning the vast nothing that separated 
him from Earth. This was something 
to live for — this was hope. 

He has known that a rescue would 
surely be attempted, but a confirmation 
of this fact by the announcer sent the 
blood pounding in his temples. Launch- 
ing date? Less than a week away. The 
change in relative position of the two 
planets since Cable's ship had been 
launched would increase transit time 
by only about ten days. Some mental 
calculations and he knew the ship would 
arrive in about 110 days — Earth days — 
from the present. 

And then home. 

The news broadcast ended and a reg- 
ular network program of popular music 
took its place. Cable had often ques- 
tioned the popularity of popular music, 
but conceded that it must be popular 
with some one. Well, even this would 
be better than the terrible silence of 
the night, he reasoned. .And he poured 
himself a drink. 

It was not a fancy still. No polish or 
shiny coils, but it certainly was func- 
tional. Capacity, about ten gallons — that 
should last him for a while, he thought. 
Probably luitil the rescue ship arrived. 
What if the stuff did taste like water- 
melon juice, it was 90 proof, wasn't it? 

Cable filled his plastic cup with the 
rose colored liquor and wished he had 
been more frugal with the cigarettes. 
He ceremoniously turned down an 
empty cup for his dead comrades, and 
((joiiti/iiiitl oil Page 34) 



MARCH, 1958 



25 



Pressure Vessels for 
Nuclear Reactors 



A Project of the Theoretical and 
Applied Mechanics Department 



By Dave Penniman 



With the advent of high strength 
steels, new standards must be adopted 
for their use in construction of various 
units. Under the sponsorship of the 
Bureau of Ships in cooperation witli 
the Pressure V^essel Research Commit- 
tee of the Welding Research Council, 
the University of Illinois T.A.M. de- 
partment is analyzing one of the speci- 
fic uses of these new steels. In particvdar, 
they are trying to determine the stress 
patterns around openings in pressure 
vessels such as are used in nuclear re- 
actors. 

The questions that must be answered 
are those concerning placement of ma- 
terial around openings in vessels in 
order to properly reinforce them. In the 
past, it was an ea.sy problem to solve. 
for an excess of material could be used, 
and the reinforcement made much 
heavier than was actualK needed. Now, 
a new factor has entered the problem: 
thermal stress. 

It is still desirable to have maximum 
reinforcement; however, if an excess of 
material is used, the thermal gradient 
between this section and the adjoining 
unreinforced .sections will cause too 
much stress. Therefore, a standard must 
be arrived at by which the propei 
amount of material may be added to 
obtain maximum reinforcement and 
minimum thermal stress. 

Because of the properties of most of 



26 




Various reinforcing shapes were tested to determine the most feasible 
procedure. Three different methods of external reinforcement used around 
the joint between the cylindrical tube and the hemispherical top ore shown 
here. These vessel tops are later glued to a hemispherical bottom by means 
of epoxy cement. (Photo by Dave Yates) 

THE TECHNOGRAPH 



the openings in these vessels, an anal\- 
tic approach to the problem is out of 
the question. In the case of the spherical 
vessel joined to a cylindrical pipe, how- 
ever, the anahsis is possible and is the 
subject of a Ph.D. thesis at this tinu-. 
In general, though, the conclusions must 
be arrived at b\ some other method. 

The first problem which had to be 
handled was in the construction of the 
test vessels. An epoxy resin (Araldite 
f)()2()) was chosen due to the method 
of photoelastic analysis described below. 
Two general shapes were chosen, the 
sphere with cylindrical pipe connections, 
and a "tee" joint between two cylindri- 
cal pipes. In the case of the spheie, 
which this article will principly cover, 
the mold for the resin model was spun 
from aluminum. 

In the casting of epoxy resin, as in 
most plastics, the main problems are 
exothermic reactions and shrinkage, 
and, slow curing processes are necessary 
in thick sections. Therefore, hollow cast- 
ings were chosen for the stress stud\. 

As the castings require finishing, pro- 
visions were made to allow machining 
of about one-eighth of an inch from all 
surfaces. The vessels were cast, a> 
hemispheres with a cylindrical projec- 
tion at the top of each to accommodate 
a connection. Machining was relati\ely 
iimple, although cutting speed had to 




This apparatus, the Polarascope, is used to analize the stress concentrations 
by means of polarizecJ light. The portion of the vessel around the opening 
is sliced into thin sections and polarized light is shov\?n through them. This 
light is then focused on light sensitive paper to obtain prints of the stress 
patterns. (Photo by Dave Yates) 



more of a problem, for they had to be 
partialh formed on a milling machine, 

be low enough to prevent harmfid heat while the spheres were done on a lathe. 

of friction. The cylindrical vessels posed Tlie areas around the openings were 




This vessel is being readied for the application of stress. A pressure tight 
cap has been glued on the top and the hose leading to the nitrogen tank 
is fitted in place. Pressure and temperature are regulated carefully during 
the period spent in the oven to obtain uniform results. (Photo by Dave 
Yates) 



machined to various shapes representing 
the reinforcing material, and a high- 
pressure line connected to the vessels 
under test. They could then be filled 
with gas at any desired pressure, and 
the resulting stress anahzed photo- 
elastically. 

Photoelasticity is a method of experi- 
mental stress analysis in which polarized 
light is passed through plastic models. 
Stress conditions produce certain opti- 
cal effects, resulting in colored bands 
being visible in the model. These bands 
indicate the extent and area of the 
stresses involved. 

For accurate results, a three-dimen- 
sional analysis is desired. In this ca.se, 
tlie stress patterns are frozen into the 
model, which is then cut in sections and 
observed various angles. This "freez- 
ing" is somewhat similar to freezing a 
stretched spring in a block of ice. The 
block can then be sliced in sections, and 
the spring or stresses, studied closelv. 
C'omparing the spring to the primary 
network, or valence bond of a iiiaterial 
and the ice to the secondary net, or 
intermolecular bond, it can be seen that 
under certain conditions thev are inde- 
]H-ndent, and the stress can be preser\ed 
tor examination. 

In the actual test of stresses in the 
\essels, the containers are filled with 
compressed nitrogen, and kept at con- 
stant pressure while being heated to a 
temperature of 150°C at the rate of 
4 C per hour. Once they reach this 
point, they are held at constant temper- 
((jonliinud on Pm/c 40) 



MARCH, 1958 



27 



ENGINEERS AND 
EXPRESSION 



A RepoH on the Industrial Need for 
Engineers ivho can Wiite 



by Richard Maxwell 



OiH- \far in the 'forties, a niechani- 
eal engineeriiiy; student was valedictoi- 
ian of his graduating class here at the 
I niversity. He was and is a brilliant 
man, but he can't express himself in 
words. He does well with drawings 
and symbols, but not words. He is work- 
ing as a designer on a drawing board 
for a large equipment firm. He has had 
this same job for about the last ten 
\ears and will probably have it for 
twenty years more. Other, le.ss brilliant, 
men who started at the same time have 
advanced. Why hasn't he? Why isn't 
he a Supervisor or Staff Engineer by 
now? He told nic — as his Supervisors 
told him — the reason he didn't advance 
was his inability to express him.self. Are 
\()u going to let this happen to you ? 

You, as a future engineer, shoidd be 
keenly interested in a report, "Abilit\- 
in Expression in the Hiring Process," for 
it deals directly with your future job 
opportunities. This report was recentlv 
completed by W. W. Hay, R. W. Bai- 
luffi, and n. (r. Sedele, members of the 
Student l-'nglish Committee of the Col- 
k-ge of Engineering at the University 



'I'lii Uiiivtrsity <if Illiuiiis (lolliyif of 
Enyimeriiiy has ncjgtiizcd the need for 
a j^rcdter cxprcssionnl (diilily in its grad- 
uates and has taken ste/ts to offer specific 
traininy in this area. The departments 
of English and General Enginceriny 
have iLorked together to offer a coarse 
in "Professional Expression." T h c 
coarse is cataloyiied as both Enylish 
304 and Cicncral Enyineeriny 304. It is 
taught hy Professor K. P. Davis of the 
Enylish Department and supervised by 
Professor E. C. McClintock of General 
Engineering. Traininy is offered in both 
ivritten and verbal expression. A study 
is made of business letters, memos, and 
reports, to teach accuracy and readabil- 
ity in this type of ivriiiny. Technical 
writing for publication is also explored. 
After a successful trial during the first 
semester, the course has been added to 
both the Enylish and General Enyineer- 
iny curricula on a perntancnt basis. 



of Illinois. A questioiniaire was given 
representatives of each of 400 companies 
interviewing here. The object was to 
determine to what extent a graduate's 
ability to express himself is considered 
in the hiring process. Company repre- 
sentatives were also asked what their 
(irms did to improve employee use of 
English. 

Of tlie 400 companies sent qviestiori- 
naires, IH turned them in \\ith care- 
fidly prepared answers. A good many 
also included letters from Personnel 
Managers on the subject. All companies 
showed great interest in the graduate's 
ability to express himself, both orally and 
in writing. 

The lis companies answering said 
they wanted to hire a total of 12,87S 
graduate engineers this year. lndivid\i- 
ally, the companies wanted as few as 
two and as man\' as 3,000 graduates. 

When asked if they gave some weight 
to the candidate's verbal and written 
expression in the interviewing and hir- 
ing process, all the companies indicated 
they considered his \erbal abilit\ and 



28 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 





Degree of Importance 


Would reject man 


Occupation 


Not 
Important 


Some 
Importance 


Much 
Importance 


although proved 
techiu'cally competent 

Yes No 


Research Engineers 


7 


61 


25 


6 50 


Development Engineers 


3 


59 


33 


16 39 


Design Engineers 


5 


68 


18 


9 45 


Production Engineers 
and Supervisors 




21 


77 


33 22 


Field Engineers and 
Supervisors 




9 


83 


44 15 


Application and Sales 
Engineers 


1 


2 


73 


51 5 



Figure 1. The degree of importance of writing ability compared to technical ability for several occupations. 



69.5'; of them gave weight to his writ- 
ten abiiit\. 

The interviewers were then asiced if 
they ga\e weight to the apph'cant's ex- 
pression on their own initiative or due 
to specific instructions from their com- 
panies. Of the 115 answering, 81 said 
they did so on their own initiative and 
36 said they did it on company instruc- 
tions. 

Twenty-fi\e of the companies had a 
specific rating for the graduate's ex- 
pressive ability. The other ninety com- 
panies said they let it affect their gen- 
eral impression. One representative said, 
"It is very difficult to assess a man's 
technical ability if in a short half hour 
interview he cannot express himself to 
me. Hence, I cannot give a weighting 
between technical ability and expres- 
sion. I feel that the results of the inter- 
view have given me a good measure of 
the man's technical ability and base my 
decision on the results of such inter- 
views." 

The interviewers were then given a 
list of occupations and asked in which 
of these ability in expression was of im- 
portance as compared to technical abil- 
ity and to what degree. (See Fig. 1). 



They were also asked if they would re- 
ject a technically competent man if his 
ability in expression was low. You 
should notice that from 44% to 85% 
of those answering said they would re- 
ject such a man for supervisory posi- 
tions. All graduates hope to be in a su- 
per\isory position eventually, and this 
stresses one of the basic requirements 
for such a position. 

The questionnaire also showed that 
112 of the 115 firms make an efifort to 
improve the employee's expressive abil- 
ity after he is hired. The compaiu'es do 
this by informal criticism, fomial critic- 
ism, night school courses, and courses 
taught within the company. 

Figure 2 again ilhistrates the im- 
portance to the student and future engi- 
neer, of being able to express himself. 
Unless he is content to stand in front 
of a test cell or operate a slide rule all 
his life, his future employers tell him 
to become proficient in both written and 
verbal expression. 

If the engineer is interested in work- 
ing for a research laboratory, abilitv in 
expression is doubly important. The 
data in figures 1 and 2 show ability in 
expression to be of less importance for 



research engineers. However, this is 
true only for industry — not for research 
foundations and laboratories. The Per- 
sonnel Manager o